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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

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Action:
Program Coordinator (Rev. MO)
Stage: Final
9VAC5-91-20

9VAC5-91-20. Terms defined.

"Aborted test" means an emissions inspection procedure that has been initiated by the inspector but stopped and not completed due to inspector error or a vehicular problem that prevents completion of the test. Aborted tests are not tests that cannot be completed due to a "failed/invalid" result caused by an exhaust dilution problem or an engine condition that prevents the inspection from being completed.

"Acceleration Simulation Mode (ASM) 50-15 equipment" means dynamometer-based emissions test equipment used to perform an enhanced emissions test in one or more, discreet, simulated road speed and engine load modes.

"Acceleration Simulation Mode (ASM) 25-25 standards" means the standards utilized for one of the discreet modes of the ASM test of the enhanced emission inspection program.

"Access code" means the security phrase or number which allows authorized station personnel, the department, and analyzer service technicians to perform specific assigned functions using the certified analyzer system, as determined by the department. Depending on the assigned function, the access code is a personal password, a state password or a service password. Access code is not an identification number, but is used as an authenticator along with the identification number where such number is needed to perform specific tasks.

"Actual gross weight" means the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR).

"Administrator" means the administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or an authorized representative.

"Affected motor vehicle" means any motor vehicle or replica vehicle which:

1. Was manufactured or designated by the manufacturer as a model year less than 25 calendar years prior to January 1 of the present calendar year according to the formula, the current calendar year minus 24, except those identified by remote sensing as specified in subdivision 5 of this definition;

2. Is designed for the transportation of persons or property;

3. Is powered by an internal combustion engine;

4. For the Northern Virginia Emissions Inspection Program, has an actual gross weight of 10,000 pounds or less; and

5. For vehicles subject to the remote sensing requirements of 9VAC5-91-180, was designated by the manufacturer as model year 1968 or newer.

The term "affected motor vehicle" does not mean any:

1. Vehicle powered by a clean special fuel as defined in § 46.2-749.3 of the Code of Virginia, provided the federal Clean Air Act permits such exemptions for vehicles powered by clean special fuels;

2. Motorcycle;

3. Vehicle that at the time of its manufacture was not designed to meet emissions standards set or approved by the federal government;

4. Any antique motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-100 of the Code of Virginia and licensed pursuant to § 46.2-730 of the Code of Virginia;

5. Firefighting equipment, rescue vehicle, or ambulance;

6. Vehicle for which no testing standards have been adopted by the board;

7. Tactical military vehicle; or

8. Qualified hybrid motor vehicle if such vehicle obtains a rating from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of at least 50 miles per gallon, or 48 miles per gallon for model years 2008 or 2009, during city fuel economy tests unless identified by the remote sensing requirements of 9VAC5-91-180 as violating the on-road high emitter emissions standards for on-road testing.

"Air intake systems" means those systems that allow for the induction of ambient air (to include preheated air) into the engine combustion chamber for the purpose of mixing with a fuel for combustion.

"Air pollution" means the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more substances which are or may be harmful or injurious to human health, welfare or safety; to animal or plant life; or to property; or which unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment by the people of life or property.

"Air Pollution Control Law" means Chapter 13 (§ 10.1-1300 et seq.) of Title 10.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Air system" or "air injection system" means a system for providing supplementary air to promote further oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide gases and to assist catalytic reaction.

"Alternative fuel" means an internal combustion engine fuel other than (i) gasoline, (ii) diesel, or (iii) fuel mixtures containing more than 15% volume of gasoline.

"Alternative method" means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant that is not a reference method, but that has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the board, in specific cases, to produce results adequate for its determination of compliance.

"Authorized personnel" means department personnel, an individual designated by analyzer system manufacturer, station owner, licensed emissions inspector, program coordinator, station manager or other person as designated by the station manager.

"Basic engine systems" means those parts or assemblies which provide for the efficient conversion of a compressed air and fuel charge into useful power to include but not limited to valve train mechanisms, cylinder head to block integrity, piston-ring-cylinder sealing integrity and post-combustion emissions control device integrity.

"Basic test and repair program" means a motor vehicle emissions inspection system established by this chapter that designates the use of an OBD-II (on-board diagnostic system) with wireless capability and a two-speed idle analyzer as the only authorized testing equipment. Only those computer software programs and emissions testing procedures necessary to comply with the applicable provisions of Title I of the federal Clean Air Act shall be included. Such testing equipment shall be approvable for motor vehicle manufacturers' warranty repairs.

"Bi-fuel" means any motor vehicle capable of operating on one of two different fuels, usually gasoline and an alternative fuel, but not a mixture of the fuels. That is, only one fuel at a time.

"Board" means the State Air Pollution Control Board or its designated representative.

"Calibration" means establishing or verifying the response curve of a measurement device using several different measurements having precisely known quantities.

"Calibration gases" means gases of precisely known concentrations that are used as references for establishing or verifying the response curve of a measurement device.

"Canister" means a mechanical device capable of adsorbing and retaining hydrocarbon vapors.

"Catalytic converter" means a post combustion device that oxidizes hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide gases, and may also reduce oxides of nitrogen.

"Certificate of emissions inspection" means a document, device, or symbol, whether recorded in written or electronic form, as prescribed by the director and issued pursuant to this chapter, which indicates that (i) an affected motor vehicle has satisfactorily complied with the emissions standards and passed the emissions inspection provided for in this chapter; (ii) the requirement of compliance with the emissions standards has been temporarily waived; or (iii) the affected motor vehicle has failed the emissions inspection.

"Certified emissions repair facility" means a facility, or portion of a facility, that has obtained a certification in accordance with Part VII (9VAC5-91-500 et seq.) to perform emissions related repairs on motor vehicles.

