Agencies | Governor
Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

highlight

Action:
2011 Technical Corrections for Reimbursment Regulations
Stage: Final
12VAC30-70-50

12VAC30-70-50. Hospital reimbursement system.

The reimbursement system for hospitals includes the following components:

A. Hospitals were grouped by classes according to number of beds and urban versus rural. (Three groupings for rural - 0 to 100 beds, 101 to 170 beds, and over 170 beds; four groupings for urban - 0 to 100, 101 to 400, 401 to 600, and over 600 beds.) Groupings are similar to those used by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) in determining routine cost limitations.

B. Prospective reimbursement ceilings on allowable operating costs were established as of July 1, 1982, for each grouping. Hospitals with a fiscal year end after June 30, 1982, were subject to the new reimbursement ceilings.

The calculation of the initial group ceilings as of July 1, 1982, was based on available, allowable cost data for hospitals in calendar year 1981. Individual hospital operating costs were advanced by a reimbursement escalator from the hospital's year end to July 1, 1982. After this advancement, the operating costs were standardized using SMSA wage indices, and a median was determined for each group. These medians were readjusted by the wage index to set an actual cost ceiling for each SMSA. Therefore, each hospital grouping has a series of ceilings representing one of each SMSA area. The wage index is based on those used by HCFA in computing its Market Basket Index for routine cost limitations.

Effective July 1, 1986, and until June 30, 1988, providers subject to the prospective payment system of reimbursement had their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling computed using a new methodology. This method uses an allowance for inflation based on the percent of change in the quarterly average of the Medical Care Index of the Chase Econometrics - Standard Forecast determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began.

The prospective operating cost rate is based on the provider's allowable cost from the most recent filed cost report, plus the inflation percentage add-on.

The prospective operating cost ceiling is determined by using the base that was in effect for the provider's fiscal year that began between July 1, 1985, and June 1, 1986. The allowance for inflation percent of change for the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began is added to this base to determine the new operating cost ceiling. This new ceiling was effective for all providers on July 1, 1986. For subsequent cost reporting periods beginning on or after July 1, 1986, the last prospective operating rate ceiling determined under this new methodology will become the base for computing the next prospective year ceiling.

Effective on and after July 1, 1988, and until June 30, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the moving average of the Data Resources, Incorporated Health Care Cost HCFA-Type Hospital Market Basket determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1988, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.

Effective on or after July 1, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the moving average of the Health Care Cost HCFA-Type Hospital Market Basket, adjusted for Virginia, as developed by Data Resources, Incorporated, determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1989, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.

Effective on and after July 1, 1992, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation, as described above, which became effective on July 1, 1989, shall be converted to an escalation factor by adding two percentage points, (200 basis points) to the then current allowance for inflation. The escalation factor shall be applied in accordance with the inpatient hospital reimbursement methodology in effect on June 30, 1992. On July 1, 1992, the conversion to the new escalation factor shall be accomplished by a transition methodology which, for non-June 30 year end hospitals, applies the escalation factor to escalate their payment rates for the months between July 1, 1992, and their next fiscal year ending on or before May 31, 1993.

Effective July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2012, the escalation factor shall be zero. In addition, ceilings shall remain at the same level as the ceilings for long stay hospitals with fiscal year's end of June 30, 2010. 

Effective July 1, 2009, the escalation factor shall be equal to the allowance for inflation.

The new method will still require comparison of the prospective operating cost rate to the prospective operating ceiling. The provider is allowed the lower of the two amounts subject to the lower of cost or charges principles.

C. Subsequent to June 30, 1992, the group ceilings shall not be recalculated on allowable costs, but shall be updated by the escalator factor.

D. Prospective rates for each hospital shall be based upon the hospital's allowable costs plus the escalator factor, or the appropriate ceilings, or charges; whichever is lower. Except to eliminate costs that are found to be unallowable, no retrospective adjustment shall be made to prospective rates.

Depreciation, capital interest, Capital and education costs approved pursuant to PRM-15 (§ 400), shall be considered as pass throughs and not part of the calculation. Capital interest cost is reimbursed the percentage of allowable cost specified in 12VAC30-70-271.

