Refilling Dispensing or
refilling ] of Schedule Schedules III through VI
A. A prescription for a drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V shall not be dispensed or refilled more than six months after the date on which such prescription was issued, and no such prescription authorized to be filled may be refilled more than five times.
1. Each refilling of a prescription shall be entered on the back of the prescription or on another record in accordance with § 54.1-3412 [ of the Code of Virginia ] and 18VAC110-20-255, initialed [ , ] and dated by the pharmacist as of the date of dispensing. If the pharmacist merely initials and dates the prescription, it shall be presumed that the entire quantity ordered was dispensed.
2. The partial dispensing of a prescription for a drug listed in Schedule III, IV, or V is permissible, provided that:
a. Each partial dispensing is recorded in the same manner as a refilling;
b. The total quantity of drug dispensed in all partial dispensing does not exceed the total quantity prescribed; and
c. No dispensing occurs after six months after the date on which the prescription order was issued.
B. A prescription for a drug listed in Schedule VI
may be refilled only as expressly authorized by the
practitioner. If no such authorization is given, the prescription shall not be
refilled, except as provided in § 54.1-3410 C or subdivision 4 of § 54.1-3411
of the Code of Virginia. Except for drugs classified by the American
Hospital Formulary Service as psychotherapeutic agents, anxiolytics, sedatives,
or hypnotics or for drugs of concern as defined in § 54.1-2519 of the Code
of Virginia, a pharmacist, using professional judgment and upon request by the
patient, may [ dispense or ] refill a drug listed in
Schedule VI with any quantity, up to the total amount authorized, taking all
refills into consideration.
A prescription for a Schedule VI drug or device shall not be dispensed or refilled more than one year after the date on which it was issued unless the prescriber specifically authorizes dispensing or refilling for a longer period of time not to exceed two years.
C. As an alternative to all manual recordkeeping requirements provided for in subsections A and B of this section, an automated data processing system as provided in 18VAC110-20-250 may be used for the storage and retrieval of all or part of dispensing information for prescription drugs dispensed.
D. The timing of dispensing an authorized refill of a prescription shall be within reasonable conformity with the directions for use as indicated by the practitioner; if directions have not been provided, then any authorized refills may only be dispensed in reasonable conformity with the recommended dosage and with the exercise of sound professional judgment. An authorized refill may be dispensed early provided the pharmacist documents a valid reason for the necessity of the early refill.
18VAC110-20-540. Emergency drug kit.
A. The pharmacist providing services may prepare an emergency kit for a long-term care facility in which access to the kit is restricted to a licensed nurse, pharmacist, or prescriber and only these licensed individuals may administer a drug taken from the kit and only under the following conditions:
1. The contents of the emergency kit shall be of such a nature that the absence of the drugs would threaten the survival of the patients.
2. The contents of the kit or an automated drug dispensing
system, as provided in subsection B of this section, shall be determined by
the provider pharmacist in consultation with the medical and nursing staff of
the institutions and shall be limited to drugs for administration by injection
or inhalation only, except that Nitroglycerin SL [
diazepam rectal gel [ , and the intranasal spray formulation of
naloxone ] may be included.
3. The kit is sealed in such a manner that it will preclude any possible loss of the drug.
a. The dispensing pharmacy must have a method of sealing such kits so that once the seal is broken, it cannot be reasonably resealed without the breach being detected.
b. If a seal is used, it shall have a unique numeric or alphanumeric identifier to preclude replication, resealing, or both. The pharmacy shall maintain a record of the seal identifiers when placed on a box or kit and maintain the record until such time as the seal is replaced.
c. In lieu of seals, a kit with a built-in mechanism preventing resealing or relocking once opened except by the provider pharmacy is also acceptable.
4. The kit shall have a form to be filled out upon opening the kit and removing contents to write the name of the person opening the kit, the date, time [ , ] and name and quantity of items removed. The opened kit is maintained under secure conditions and returned to the pharmacy within 72 hours for replenishing.
5. Any drug used from the kit shall be covered by a prescription, signed by the prescriber, when legally required, within 72 hours.
B. Drugs that would be stocked in an emergency kit, pursuant to this section, may be stocked in an automated drug dispensing system in a nursing home in accordance with 18VAC110-20-555.
18VAC110-20-550. Stat-drug box.