"Certified emissions repair technician" means a person who has obtained a certification in accordance with Part VIII (9VAC5-91-550 et seq.) to perform emissions related repairs on motor vehicles.

"Certified enhanced analyzer system" or "analyzer system" means the complete system that samples and reads concentrations of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, nitric oxides and carbon monoxide gases or interrogates the vehicle OBD system or both, and that is approved by the department for use in the Enhanced Emissions Inspection Program in accordance with Part X (9VAC5-91-640 et seq.). The analyzer system includes the exhaust gas handling system, the exhaust gas analyzer, evaporative system pressure test equipment, associated automation hardware and software, data media, the analyzer system cabinet, the dynamometer and appurtenant devices dynamometer control devices, vehicle identification equipment, printer, and associated cooling and exhaust fans and gas cylinders calibration gases. The analyzer system does not include the dynamometer and associated cooling and exhaust fans that are supplied by the inspection station.

"Certified thermometer" means a laboratory grade ambient temperature-measuring device with a range of at least 20°F through 120°F, and an attested accuracy of at least 1°F with increments of 1°, with protective shielding.

"Chargeable inspection" means a completed inspection on an affected motor vehicle, for which the station owner is entitled to collect an inspection fee. No fee shall be paid for (i) inspections for which a certificate of emissions inspection has not been issued, (ii) inspections that are conducted by the department for referee purposes, (iii) inspections which were ordered due to on-road test failures but which result in an emissions inspection "pass" at an inspection station, or (iv) the first reinspection done at the same station that performed the initial inspection within 14 days. An inspection ordered by the department due to an on-road test failure that results in a confirmation test failure at an emissions inspection station is a chargeable inspection.

"Clean screen vehicle" means a vehicle that has been identified by the on-road inspector as having met the criteria in 9VAC5-91-185 A or B and is eligible to participate in the on-road clean screen program.

"Clean screen vehicle notification" means a document, device, or symbol, whether recorded in written or electronic form, as prescribed by the director and issued pursuant to this chapter, that (i) indicates that an affected motor vehicle has satisfactorily complied with the clean screen vehicle emissions standards for on-road testing, and (ii) may be used by the motor vehicle owner to voluntarily comply with the vehicle registration requirements of § 46.2-1183 of the Code of Virginia.  The notification shall also indicate that the motor vehicle owner may obtain an emissions inspection from an emissions inspection station.

"Clean screen vehicle standard" means any provision of 9VAC5-91-185 that prescribes an emission limitation, or other criteria used to select clean screen vehicles.

"Confirmation test" means an emissions inspection required due to a determination that the vehicle exceeds the on-road high emitter emissions standards prescribed in 9VAC5-91-180 B. The confirmation emissions inspection procedure may include an exhaust test (ASM or TSI), OBD system test or both.

"Consent order" means a mutual agreement between the department and any owner, operator, emissions inspector, or emissions repair technician that such owner or other person will perform specific actions for the purpose of diminishing or abating the causes of air pollution or for the purpose of coming into compliance with this chapter. A consent order may include agreed upon civil charges. Such orders may be issued without a formal hearing.

"Curb idle" means vehicle operation whereby the transmission is disengaged and the engine is operated with the throttle in the closed or idle stop position with the resultant engine speed between 400 and 1,250 revolutions per minute (rpm), or at another idle speed if so specified by the manufacturer.

"Data handling system" means all the computer hardware, software and peripheral equipment used to conduct emissions inspections and manage the enhanced emissions inspection program.

"Data medium" or "data media" means the medium media contained in the certified analyzer system and used to electronically record test data.

"Day" means a 24-hour period beginning at midnight.

"Dedicated alternative fuel vehicle" means a vehicle that was configured by the vehicle manufacturer to operate only on one specific fuel other than (i) gasoline, (ii) diesel, or (iii) fuel mixtures containing more than 15% by volume of gasoline.

"Dedicated-fuel vehicle" means a vehicle that was designed and manufactured to operate and operates on one specific fuel.

"Department" means any employee or other representative of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, as designated by the director.

"Director" means the director of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality or a designated representative.

"Dual fuel" means a vehicle that operates on a combination of fuels, usually gasoline or diesel and an alternative fuel, at the same time. That is, the mixed fuels are introduced into the combustion chamber of the engine.

"Emissions control equipment" means any part, assembly or equipment originally installed by the manufacturer in or on a motor vehicle for the sole or primary purpose of reducing emissions.

"Emissions control systems" means any system consisting of parts, assemblies or equipment originally installed by the manufacturer in or on a motor vehicle for the primary purpose of reducing emissions.

"Emissions inspection" means an emissions inspection of a motor vehicle performed by an emissions inspector employed by or working at an emissions inspection station or fleet emissions inspection station, using the tests, procedures, and provisions set forth in this chapter.

"Emissions inspection station" means a facility or portion of a facility that has obtained an emissions inspection station permit from the director authorizing the facility to perform emissions inspections in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

"Emissions inspector" means, except for an on-road emissions inspector, a person licensed by the department to perform inspections of vehicles required under the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law and is qualified in accordance with this chapter.

"Emissions standard" means any provision of Part III (9VAC5-91-160 et seq.) or Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.) that prescribes an emission limitation, or other emission control requirements for motor vehicle air pollution.

"Empty weight (EW)" means that weight stated as the EW on a Virginia motor vehicle registration or derived from the motor vehicle title or manufacturer's certificate of origin. The EW may be used to determine emissions inspection standards.