E. An incentive plan should be established whereby a hospital will be paid on a sliding scale, percentage for percentage, up to 25% of the difference between allowable operating costs and the appropriate per diem group ceiling when the operating costs are below the ceilings. The incentive should be calculated based on the annual cost report.

The table below presents three examples under the new plan:  

Group Ceiling

Hospital's Allowable Cost Per Day

$

Difference % or Ceiling

$

Sliding Scale Incentive % of Difference

$230.00

$230.00

-0-

-0-

-0-

-0-

230.00

207.00

23.00

10%

2.30

10%

230.00

172.00

57.50

25%

14.38

25%

230.00

143.00

76.00

33%

19.00

25%

F. There will be special consideration for exception to the median operating cost limits in those instances where extensive neonatal care is provided.

G F. Disproportionate share hospitals defined.

The following criteria shall be met before a hospital is determined to be eligible for a disproportionate share payment adjustment.

1. Criteria.

a. A Medicaid inpatient utilization rate in excess of 8% for hospitals receiving Medicaid payments in the Commonwealth, or a low-income patient utilization rate exceeding 25% (as defined in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and as amended by the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988); and

b. At least two obstetricians with staff privileges at the hospital who have agreed to provide obstetric services to individuals entitled to such services under a State Medicaid plan. In the case of a hospital located in a rural area (that is, an area outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Executive Office of Management and Budget), the term "obstetrician" includes any physician with staff privileges at the hospital to perform nonemergency obstetric procedures.

c. Subdivision 1 b of this subsection does not apply to a hospital:

(1) At which the inpatients are predominantly individuals under 18 years of age; or

(2) Which does not offer nonemergency obstetric services as of December 21, 1987.

2. Payment adjustment.

a. Hospitals which have a disproportionately higher level of Medicaid patients shall be allowed a disproportionate share payment adjustment based on the type of hospital and on the individual hospital's Medicaid utilization. There shall be two types of hospitals: (i) Type One, consisting of state-owned teaching hospitals, and (ii) Type Two, consisting of all other hospitals. The Medicaid utilization shall be determined by dividing the number of utilization Medicaid inpatient days by the total number of inpatient days. Each hospital with a Medicaid utilization of over 8.0% shall receive a disproportionate share payment adjustment.

b. For Type One hospitals, the disproportionate share payment adjustment shall be equal to the product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid utilization in excess of 8.0% times 11, times (ii) the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling. For Type Two hospitals, the disproportionate share payment adjustment shall be equal to the product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid utilization in excess of 8.0% times (ii) the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling.

c. No payments made under subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection shall exceed any applicable limitations upon such payments established by federal law or regulations.

H. Outlier adjustments.

1. DMAS shall pay to all enrolled hospitals an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally high costs for individuals under one year of age.

2. DMAS shall pay to disproportionate share hospitals (as defined in paragraph G above) an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally high costs for individuals under six years of age.

3. The outlier adjustment calculation.

a. Each eligible hospital which desires to be considered for the adjustment shall submit a log which contains the information necessary to compute the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above. This log shall contain all Medicaid claims for such individuals, including, but not limited to: (i) the patient's name and Medicaid identification number; (ii) dates of service; (iii) the remittance date paid; (iv) the number of covered days; and (v) total charges for the length of stay. Each hospital shall then calculate the per diem operating cost (which excludes capital and education) of treating such patients by multiplying the charge for each patient by the Medicaid operating cost-to-charge ratio determined from its annual cost report.

b. Each eligible hospital shall calculate the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above. Any hospital which qualifies for the extensive neonatal care provision (as governed by paragraph F, above) shall calculate a separate mean for the cost of providing extensive neonatal care to individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above.

c. Each eligible hospital shall calculate its threshold for payment of the adjustment, at a level equal to two and one-half standard deviations above the mean or means calculated in subdivision H 3 (ii) above.

d. DMAS shall pay as an outlier adjustment to each eligible hospital all per diem operating costs which exceed the applicable threshold or thresholds for that hospital.