A. An additional drug box called a stat-drug box may be prepared by a pharmacy to provide for initiating therapy prior to the receipt of ordered drugs from the pharmacy. Access to the stat-drug box is restricted to a licensed nurse, pharmacist, or prescriber and only these licensed individuals may administer a drug taken from the stat-drug box. Additionally, a valid prescription or lawful order of a prescriber must exist prior to the removal of any drug from the stat-drug box. A stat-drug box shall be subject to the following conditions:
1. The box is sealed in such a manner that will preclude the loss of drugs.
a. The dispensing pharmacy must have a method of sealing such boxes so that once the seal is broken, it cannot be reasonably resealed without the breach being detected.
b. If a seal is used, it shall have a unique numeric or alphanumeric identifier to preclude replication or resealing, or both. The pharmacy shall maintain a record of the seal identifiers when placed on a box and maintain the record until such time as the seal is replaced.
c. In lieu of seals, a box with a built-in mechanism preventing resealing or relocking once opened except by the provider pharmacy is also acceptable.
2. The box shall have a form to be filled out upon opening the
box and removing contents to write the name of the person opening the box, the
date, the time, and the name and quantity of
removed. When the stat-drug box has been opened, it is returned to the pharmacy.
3. There shall be a listing of the contents of the box maintained in the pharmacy and also attached to the box in the facility. This same listing shall become a part of the policy and procedure manual of the facility served by the pharmacy.
4. The drug listing on the box shall bear an expiration date for the box. The expiration date shall be the day on which the first drug in the box will expire.
5. The contents of the box shall be limited to those drugs in which a delay in initiating therapy may result in harm to the patient.
a. The listing of drugs contained in the stat-drug box shall be determined by the provider pharmacist in consultation with the medical and nursing staff of the long-term care facility.
b. The stat-drug box shall contain no more than 20 solid
dosage units per schedule of
Schedule Schedules II through V
drugs except that one unit of liquid, not to exceed 30 ml, may be substituted
for a solid dosage unit. If the unit of a liquid that may contain more than one
dose is removed from the stat-drug box pursuant to a patient order, the
remainder shall be stored with that patient's other drugs, may be used for
subsequent doses administered to that patient, and shall not be administered to
any other patient.
B. Drugs that would be stocked in a stat-drug box, pursuant to this section, may be stocked in an automated drug dispensing system in a nursing home in accordance with 18VAC110-20-555, except that the quantity of drugs in Schedules II through V stocked in the system shall be determined by the provider pharmacist in consultation with the medical and nursing staff of the nursing home.
18VAC110-20-555. Use of automated dispensing devices.
Nursing homes licensed pursuant to Chapter 5 (§ 32.1-123 et seq.) of Title 32.1 of the Code of Virginia may use automated drug dispensing systems, as defined in § 54.1-3401 of the Code of Virginia, upon meeting the following conditions:
1. Drugs placed in an automated drug dispensing system in a
nursing home shall be under the control of the pharmacy providing services to
the nursing home, the pharmacy shall have
communication with and control of the automated drug dispensing system, and
access to any drug for a patient shall be controlled by the pharmacy.
2. A nursing home without an in-house pharmacy shall obtain a controlled substances registration prior to using an automated dispensing system, unless the system is exclusively stocked with drugs that would be kept in a stat-drug box pursuant to 18VAC110-20-550 or an emergency drug kit pursuant to 18VAC110-20-540 and are solely administered for stat or emergency administration.
3. For facilities not required to obtain a controlled substance registration, access to the automated dispensing device shall be restricted to a licensed nurse, pharmacist, or prescriber, or a registered pharmacy technician for the purpose of stocking or reloading.
4. Removal of drugs from any automated drug dispensing system for administration to patients can only be made pursuant to a valid prescription or lawful order of a prescriber under the following conditions:
a. A drug, including a drug that would be stocked in a stat-drug box pursuant to subsection B of 18VAC110-20-550, may not be administered to a patient from an automated dispensing device until a pharmacist has reviewed the prescription order and electronically authorized the access of that drug for that particular patient in accordance with the order.
b. The PIC of the provider pharmacy shall ensure that a
pharmacist who has
on-line online access to the system is
available at all times to review a prescription order as needed and authorize
administering pursuant to the order reviewed.
c. Drugs that would be stocked in an emergency drug kit pursuant to 18VAC110-20-540 may be accessed prior to receiving electronic authorization from the pharmacist provided that the absence of the drugs would threaten the survival of the patients.
d. Automated dispensing devices shall be capable of producing a hard-copy record of distribution that shall show patient name, drug name and strength, dose withdrawn, dose to be administered, date and time of withdrawal from the device, and identity of person withdrawing the drug.
4. 5. Drugs placed in automated dispensing
devices shall be in the manufacturer's sealed original unit dose or unit-of-use
packaging or in repackaged unit-dose containers in compliance with the
requirements of 18VAC110-20-355 relating to repackaging, labeling, and records.