"Enhanced emissions inspection program" means a motor vehicle emissions inspection system established by this chapter that designates, as the only authorized testing equipment for emissions inspection stations, (i) the use of the ASM 50-15 (acceleration simulation mode or method) together with an OBD-II (on-board diagnostic system) with wireless capability, (ii) the use of the ASM 50-15 together with the use of a dynamometer, and (iii) two-speed tailpipe testing equipment. Possession and availability of a dynamometer shall be required for enhanced emissions inspection stations. Only those computer software programs and emissions testing procedures necessary to comply with applicable provisions of Title I of the federal Clean Air Act shall be included. Such testing equipment shall be approvable for motor vehicle manufacturers' warranty repairs. An enhanced emissions inspection program shall include remote sensing and an on-road clean screen program as provided in this chapter.

"EPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Equivalent test weight (ETW)" or "emission test weight" means the weight of a motor vehicle as automatically determined by the emissions analyzer system based on vehicle make, model, body, style, model year, engine size, permanently installed equipment, and other manufacturer and aftermarket supplied information, and used for the purpose of assigning dynamometer resistance and exhaust emissions standards for the conduct of an exhaust emissions inspection.

"Evaporative system pressure test" or "pressure test" means a physical test of the evaporative emission control system on a motor vehicle to determine whether the evaporative system vents emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel tank and fuel system to an on-board emission control device, and prevents their release to the ambient air under normal vehicle operating conditions. Such testing shall only be conducted at emissions inspection stations upon installation of approved equipment and software necessary for performing the test, as determined by the director.

"Exhaust gas analyzer" or "gas analyzer" means an instrument exhaust gas handling system that is capable of measuring the concentrations of certain air pollutants in the exhaust gas from a motor vehicle.

"Facility" means something that is built, installed or established to serve a particular purpose; includes, but is not limited to, buildings, installations, public works, businesses, commercial and industrial plants, shops and stores, apparatus, processes, operations, structures, and equipment of all types.

"Federal Clean Air Act" means Chapter 85 (§ 7401 et seq.) of Title 42 of the United States Code.

"Fleet" means 20 or more motor vehicles that are owned, operated, leased or rented for use by a common owner.

"Fleet emissions inspection station" means any inspection facility operated under a permit issued to a qualified fleet owner or lessee as determined by the director.

"Flexible-fuel vehicle" means any motor vehicle capable of operating on two or more fuels, either one at a time or any mixture of two or more different fuels.

"Formal hearing" means a board or department process that provides for the right of private parties to submit factual proofs as provided in § 2.2-4020 of the Administrative Process Act in connection with case decisions. Formal hearings do not include the factual inquiries of an informal nature provided in § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act.

"Fuel control systems" means those mechanical, electro-mechanical, galvanic or electronic parts or assemblies which regulate the air-to-fuel ratio in an engine for the purpose of providing a combustible charge.

"Fuel filler cap pressure test" or "gas cap pressure test" means a test of the ability of the fuel filler cap to prevent the release of fuel vapors from the fuel tank under normal operating conditions.

"Gas span" means the adjustment of an exhaust gas analyzer to correspond with known concentrations of gases.

"Gas span check" means a procedure using known concentrations of gases to verify the gas span adjustment of an a gas analyzer.

"Gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)" means the maximum recommended combined weight of the motor vehicle and its load as prescribed by the manufacturer and is (i) expressed on a permanent identification label affixed to the motor vehicle; (ii) stated on the manufacturer's certificate of origin; or (iii) coded in the vehicle identification number. If the GVWR can be determined it shall be one element used to determine emissions inspection standards and test type. If the GVWR is unavailable, the department may make a determination based on the best available evidence including manufacturer reference, information coded in the vehicle identification number, or other available sources of information from which to make the determination.

"Heavy duty gasoline vehicle (HDGV)" means a heavy duty vehicle using gasoline as its fuel.

"Heavy duty vehicle (HDV)" means any affected motor vehicle (i) which is rated at more than 8,500 pounds GVWR or (ii) which has a loaded vehicle weight or GVWR of more than 6,000 pounds and has a basic frontal area in excess of 45 square feet.

"High emitter value" means the values in Table III-B of 9VAC5-91-180 that are used to determine vehicles in violation of the on-road high emitter emissions standard.

"Identification number" means the number assigned by the department to uniquely identify department personnel, an emissions inspection station, a certified emissions repair facility, a licensed emissions inspector, a certified emissions repair technician or other authorized personnel as necessary for specific tasks.

"Idle mode" means a condition where the vehicle engine is warm and running at the rate specified by the manufacturer as curb idle, where the engine is not propelling the vehicle, and where the throttle is in the closed or idle stop position.

"Ignition systems" means those parts or assemblies that are designed to cause and time the ignition of a compressed air and fuel charge.

"Implementation plan" means the plan, including any revision thereof, that has been submitted by the Commonwealth and approved in Subpart VV of 40 CFR Part 52 by the administrator under § 110 of the federal Clean Air Act, or promulgated in Subpart VV of 40 CFR Part 52 by the administrator under § 110(c) of the federal Clean Air Act, or promulgated or approved by the administrator pursuant to regulations promulgated under § 301(d) of the federal Clean Air Act and that implements the relevant requirements of the federal Clean Air Act.

"Informal fact finding" means an informal conference or consultation proceeding used to ascertain the fact basis for case decisions as provided in § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act.

"Initial inspection" means the first complete emissions inspection of a motor vehicle conducted in accordance with the biennial inspection requirement and for which a valid vehicle emissions inspection report was issued. Any test following the initial inspection is a retest or reinspection.

"Inspection area" means in reference to an emissions inspection station, (i) the area that is occupied by the certified analyzer system and the vehicle being inspected or (ii) for only an OBD II test, the area within wireless range that is on the property on which the inspection station is located.

"Inspection fee" means the amount of money that (i) the emissions inspection station may collect from the motor vehicle owner for each chargeable inspection or (ii) an on-road emissions inspector may collect from the motor vehicle owner in response to a clean screen vehicle notification.