4. Pursuant to 12VAC30-50-100, there is no limit on length of time for medically necessary stays for individuals under six years of age. This section provides that consistent with 42 CFR 441.57, payment of medical assistance services shall be made on behalf of individuals under 21 years of age, who are Medicaid eligible, for medically necessary stays in acute care facilities in excess of 21 days per admission when such services are rendered for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment of health conditions identified through a physical examination. Medical documentation justifying admission and the continued length of stay must be attached to or written on the invoice for review by medical staff to determine medical necessity. Medically unjustified days in such admissions will be denied.

12VAC30-70-201

Part V
Inpatient Hospital Payment System

Article 1
Application of Payment Methodologies

12VAC30-70-201. Application of payment methodologies.

A. The state agency will pay for inpatient hospital services in general acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, and freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals under a prospective payment methodology. This methodology uses both per case and per diem payment methods. Article 2 (12VAC30-70-221 et seq.) describes the prospective payment methodology, including both the per case and the per diem methods.

B. Article 3 (12VAC30-70-400 et seq.) describes a per diem methodology that applied to a portion of payment to general acute care hospitals during state fiscal years 1997 and 1998, and that will continue to apply to patient stays with admission dates prior to July 1, 1996. Inpatient hospital services that are provided in long stay hospitals and state-owned rehabilitation hospitals shall be subject to the provisions of Supplement 3 (12VAC30-70-10 through 12VAC30-70-130).

C. Inpatient hospital facilities operated by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services (DBHDS) shall be reimbursed costs.  Facilities may also receive disproportionate share hospital payments.  The criteria for DSH eligibility and the payment amount shall be based on subsection F of 12 VAC 30-70-50.  If the DSH limit is exceeded by any facility, the excess DSH payments shall be distributed to all other qualifying DBHDS facilities in proportion to the amount of DSH they otherwise receive.

CD. Transplant services shall not be subject to the provisions of this part. Reimbursement for covered liver, heart, and bone marrow/stem cell transplant services and any other medically necessary transplantation procedures that are determined to not be experimental or investigational shall be a fee based upon the greater of a prospectively determined, procedure-specific flat fee determined by the agency or a prospectively determined, procedure-specific percentage of usual and customary charges. The flat fee reimbursement will cover procurement costs; all hospital costs from admission to discharge for the transplant procedure; and total physician costs for all physicians providing services during the hospital stay, including radiologists, pathologists, oncologists, surgeons, etc. The flat fee reimbursement does not include pre- and post-hospitalization for the transplant procedure or pretransplant evaluation. If the actual charges are lower than the fee, the agency shall reimburse the actual charges. Reimbursement for approved transplant procedures that are performed out of state will be made in the same manner as reimbursement for transplant procedures performed in the Commonwealth. Reimbursement for covered kidney and cornea transplants is at the allowed Medicaid rate. Standards for coverage of organ transplant services are in 12VAC30-50-540 through 12VAC30-50-580.

DE. Reduction of payments methodology.

1. For state fiscal years 2003 and 2004, the Department of Medical Assistance Services (DMAS) shall reduce payments to hospitals participating in the Virginia Medicaid Program by $8,935,825 total funds, and $9,227,815 total funds respectively. For purposes of distribution, each hospital's share of the total reduction amount shall be determined as provided in this subsection.

2. Determine base for revenue forecast.

a. DMAS shall use, as a base for determining the payment reduction distribution for hospitals Type I and Type II, net Medicaid inpatient operating reimbursement and outpatient reimbursed cost, as recorded by DMAS for state fiscal year 1999 from each individual hospital settled cost reports. This figure is further reduced by 18.73%, which represents the estimated statewide HMO average percentage of Medicaid business for those hospitals engaged in HMO contracts, to arrive at net baseline proportion of non-HMO hospital Medicaid business.

b. For freestanding psychiatric hospitals, DMAS shall use estimated Medicaid revenues for the six-month period (January 1, 2001, through June 30, 2001), times two, and adjusted for inflation by 4.3% for state fiscal year 2002, 3.1% for state fiscal year 2003, and 3.7% for state fiscal year 2004, as reported by DRI-WEFA, Inc.'s, hospital input price level percentage moving average.