5. 6. Prior to the removal of drugs from the
pharmacy, a delivery record shall be generated for all drugs to be placed in an
automated dispensing device, which shall include the date; drug name,
dosage form, and strength; quantity; nursing home; a unique identifier for the
specific device receiving drugs; and initials of the pharmacist checking the
order of drugs to be removed from the pharmacy and the records of distribution
for accuracy. 6. 7. At the direction of the PIC, drugs may be
loaded in the device by a pharmacist or a pharmacy technician adequately
trained in the proper loading of the system. 7. 8. At the time of loading, the delivery record
for all Schedule Schedules II through VI drugs shall be signed by
a nurse or other person authorized to administer drugs from that specific
device, and the record returned to the pharmacy. 8. 9. At the time of loading any Schedule Schedules
II through V drug, the person loading will verify that the count of that drug
in the automated dispensing device is correct. Any discrepancy noted shall be
recorded on the delivery record and immediately reported to the PIC, who shall
be responsible for reconciliation of the discrepancy or the proper reporting of
a loss. 9. 10. The PIC of the provider pharmacy or his
designee shall conduct at least a monthly audit to review distribution and
administration of Schedule Schedules II through V drugs from each
automated dispensing device as follows:
a. The audit shall reconcile records of all quantities of
Schedules II through V drugs dispensed from the pharmacy with records of
all quantities loaded into each device to detect whether any drugs recorded as
removed from the pharmacy were diverted rather than being placed in the proper
b. A discrepancy report shall be generated for each discrepancy in the count of a drug on hand in the device. Each such report shall be resolved by the PIC or his designee within 72 hours of the time the discrepancy was discovered or, if determined to be a theft or an unusual loss of drugs, shall be immediately reported to the board in accordance with § 54.1-3404 E of the Drug Control Act.
c. The audit shall include a review of a sample of
administration records from each device per month for possible diversion by
fraudulent charting. A sample shall include all
II through V drugs administered for a time period of not less than 24
consecutive hours during the audit period.
d. The audit shall include a check of medical records to ensure that a valid order exists for a random sample of doses recorded as administered.
e. The audit shall also check for compliance with written procedures for security and use of the automated dispensing devices, accuracy of distribution from the device, and proper recordkeeping.
f. The hard copy distribution and administration records printed out and reviewed in the audit shall be initialed and dated by the person conducting the audit. If nonpharmacist personnel conduct the audit, a pharmacist shall review the record and shall initial and date the record.
10. 11. Automated dispensing devices shall be
inspected monthly by pharmacy personnel to verify proper storage, proper
location of drugs within the device, expiration dates, the security of drugs
and validity of access codes. 11. 12. Personnel allowed access to an automated
dispensing device shall have a specific access code which records the identity
of the person accessing the device. 12. 13. The PIC of the pharmacy providing
services to the nursing home shall establish, maintain, and assure compliance
with written policy and procedure for the accurate stocking and proper storage
of drugs in the automated drug dispensing system, accountability for and
security of all drugs maintained in the automated drug dispensing system,
preventing unauthorized access to the system, tracking access to the system,
complying with federal and state regulations related to the storage and
dispensing of controlled substances, maintaining patient confidentiality,
maintaining required records, and assuring compliance with the requirements of
this chapter. The manual shall be capable of being accessed at both the
pharmacy and the nursing home. 13. 14. All records required by this section
shall be filed in chronological order from date of issue and maintained for a
period of not less than two years. Records shall be maintained at the address
of the pharmacy providing services to the nursing home except:
a. Manual Schedule VI distribution records may be maintained in offsite storage or electronically as an electronic image that provides an exact image of the document that is clearly legible provided such offsite or electronic storage is retrievable and made available for inspection or audit within 48 hours of a request by the board or an authorized agent.
b. Distribution and delivery records and required signatures may be generated or maintained electronically provided:
(1) The system being used has the capability of recording an electronic signature that is a unique identifier and restricted to the individual required to initial or sign the record.
(2) The records are maintained in a read-only format that cannot be altered after the information is recorded.
(3) The system used is capable of producing a hard-copy printout of the records upon request.
Schedule II-V Schedules II through V
distribution and delivery records may only be stored offsite or electronically
as described in subdivisions [ 13 14 ] a and [ 13
14 ] b of this section if authorized by DEA or in federal law or
d. Hard-copy distribution and administration records that are
printed and reviewed in conducting required audits may be maintained
site offsite or electronically provided they can be readily
retrieved upon request; provided they are maintained in a read-only format that
does not allow alteration of the records; and provided a separate log is
maintained for a period of two years showing dates of audit and review, the
identity of the automated dispensing device being audited, the time period
covered by the audit and review, and the initials of all reviewers.