"Light duty gasoline vehicle (LDGV)" means a light duty vehicle using gasoline as its fuel.

"Light duty gasoline truck (LDGT1)" means a light duty truck 1 using gasoline as its fuel.

"Light duty gasoline truck (LDGT2)" means a light duty truck 2 using gasoline as its fuel.

"Light duty truck (LDT)" means any affected motor vehicle which (i) has a loaded vehicle weight or GVWR of 6,000 pounds or less and meets any one of the criteria below; or (ii) is rated at more than 6,000 pounds GVWR but less than 8,500 pounds GVWR and has a basic vehicle frontal area of 45 square feet or less; and meets one of the following criteria:

1. Designed primarily for purposes of transportation of property or is a derivation of such a vehicle.

2. Designed primarily for transportation of persons and has a capacity of more than 12 persons.

3. Equipped with special features enabling off-street or off-highway operation and use.

"Light duty truck 1 (LDT1)" means any light duty truck rated at 6,000 pounds GVWR or less. LDT1 is a subset of light duty trucks.

"Light duty truck 2 (LDT2)" means any light duty truck rated at greater than 6,000 pounds GVWR. LDT2 is a subset of light duty trucks.

"Light duty vehicle (LDV)" means an affected motor vehicle that is a passenger car or passenger car derivative capable of seating 12 passengers or less.

"Loaded vehicle weight (LVW)" or "curb weight" means the weight of a vehicle and its standard equipment; i.e., the empty weight as recorded on the vehicle's registration or the base shipping weight as recorded in the vehicle identification number, whichever is greater; plus the weight of any permanent attachments, the weight of a nominally filled fuel tank, plus 300 pounds.

"Locality" means a city, town, or county created by or pursuant to state law.

"Mobile fleet emissions inspection station" means a facility or entity that provides emissions inspection equipment or services to a fleet emissions inspection station on a temporary basis. Such equipment is not permanently installed at the fleet facility but is temporarily located at the fleet facility for the sole purpose of testing vehicles owned, operated, leased or rented for use by a common owner.

"Model year" means, except as may be otherwise defined in this chapter, the motor vehicle manufacturer's annual production period which includes the time period from January 1 of the calendar year prior to the stated model year to December 31 of the calendar year of the stated model year; provided that, if the manufacturer has no annual production period, the term "model year" shall mean the calendar year of manufacture. For the purpose of this definition, model year is applied to the vehicle chassis, irrespective of the year of manufacture of the vehicle engine.

"Monitors" means those computer programs in the on-board vehicle computer that evaluate the various emissions components and systems to determine status of such components and systems.

"Motor vehicle" means any motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-100 of the Code of Virginia as a motor vehicle and that:

1. Is designed for the transportation of persons or property; and

2. Is powered by an internal combustion engine.

"Motor vehicle dealer" means a person who is licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles in accordance with §§ 46.2-1500 and 46.2-1508 of the Code of Virginia.

"Motor vehicle emissions" means any emissions related information that can be captured through (i) a basic test and repair inspection, (ii) enhanced emissions inspection, or (iii) on-road testing.

"Motor vehicle inspection report" means a printed certificate of emissions inspection that is a report of the results of an emissions inspection. It indicates whether the motor vehicle has (i) passed, (ii) failed, or (iii) obtained a temporary emissions inspection waiver. It may also indicate whether the emissions inspection could not be completed due to an exhaust dilution or an engine condition that prevents the inspection from being completed. The report shall accurately identify the motor vehicle and shall include inspection results, recall information provided by the department, warranty and repair information, and a unique identification number.

"Motor vehicle owner" means any person who owns, leases, operates, or controls a motor vehicle or fleet of motor vehicles.

"Nonconforming vehicle" means a vehicle not manufactured for sale in the United States to conform to emissions standards established by the federal government.

"Normal business hours" for emissions inspection stations, means a daily eight-hour period Monday through Friday, between the hours of 8 a.m. and 6 p.m., with the exception of national holidays, state holidays, temporary closures noticed to the department and closures due to the inability to meet the requirements of this chapter. Nothing in this chapter shall prevent stations from performing inspections at other times in addition to the "normal business hours." Emissions inspection stations may, with the approval of the department, substitute a combined total of eight hours, between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m., over a weekend period for one weekday as their "normal business hours" for conducting emission inspections. Emissions inspection stations shall post inspection hours.

"Northern Virginia emissions inspection program" means the emissions inspection program required by this chapter in the Northern Virginia program area.

"Northern Virginia program area" or "program area" means the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following localities: the counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, and Stafford; and the cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, Falls Church, Manassas, and Manassas Park.

"On-board diagnostic system (OBD system)" means the computerized emissions control diagnostic system installed on model year 1996 and newer affected motor vehicles.

"On-board diagnostic system test (OBD) system test (OBD test)" means an evaluation of the OBD system pursuant to either 40 CFR 86.094-17 (2009 CFR) or 40 CFR 86.099-17 as applicable, according to procedures specified in 40 CFR 85.2222 and this chapter.

"On-board diagnostic vehicle (OBD vehicle)" means a model year 1996 and newer model affected motor vehicle equipped with an on-board diagnostic system and meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 85.2231.

"On-road clean screen program" means a program that allows a motor vehicle owner to voluntarily certify compliance with emissions standards by means of on-road remote sensing.

"On-road emissions inspector" means the entity or entities authorized by the Department of Environmental Quality to perform on-road testing, including on-road testing in accordance with the on-road clean screen program.

"On-road emissions measurement" means data obtained through on-road testing.