3. Determine forecast revenue.

a. Each Type I hospital's individual state fiscal year 2003 and 2004 forecast reimbursement is based on the proportion of non-HMO business (see subdivision 2 a of this subsection) with respect to the DMAS forecast of SFY 2003 and 2004 inpatient and outpatient operating revenue for Type I hospitals.

b. Each Type II, including freestanding psychiatric, hospital's individual state fiscal year 2003 and 2004 forecast reimbursement is based on the proportion of non-HMO business (see subdivision 2 of this subsection) with respect to the DMAS forecast of SFY 2003 and 2004 inpatient and outpatient operating revenue for Type II hospitals.

4. Each hospital's total yearly reduction amount is equal to their respective state fiscal year 2003 and 2004 forecast reimbursement as described in subdivision 3 of this subsection, times 3.235857% for state fiscal year 2003, and 3.235857%, for the first two quarters of state fiscal year 2004 and 2.88572% for the last two quarters of state fiscal year 2004, not to be reduced by more than $500,000 per year.

5. Reductions shall occur quarterly in four amounts as offsets to remittances. Each hospital's payment reduction shall not exceed that calculated in subdivision 4 of this subsection. Payment reduction offsets not covered by claims remittance by May 15, 2003, and 2004, will be billed by invoice to each provider with the remaining balances payable by check to the Department of Medical Assistance Services before June 30, 2003, or 2004, as applicable.

12VAC30-70-351

12VAC30-70-351. Updating rates for inflation.

A. Each July, the Virginia moving average values as compiled and published by Global Insight (or its successor), under contract with the department shall be used to update the base year standardized operating costs per case, as determined in 12VAC30-70-361, and the base year standardized operating costs per day, as determined in 12VAC30-70-371, to the midpoint of the upcoming state fiscal year. The most current table available prior to the effective date of the new rates shall be used to inflate base year amounts to the upcoming rate year. Thus, corrections made by Global Insight (or its successor), in the moving averages that were used to update rates for previous state fiscal years shall be automatically incorporated into the moving averages that are being used to update rates for the upcoming state fiscal year.

B. The inflation adjustment for hospital operating rates, disproportionate share hospitals (DSH) payments, and graduate medical education payments shall be eliminated zero percent for fiscal year (FY) 2010, with the exception of long stay hospitals. The elimination of the inflation adjustments shall not be applicable to re-basing in FY 2011.

C. In FY 2011, hospital operating rates shall be rebased; however the 2008 base year costs shall only be increased 2.58% for inflation. For FY 2011 there shall be no inflation adjustment for graduate medical education (GME) or freestanding psychiatric facility rates. The inflation adjustment shall be eliminated for hospital operating rates, GME payments, and freestanding psychiatric facility rates for FY 2012.

12VAC30-80-20

 12VAC30-80-20. Services that are reimbursed on a cost basis.

A. Payments for services listed below shall be on the basis of reasonable cost following the standards and principles applicable to the Title XVIII Program with the exception provided for in subdivision D 2 d. The upper limit for reimbursement shall be no higher than payments for Medicare patients on a facility by facility basis in accordance with 42 CFR 447.321 and 42 CFR 447.325. In no instance, however, shall charges for beneficiaries of the program be in excess of charges for private patients receiving services from the provider. The professional component for emergency room physicians shall continue to be uncovered as a component of the payment to the facility.

B. Reasonable costs will be determined from the filing of a uniform cost report by participating providers. The cost reports are due not later than 90 150 days after the provider's fiscal year end. If a complete cost report is not received within 90 150 days after the end of the provider's fiscal year, the Program shall take action in accordance with its policies to assure that an overpayment is not being made. The cost report will be judged complete when DMAS has all of the following:

1. Completed cost reporting form(s) provided by DMAS, with signed certification(s);

2. The provider's trial balance showing adjusting journal entries;

3. The provider's financial statements including, but not limited to, a balance sheet, a statement of income and expenses, a statement of retained earnings (or fund balance), and a statement of changes in financial position;

4. Schedules that reconcile financial statements and trial balance to expenses claimed in the cost report;

5. Depreciation schedule or summary;

6. Home office cost report, if applicable; and

7. Such other analytical information or supporting documents requested by DMAS when the cost reporting forms are sent to the provider.