"On-road high emitter emissions standard" means any provision of 9VAC5-91-180 that prescribes an emission limitation, or other emission control requirements for motor vehicle emissions.  The on-road high emitter emissions standard shall be determined by multiplying the high emitter value in Table III-B of 9VAC5-91-180 with the appropriate ASM 25-25 standard in 9VAC5-91-810 or the TSI standard in Table III-A of 9VAC5-91-160.

"On-road testing" means tests of motor vehicle emissions or emissions control devices by means of roadside pullovers or remote sensing devices.

"Operated primarily" means motor vehicle operation that constitutes routine operation into or within the program area as evidenced by observation using remote sensing equipment at least three times in a 60-day period with no less than 30 days between the first and last observation. The director may increase the number of observations required for compliance determination if, in his discretion, based on program experience, such an increase would not significantly adversely impact the objectives of this chapter. The term "operated primarily" shall be used to identify motor vehicle operation that is subject to the exhaust emission standards for on-road testing through remote sensing set forth in 9VAC5-91-180. The term "operated primarily" shall not be used to identify motor vehicle operation that will subject the vehicle to the compliance provisions set forth in 9VAC5-91-160 and 9VAC5-91-170 for biennial emissions inspections.

"Order" means any decision or directive of the board or the director, including orders, consent orders, and orders of all types rendered for the purpose of diminishing or abating the causes of air pollution or enforcement of this chapter. Unless specified otherwise in this chapter, orders shall only be issued after the appropriate administrative proceeding.

"Original condition" means the condition of the vehicle, parts, and components as installed by the manufacturer but not necessarily to the original level of effectiveness.

"Owner" means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls or supervises a facility or motor vehicle.

"Party" means any person who actively participates in the administrative proceeding or offers comments through the public participation process and is named in the administrative record. The term "party" also means the department.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.

"Pollutant" means any substance the presence of which in the outdoor atmosphere is or may be harmful or injurious to human health, welfare or safety, to animal or plant life, or to property, or which unreasonably interferes with the enjoyment by the people of life or property.

"Program coordinator" means any person or corporation that has entered into a contract with the director to provide services in accordance with Part X (9VAC5-91-640 et seq.) and other services not to include remote sensing.

"Qualified hybrid motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle that (i) meets or exceeds all applicable regulatory requirements, (ii) meets or exceeds the applicable federal motor vehicle emissions standards for gasoline-powered passenger cars, and (iii) can draw propulsion energy both from gasoline or diesel fuel and a rechargeable energy storage system.

"Reconstructed vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under Title 46.2 (§ 46.2-100 et seq.) of the Code of Virginia, materially altered from its original construction by the removal, addition or substitution of new or used essential parts. Such vehicles, at the discretion of the Department of Motor Vehicles, shall retain their original vehicle identification number, line-make, and model year.

"Referee station" or "referee facility" means those facilities operated or used by the department to (i) determine program effectiveness, (ii) resolve emissions inspection conflicts between motor vehicle owners and emissions inspection stations, and (iii) provide such other technical support and information, as appropriate, to emissions inspection stations and motor vehicle owners.

"Reference method" means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant as described in Appendix A of 40 CFR Part 60.

"Reinspection" or "retest" means a type of inspection selected by the department or the emissions inspector when a request for an inspection is due to a previous failure. Any inspection that occurs 120 days or less following the most recent chargeable inspection is a retest.

"Rejected" or "rejected from testing" means that the vehicle cannot be inspected due to conditions in accordance with 9VAC5-91-420 C or 9VAC5-91-420 G 3.

"Remote sensing" means the measurement of motor vehicle emissions through electronic or light-sensing equipment from a remote location such as the roadside.  Remote sensing equipment may include devices to detect and record the vehicle's registration or other identification numbers.

"Replica vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under Title 46.2 (§ 46.2-100 et seq.) of the Code of Virginia not fully constructed by a licensed manufacturer but either constructed or assembled from components. Such components may be from a single vehicle, multiple vehicles, a kit, parts, or fabricated components. The kit may be made up of "major components" as defined in § 46.2-1600 of the Code of Virginia, a full body, or a full chassis, or a combination of these parts. The vehicle shall resemble a vehicle of distinctive name, line-make, model, or type as produced by a licensed manufacturer or manufacturer no longer in business and is not a reconstructed or specially constructed vehicle.  Any vehicle registered as a replica vehicle shall meet emission requirements as established for the model year of which the vehicle is a replica.

"Sensitive mission vehicle" means any vehicle which, for law enforcement or national security reasons, cannot be tested in the public inspection system and must not be identified through the fleet testing system. For such vehicles, an autonomous fleet testing system may be established by agreement between the controlling agency and the director.

"Span gas" means gases of known concentration used as references to adjust or verify the accuracy of an exhaust gas analyzer that are approved by the department and are so labeled.

"Specially constructed vehicle" means any vehicle that was not originally constructed under a distinctive name, make, model, or type by a generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles and not a reconstructed vehicle as defined in this section.

"Specific engine family" means a group of motor vehicles with the same vehicle type, make, year, and engine size.

"Standard conditions" means a temperature of 20°C (68°F) and a pressure of 760 mm of Hg (29.92 inches of Hg).

"Standardized instruments" or "standardizing instruments" means laboratory instruments calibrated with precision gases traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology and accepted by the department as the standards to be used for comparison purposes. All candidate instruments are compared in performance to the standardized instruments.

"Tactical military vehicle" means any motor vehicle designed to military specifications or a commercially designed motor vehicle modified to military specifications to meet direct transportation support of combat, tactical, or military relief operations, or training of personnel for such operations.

"Tampering" means to alter, remove or otherwise disable or reduce the effectiveness of emissions control equipment on a motor vehicle.