C. Item 398 D of the 1987 Appropriation Act (as amended), effective April 8, 1987, eliminated reimbursement of return on equity capital to proprietary providers.

D. The services that are cost reimbursed are:

1. Inpatient hospital services to persons over 65 years of age in tuberculosis and mental disease hospitals.

2. Outpatient hospital services including rehabilitation hospital outpatient services and, excluding laboratory.

a. Definitions. The following words and terms when used in this regulation shall have the following meanings when applied to emergency services unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"All-inclusive" means all emergency department and ancillary service charges claimed in association with the emergency room visit, with the exception of laboratory services.

"DMAS" means the Department of Medical Assistance Services consistent with Chapter 10 (§et seq.) of Title 32.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Emergency hospital services" means services that are necessary to prevent the death or serious impairment of the health of the recipient. The threat to the life or health of the recipient necessitates the use of the most accessible hospital available that is equipped to furnish the services.

"Recent injury" means an injury that has occurred less than 72 hours prior to the emergency department visit.

b. Scope. DMAS shall differentiate, as determined by the attending physician's diagnosis, the kinds of care routinely rendered in emergency departments and reimburse for nonemergency care rendered in emergency departments at a reduced rate.

(1) With the exception of laboratory services, DMAS shall reimburse at a reduced and all-inclusive reimbursement rate for all services, including those obstetric and pediatric procedures contained in 12VAC30-80-160, rendered in emergency departments that DMAS determines were nonemergency care.

(2) Services determined by the attending physician to be emergencies shall be reimbursed under the existing methodologies and at the existing rates.

(3) Services performed by the attending physician that may be emergencies shall be manually reviewed. If such services meet certain criteria, they shall be paid under the methodology for subdivision 2 b (2) of this subsection. Services not meeting certain criteria shall be paid under the methodology of subdivision 2 b (1) of this subsection. Such criteria shall include, but not be limited to:

(a) The initial treatment following a recent obvious injury.

(b) Treatment related to an injury sustained more than 72 hours prior to the visit with the deterioration of the symptoms to the point of requiring medical treatment for stabilization.

(c) The initial treatment for medical emergencies including indications of severe chest pain, dyspnea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, spontaneous abortion, loss of consciousness, status epilepticus, or other conditions considered life threatening.

(d) A visit in which the recipient's condition requires immediate hospital admission or the transfer to another facility for further treatment or a visit in which the recipient dies.

(e) Services provided for acute vital sign changes as specified in the provider manual.

(f) Services provided for severe pain when combined with one or more of the other guidelines.

(4) Payment shall be determined based on ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and necessary supporting documentation.

(5) DMAS shall review on an ongoing basis the effectiveness of this program in achieving its objectives and for its effect on recipients, physicians, and hospitals. Program components may be revised subject to achieving program intent, the accuracy and effectiveness of the ICD-9-CM code designations, and the impact on recipients and providers.

c. Limitation to 80% of allowable cost. Effective for services on and after July 1, 2003, reimbursement of Type Two hospitals for outpatient services shall be at 80% of allowable cost, with cost to be determined as provided in subsections A, B, and C of this section. For hospitals with fiscal years that do not begin on July 1, 2003, outpatient costs, both operating and capital, for the fiscal year in progress on that date shall be apportioned between the time period before and the time period after that date, based on the number of calendar months in the cost reporting period, falling before and after that date. Operating costs apportioned before that date shall be settled according to the principles in effect before that date, and those after at 80% of allowable cost. Capital costs apportioned before that date shall be settled according to the principles in effect before that date, and those after at 80% of allowable cost. Operating and capital costs of Type One hospitals shall continue to be reimbursed at 94.2% and 90% of cost respectively.

d. Outpatient reimbursement methodology prior to July 1, 2003. DMAS shall continue to reimburse for outpatient hospital services, with the exception of direct graduate medical education for interns and residents, at 100% of reasonable costs less a 10% reduction for allowable capital costs and a 5.8% reduction for allowable operating costs. This methodology shall continue to be in effect after July 1, 2003, for Type One hospitals.

 

e. Payment for direct medical education costs of nursing schools, paramedical programs and graduate medical education for interns and residents.

(1) Direct medical education costs of nursing schools and paramedical programs shall continue to be paid on an allowable cost basis.

(2) Effective with cost reporting periods beginning on or after July 1, 2002, direct graduate medical education (GME) costs for interns and residents shall be reimbursed on a per-resident prospective basis. See 12VAC30-70-281 for prospective payment methodology for graduate medical education for interns and residents.

32. Rehabilitation agencies operated by community services boards. For reimbursement methodology applicable to other rehabilitation agencies, see 12VAC30-80-200. Reimbursement for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language therapy services shall not be provided for any sums that the rehabilitation provider collects, or is entitled to collect, from the NF or any other available source, and provided further, that this amendment shall in no way diminish any obligation of the NF to DMAS to provide its residents such services, as set forth in any applicable provider agreement.  

4. Rehabilitation hospital outpatient services.

 

Statutory Authority

12VAC30-90-10

Part I
Methods and Standards for Establishing Payment Rates for Long-Term Care

12VAC30-90-10. Methods and standards for establishing payment rates for long-term care.

The policy and the method to be used in establishing payment rates for nursing facilities listed in § 1905(a) of the Social Security Act and included in this State Plan for Medical Assistance are described in the following paragraphs.

1. Reimbursement and payment criteria will be established which are designed to enlist participation of a sufficient number of providers of services in the Program so that eligible persons can receive the medical care and services included in the Plan to the extent these are available to the general population.

2. Participation in the Program will be limited to providers of services who accept, as payment in full, the amounts so paid.

3. Payment for care of service will not exceed the amounts indicated to be reimbursed in accord with the policy and the methods described in the Plan and payments will not be made in excess of the upper limits described in 42 CFR 447.253(b)(2). The state agency has continuing access to data identifying the maximum charges allowed. Such data will be made available to the Secretary of Health and Human Services upon request.

4. Payments for services to nursing facilities shall be on the basis of reasonable cost in accordance with the standards and principles set forth in 42 CFR 447.252 as follows:

a. A uniform annual cost report which itemizes allowable cost will be required to be filed within 150 days of each provider's fiscal year end.

b. The determination of allowable costs will be in accordance with Medicare principles as established in the Provider Reimbursement Manual (PRM-15) except where otherwise noted in this Plan.

c. Field audits will be conducted on the cost data submitted by the provider to verify the accuracy and reasonableness of such data. Audits will be conducted for each facility on a periodic basis as determined from internal desk audits and more often as required. Audit procedures are in conformance with SSA standards set forth in PRM-13-2. Internal desk audits are conducted annually within six months of receipt of a completed cost report from the provider.

d. Reports of field audits are retained by the state agency for at least three years following submission of the report.

e. Facilities are paid on a cost-related basis in accordance with the methodology described in the Plan.

f. Modifications to the Plan for reimbursement will be submitted as Plan amendments.

g. Covered cost will include such items as:

(1) Cost of meeting certification standards.

(2) Routine services, which include items expense providers normally incur in the provision of services.

(3) The cost of such services provided by related organizations except as modified in the payment system at Part II (12VAC30-90-20 et seq.) of this chapter.

h. Bad debts, charity and courtesy allowances shall be excluded from allowable cost.

i. Effective for facility cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1978, the reimbursable amount will be determined prospectively on a facility by facility basis, except that mental institutions and mental retardation facilities operated by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services shall continue to be reimbursed retrospectively and effective July 1, 2002, the Virginia Veterans Care Center nursing facility by the Department of Veterans Services shall be reimbursed retrospectively. The prospective rate will be based on the prior period's actual cost (as determined by an annual cost report and verified by audit as set forth in subdivision 4 c of this section) plus an inflation factor. Payments will be made to facilities no less than monthly.

j. The payment level calculated by the prospective rate will be adequate to reimburse in full such actual allowable costs that an economically and efficiently operated facility must incur. In addition, an incentive plan will be established as described in the payment system at 12VAC30-90-20 et seq.

k. Upper limits for payment within the prospective payment system shall be as follow:

(1) Allowable cost shall be determined in accordance with Medicare principles as defined in PRM-15, except as may be modified in this plan.