"Test" means an emissions inspection of a vehicle, or any portion thereof, performed by an emissions inspector at an emissions inspection station, using the procedures and provisions set forth in this chapter.

"Test and repair" means motor vehicle emissions inspection stations that perform emissions inspections and may also perform vehicle repairs. No provision of this chapter shall bar emissions inspection stations from also performing vehicle repairs.

"Thermostatic air cleaner" means a system that supplies temperature-regulated air to the air intake system during engine operation.

"True concentration" means the concentration of the gases of interest as measured by a standardized instrument that has been calibrated with 1.0% precision gases traceable to the National Bureau of Standards.

"Two-speed idle test (TSI)" means a vehicle exhaust emissions test, performed in accordance with section (II) of 40 CFR Part 51, Appendix B to Subpart S, which measures the concentrations of pollutants in the exhaust gases of an engine (i) while the motor vehicle transmission is not propelling the vehicle and (ii) while the engine is operated at both curb idle and at a nominal engine speed of 2,500 rpm.

"Vehicle emissions index" means the ranking of probable emissions inspection failure-rates of affected motor vehicles. Values within the index are determined by calculating a percentile of the historical emissions inspection failure-rates of a specific engine family, and comparing that to the historical emissions inspection failure-rates of all engine families in a specific model year group. Motor vehicles with the highest percentage of failure rates have the highest ranking on the index.  Failure rates are based on the two most recent calendar years of emissions inspection test data from the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Program.

"Vehicle specific power (VSP)" means an indicator expressed as a function of vehicle speed, acceleration, drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance and roadway grade that is used to characterize the load a vehicle is operating under at the time and place a vehicle is measured by remote sensing equipment. It is calculated using the following formula:

VSP = 4.39 x Sine (Site Grade in Degrees/57.3) x Speed + K1

x Speed x Acceleration + K2 x Speed + K3 x Speed3.

Where:

VSP = vehicle specific power indicator;

Sine = the trigonometric function that for an acute angle is the ratio between the side opposite the angle when it is considered part of a right triangle and the hypotenuse;

Site Grade in Degrees = slope of road where remote sensing measurement is taken;

K1, K2 and K3 = empirically determined coefficients specific to the weight class of the vehicle;

Speed = rate of motion in miles per hour of vehicle at the time remote sensing measurement is taken; and

Acceleration = change in speed in miles per hour per second.

For light duty vehicles the values for K1, K2 and K3 are respectively 0.22, 0.0954 and 0.0000272. Based on EPA guidance, the department may develop different values for K1, K2 and K3 that are applicable to heavy duty vehicles or to specific classes of light duty vehicles.

"Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Program" means the program for the inspection and control of motor vehicle emissions established by Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law.

"Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law" means Article 22 (§ 46.2-1176 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 46.2 of the Code of Virginia.

"Visible smoke" means any air pollutant, other than visible water droplets, consisting of black, gray, blue or blue-black airborne particulate matter emanating from the exhaust system or crankcase. Visible smoke does not mean steam.

"Zero gas" means a gas, usually air or nitrogen, which is used as a reference for establishing or verifying the zero point of an exhaust gas analyzer.

9VAC5-91-30

Part II
General Provisions

9VAC5-91-30. Applicability and authority of the department.

A. The provisions of this chapter, unless specified otherwise, apply to the following:

1. Any owner of an affected motor vehicle, including new motor vehicles, specified in subsection B of this section. References made to responsibilities or requirements applicable to an affected motor vehicle shall mean that the owner shall be responsible for compliance with all applicable provisions of this chapter.

2. Any owner of an emissions inspection station or fleet emissions inspection station under the auspices of the enhanced emissions inspection program. References made to responsibilities or requirements of emissions inspection stations or fleet emissions inspection stations shall mean that the owner, permittee or certificate holder, as appropriate, shall be responsible for compliance with all applicable provisions of this chapter.

3. Any person who conducts an emissions inspection under the auspices of the enhanced emissions inspection program.

4. Any owner of an emissions repair facility performing emissions repairs on motor vehicles affected by this chapter. References made to responsibilities or requirements of certified emissions repair facilities shall mean that the owner, permittee or certificate holder, as appropriate, shall be responsible for compliance with all applicable provisions of this chapter.

5. Any emissions repair technician performing emissions repairs on motor vehicles affected by this chapter.

6. Any on-road emissions inspector conducting on-road testing.

7. Any person or corporation that has entered into a contract with the director to provide services in accordance with this chapter.

B. The provisions of this chapter, unless specified otherwise, apply to the following affected motor vehicles:

1. Any affected motor vehicle, including new motor vehicles, registered by the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and garaged within the Northern Virginia program area.

2. Any affected motor vehicle, including new motor vehicles, registered by the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and garaged outside of the Northern Virginia program area but operated primarily in the Northern Virginia program area.

3. Any affected motor vehicle, including new motor vehicles not registered by the Department of Motor Vehicles but operated primarily in the Northern Virginia program area.

4. Any affected motor vehicle, including new motor vehicles owned or operated as part of a fleet located outside the Northern Virginia program area but operated primarily in the Northern Virginia program area.

C. As provided in the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law, affected motor vehicles shall be submitted for biennial emissions inspections and shall be in compliance with this chapter.

1. Motor vehicles having obtained a valid enhanced emissions inspection pass from another program area or another state within the most recent 12 months may be determined by the director to be in compliance with the enhanced emissions inspection required by this chapter for initial registration in Virginia. The valid period for such emissions inspection shall be one year. The proof of emissions inspection results from an enhanced emissions inspection program shall be presented to the Department of Motor Vehicles in such cases. The vehicle and proof of compliance may be presented to the department for verification purposes in order to resolve questions or disputes. Such vehicles are subject to all other provisions of this chapter.