(2) Reimbursement for operating costs will be limited to regional ceilings.

(3) Reimbursement, in no instance, will exceed the charges for private patients receiving the same services. In accordance with § 1903(a)(2)(B) of the Social Security Act, nursing facility costs incurred in relation to training and competency evaluation of nurse aides will be considered as State administrative expenses and, as such, shall be exempted from this provision.

l. In accordance with 42 CFR 447.205, an opportunity for public comment was permitted before final implementation of rate setting processes.

m. A detailed description of the prospective reimbursement formula is attached for supporting detail.

n. Item 398D of the 1987 Appropriation Act (as amended), effective April 8, 1987, eliminated reimbursement of return on equity capital to proprietary providers.

5. Reimbursement of nonenrolled long term care facilities.

a. Nonenrolled providers of institutional long term care services shall be reimbursed based upon the average per diem cost, updated annually, reimbursed to enrolled nursing facility providers.

b. Prior approval must be received from the DMAS for recipients to receive institutional services from nonenrolled long-term care facilities. Prior approval can only be granted:

(1) When the nonenrolled long-term care facility with an available bed is closer to the recipient's Virginia residence than the closest facility located in Virginia with an available bed;

(2) When long-term care special services, such as intensive rehabilitation services, are not available in Virginia; or

(3) If there are no available beds in Virginia facilities.

6. Specialized care services. The payment methodology for specialized care services is contained in Part XVII (12VAC30-90-350 et seq.) of the Nursing Home Payment System.

12VAC30-90-20

12VAC30-90-20. Nursing home payment system; generally.

A. Effective July 1, 2001, the payment methodology for nursing facility (NF) reimbursement by the Virginia Department of Medical Assistance Services (DMAS) is set forth in this part.

B. Three separate cost components are used: plant or capital, as appropriate, cost; operating cost; and nurse aide training and competency evaluation program and competency evaluation program (NATCEPs) costs. The rates, which are determined on a facility-by-facility basis, shall be based on annual cost reports filed by each provider.

C. Effective July 1, 2001, in determining the ceiling limitations, there shall be direct patient care medians established for nursing facilities in the Virginia portion of the Washington DC-MD-VA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the Richmond-Petersburg Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), and in the rest of the state. There shall be indirect patient care medians established for nursing facilities in the Virginia portion of the Washington DC-MD-VA MSA, for NFs with less than 61 beds in the rest of the state, and for NFs with more than 60 beds in the rest of the state. The Washington DC-MD-VA MSA and the Richmond-Petersburg MSA shall include those cities and counties as listed and changed from time to time by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A nursing facility located in a jurisdiction which HCFA CMS adds to or removes from the Washington DC-MD-VA MSA or the Richmond-Petersburg MSA shall be placed in its new peer group, for purposes of reimbursement, at the beginning of its next fiscal year following the effective date of HCFA's final rule.

D. Institutions for mental diseases providing nursing services for individuals age 65 and older Nursing facilities operated by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and the Department of Veterans Services shall be exempt from the prospective payment system as defined in Articles 1 (12VAC30-90-29), 3 (12VAC39-90-35 et seq.) 3 (12VAC30-90-35 et seq.), 4 (12VAC39-90-40 et seq. 4 (12VAC30-90-40 et seq), 6 (12VAC30-90-60 et seq.), and 8 (12VAC30-90-80 et seq.) of this subpart, as are mental retardation facilities and effective July 1, 2002, as is the Virginia Veterans Care Center nursing facility. All other sections of this payment system relating to reimbursable cost limitations shall apply. These facilities shall continue to be reimbursed retrospectively on the basis of reasonable costs in accordance with Medicare principles of reimbursement and Medicaid principles of reimbursement in effect on June 30, 2000, except that those that are defined as skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and are operated by the Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services shall not be subject to the routine cost limits that are normally required and applicable under Medicare principles of reimbursement. Reimbursement to Intermediate Care Facilities for the Mentally Retarded (ICF/MR) shall be reimbursed retrospectively on the basis of reasonable costs in accordance with Medicare principles of reimbursement but limited to the highest rate paid to a state ICF/MR institution, approved each July 1 by DMAS.

E. Except as specifically modified herein, Medicare principles of reimbursement, as amended from time to time, shall be used to establish the allowable costs in the rate calculations. Allowable costs must be classified in accordance with the DMAS uniform chart of accounts (see 12VAC30-90-270 through 12VAC30-90-276) and must be identifiable and verifiable by contemporaneous documentation.

All matters of reimbursement which are part of the DMAS reimbursement system shall supersede Medicare principles of reimbursement. Wherever the DMAS reimbursement system conflicts with Medicare principles of reimbursement, the DMAS reimbursement system shall take precedence. Appendices are a part of the DMAS reimbursement system.

12VAC30-90-60

Article 6
New Nursing Facilities

12VAC30-90-60. Interim rate.

A. A new facility shall be defined as follows:

1. A facility that is newly enrolled and new construction has taken place through the COPN process; or

2. A facility that is newly enrolled which was previously denied payments for new admissions and was subsequently terminated from the program.

B. Upon a showing of good cause, and approval of DMAS, an existing NF that expands its bed capacity by 50% or more shall have the option of retaining its prospective rate or being treated as a new NF.

C. A replacement facility or one that has changed location may not be considered a new facility if it serves the same inpatient population. An exception may be granted by DMAS if the provider can demonstrate that the occupancy substantially changed as a result of the facility being replaced or changing location. A decline in the replacement facility's total occupancy of 20 percentage points, in the replacement facility's first cost reporting period, shall be considered to indicate a substantial change when compared to the lower of the old facility's previous two prior cost reporting periods. The replacement facility shall receive the previous operator's operating rates if it does not qualify to be considered a new facility.

D. A change in either ownership or adverse financial conditions (e.g., bankruptcy), or both, of a provider does not change a nursing facility's status to be considered a new facility.

E. Effective July 1, 2001, for all new NFs the 90% occupancy requirement for indirect and capital costs shall be waived for establishing the first cost reporting period interim rate. This first cost reporting period shall not exceed 13 months from the date of the NFs certification.

F. The 90% occupancy requirement for indirect and capital costs shall be applied to the first and subsequent cost reporting periods' actual indirect and capital costs for establishing such NFs second and future cost reporting periods' prospective reimbursement rates. The 90% occupancy requirement shall be considered as having been satisfied if the new NF achieved a 90% occupancy at any point in time during the first cost reporting period. 

1. The department may grant an exception to the minimum occupancy requirement for reimbursement purposes for beds taken out of service for the purpose of renovation.  In this case, the occupancy requirement shall be calculated as 90 percent of available bed days for the period of the exception plus 90 percent of licensed bed days for the remainder of the cost report year. 

2. The provider shall notify DMAS and the VDH Division of Long Term Care Services Office of Licensure and Certification in advance and present a renovation plan including a reasonable timetable for when the beds will be placed back into service. 

3. The provider shall keep the appropriate documentation of available beds and days during the renovation period which will provide the evidence of the beds and days taken out of service for renovation purposes. This supporting documentation, along with a copy of the provider's notification letter to the VDH Division of Long Term Care Services Office of Licensure and Certification, shall be submitted with the filing of the provider's cost report, as applicable.  The provider's notification letter shall account for the number of beds not in use for the defined period of time.

G. A new NFs interim rate for the first cost reporting period shall be determined based upon the lower of its anticipated allowable cost determined from a detailed budget (or pro forma cost report) prepared by the provider and accepted by DMAS, or the appropriate operating ceilings or charges.

H. Effective July 1, 2001, on the first day of its second cost reporting period, a new nursing facility's interim plant or capital, as appropriate, rate shall be converted to a per diem amount by dividing its allowable plant/capital costs for its first cost reporting period by 90% of the potential number of patient days for all licensed beds during the first cost reporting period.

I. During its first semiannual period of operation, a newly constructed or newly enrolled NF shall have an assigned CMI based upon its peer group's normalized average Medicaid CMI for direct patient care. An expanded NF receiving new NF treatment shall receive the CMI calculated for its last semiannual period prior to obtaining new NF status.