2. The director may temporarily defer the emissions inspection requirement for motor vehicles registered in but temporarily located outside the program area at the time of such requirement based on information including, but not limited to, the location of the vehicle, the reason for and length of its temporary location, and demonstration that it is not practical or reasonable to return the vehicle to the program area for inspection. All such information shall be provided by the owner and is subject to verification by the department.

3. Clean screen vehicles may be determined by the director to be in compliance with the enhanced emissions inspection required by this chapter.

D. Motor vehicles being titled for the first time shall be considered to have an enhanced emissions inspection valid for two years. Such vehicles are not exempt from the emissions inspection program and are subject to all other provisions of this chapter.

E. Pursuant to § 46.2-1180 B of the Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law, motor vehicles of the current model year and the four immediately preceding model years, held for resale in a licensed motor vehicle dealer's inventory, may be registered for one year upon sale without obtaining an emissions inspection in accordance with conditions enumerated below.

1. The vehicle must be registered in the program area.

2. The vehicle has not failed nor received a waiver during its most recent emissions inspection.

3. The vehicle has not previously been registered under the provisions of this subsection.

4. The motor vehicle dealer guarantees in writing to the customer and to the department that the emissions equipment on the motor vehicle is operating in compliance with the warranty of the manufacturer or distributor, or both if applicable, at the time of sale.

a. The document supplied must describe the method by which this compliance was determined and provide a copy of any emissions readings obtained from the vehicle for the purpose of making this showing.

b. The document must state in prominent or bold print that the certification in no way warrants or guarantees that the vehicle complied with the emission standards used in the Virginia enhanced emissions inspection program, or similar language approved by the department and that the customer has a right to request an emissions inspection, which may be at the expense of the customer, in lieu of the one year emissions validation period authorized by this subsection.

5. A written request, including the documentation cited above, must be presented to the department not more than 30 days prior to the date of sale so that the department can record such temporary emissions validation period and furnish it to the Department of Motor Vehicles.

6. Such temporary validation period shall not be granted more than once for any motor vehicle.

7. For the purposes of this subsection, any used motor vehicle will be considered to be one model year old on the first day of October of the next calendar year after the model year described on the vehicle title or registration, and shall increase in age by one year on the first day of each October thereafter.

F. Owners or operators of fleets, including fleets of government vehicles and sensitive mission vehicles, shall provide a report to the department annually containing information regarding vehicles operated in the program area sufficient to determine compliance with this chapter. The report shall contain information deemed necessary by the department to determine compliance. Such information shall include, but not be limited to, (i) number of vehicles, (ii) compliance method, and (iii) results of any inspections. Reports shall be in a format and according to a schedule acceptable to the department.

G. Manufacturers and distributors of emissions testing equipment are prohibited from directly or indirectly owning or operating any emissions testing facility or having any direct or indirect financial interest in any such facility other than the leasing of or providing financing for equipment related to emissions testing.

H. The provisions of this chapter, unless specified otherwise, apply only to those pollutants for which emission standards are set forth in Part III (9VAC5-91-160 et seq.) and Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.).

I. Applicants for inspection station permits and emissions repair facility certificates shall have a Virginia business license and the application shall only be for a facility in Virginia.

J. By the adoption of this chapter, the board confers upon the department the administrative, enforcement and decision making authority enumerated herein.

9VAC5-91-50

9VAC5-91-50. Documents incorporated by reference.

A. The Administrative Process Act and Virginia Register Act provide that state regulations may incorporate documents by reference. Throughout this chapter, documents of the types specified below have been incorporated by reference.

1. United States Code.

2. Code of Virginia.

3. Code of Federal Regulations.

4. Federal Register.

5. Technical and scientific reference documents.

Additional information on key federal regulations and nonstatutory documents incorporated by reference and their availability may be found in subsection E of this section.

B. Any reference in this chapter to any provision of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) shall be considered as the adoption by reference of that provision. The specific version of the provision adopted by reference shall be that contained in the latest revision to the CFR in effect on July 1, 2001 July 1, 2012, unless noted otherwise. In making reference to the Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Part 35 means Part 35 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations; 40 CFR 35.20 means § 35.20 in Part 35 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

C. Failure to include in this section any document referenced in this chapter shall not invalidate the applicability of the referenced document.

D. Copies of materials incorporated by reference in this section may be examined by the public at the central office of the Department of Environmental Quality, Air Division, Eighth Floor, 629 East Main Street, Richmond, Virginia, between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. of each business day.

E. Information on federal regulations and nonstatutory documents incorporated by reference and their availability may be found below in this subsection.

1. Code of Federal Regulations.

a. The provisions specified below from the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) are incorporated herein by reference:

(1) 40 CFR Part 51 - Requirements for Preparation, Adoption and Submittal of Implementation Plans, specifically Subpart S (Inspection and Maintenance Program Requirements).

(2) 40 CFR Part 85 - Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines, specifically Subpart W (Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests).

b. Copies may be obtained from: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; phone (202) 783-3238.

2. Environmental Protection Agency, Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory.

a. The following document is incorporated herein by reference: Environmental Protection Agency technical report, "EPA Recommended Practice for Naming I/M Calibration Gas," EPA-AA-TSS-83-8-B, September 1983.

b. The following document is incorporated herein by reference: Environmental Protection Agency technical guidance, Acceleration Simulation Mode Test Procedures, Emission Standards, Quality Control Requirements, and Equipment Specifications," EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2, July 1996 EPA420-B-04-011, July 2004.

c. Copies may be obtained from: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, 2000 Traverwood, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.

3. Building Officials & Code Administrators International, Inc.

a. The following document is incorporated herein by reference: The BOCA National Mechanical Code/1993, Eighth Edition.

b. Copies may be obtained from: Building Officials & Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795.

9VAC5-91-70

9VAC5-91-70. Appeal of case decisions.

A. Any owner, emissions inspector, emissions repair technician, or other party significantly affected by any action of the director or the department taken without a formal hearing may request a formal hearing in accordance with § 2.2-4020 of the Administrative Process Act, provided a formal hearing has not been waived and a petition requesting such formal hearing is filed with the director within 30 days after notice of the action is mailed, by postal or electronic delivery, or delivered to such owner, emissions inspector, emissions repair technician, or party requesting notification of such action.

B. In cases where the director or the department fails to make a case decision within the time frame specified by § 2.2-4021, the owner, emissions inspector, emissions repair technician, or other party significantly affected, may provide written notice to the director that a decision is due in accordance with § 2.2-4021 of the Administrative Process Act. Appeals thereafter shall be in accordance with the Administrative Process Act.

C. Prior to any formal hearing, an informal fact finding shall be held pursuant to § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act, unless the named party and the director consent to waive the informal fact finding and go directly to a formal hearing.

D. Any decision of the director resulting from a formal hearing or from an informal fact finding wherein the parties have agreed to waive a formal hearing shall constitute the final decision for purposes of Article V (§ 2.2-4025 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act.

E. Judicial review of any final decision shall be in accordance with Article V (§ 2.2-4025 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act.

F. Nothing in this section shall prevent disposition of any case by consent.

G. Any petition for a formal hearing or any notice or petition for an appeal by itself shall not constitute a stay of decision or action.

9VAC5-91-200

9VAC5-91-200. Evaporative emissions systems standards. (Repealed.)

A. Standards for evaporative emissions inspections shall be those described in 9VAC5-91-450 for applicable motor vehicles.

B. Evaporative system fuel filler cap (gas cap) standards shall apply beginning January 5, 1998.

C. Evaporative system pressure testing standards shall apply provided such testing is mandated by the EPA for appropriate implementation plan credits. Such testing shall only be conducted at emissions inspection stations upon installation of approved equipment and software necessary for performing the test, as determined by the director.

9VAC5-91-330

9VAC5-91-330. Analyzer system operation.

Emissions inspections stations shall be equipped with a dynamometer and a functional analyzer system certified in accordance with Part X (9VAC5-91-640 et seq.) and maintained and operated in accordance with the following:

A. 1. Emissions inspection stations shall supply and maintain the analyzer a functional dynamometer in such a manner that will permit the proper operation in accordance with the requirements of the manufacturer, this chapter, applicable statutes, and any procedures developed by the department.

B. 2. The exhaust gas analyzer shall be gas spanned and leak checked according to 40 CFR Part 51, Appendix A to Subpart S or other procedure as approved by the department.

C. 3. No additions or modifications shall be made to the analyzer system unless approved by the analyzer system manufacturer and the department.

1. a. All repairs to the analyzer system must be performed by an authorized manufacturer representative according to 9VAC5-91-670 B and C or a program coordinator in accordance with 9VAC5-91-675 as applicable.

2. b. No analyzer system replacement parts shall be used that are not original equipment replacement, or equivalent, as approved by the department.

D. 4. No person shall tamper with or circumvent any system or function of the analyzer.

E. 5. Emissions inspection stations shall be responsible for preventing any tampering with or unauthorized use of the dynamometer and the analyzer or its their functions.

F. 6. Analyzer system lockout conditions shall be removed only by authorized service or department personnel.

G. 7. The analyzer system shall be capable of electronically transmitting to and receiving data from the department computer network related to the administration of the Virginia Vehicle Emissions Control Program.

9VAC5-91-360

9VAC5-91-360. Inspector identification number and access code usage.

A. The department shall assign each emissions inspector a unique number and numerical code known as an inspector identification number and an access code to gain access to the analyzer system at the inspector's place of employment. Biometric identification may be used in place of an access code.

B. Access codes and identification numbers shall be added and deleted only by department personnel.

C. An inspector identification number and access code shall be used only by the inspector to whom it was assigned.

D. An inspector's name printed on a motor vehicle inspection report shall be an endorsement that the entire test was performed by the inspector whose name appears on the vehicle inspection report. Each inspector must sign his full name on the vehicle inspection report for each emission inspection conducted.

E. Emissions inspection stations and emissions inspectors shall report any unauthorized use of an inspector identification number or access code to the department within 24 hours of the discovery of unauthorized use.

F. Emissions inspection stations and inspectors shall be responsible for any violation or fraudulent inspection which occurs using inspector identification numbers or access codes.

G. Emissions inspection stations shall be responsible for all certificates of vehicle emissions inspection and motor vehicle inspection reports issued by that emissions inspection station.

9VAC5-91-390

9VAC5-91-390. Qualification requirements for emissions inspector licenses.

A. Applications to qualify for emissions inspector licenses shall be filed with the department and the issuance of the licenses shall be administered by the department. Applications for such licenses shall be completed on forms provided by the department. Before an applicant may be given a license, he must comply with the requirements of this section. The department will notify applicants of the evaluation requirements prior to testing.

B. An applicant shall demonstrate the ability to operate the certified analyzer systems properly and perform testing as required by this chapter.

C. No emissions inspector license shall be issued unless it is shown to the satisfaction of the director that the emissions inspector has the ability and resources to perform emissions inspections without causing a violation of the applicable provisions of this chapter and the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law.

D. Any applicant whose license has been revoked shall make a showing to the director that the condition causing the revocation has been corrected to the satisfaction of the director.

E. An applicant shall bear a valid motor vehicle driver's or operator's license and shall present proof of such license to the department at the time of application.

F. An applicant shall demonstrate knowledge, skill, and competence concerning the conduct of emissions inspections. Such knowledge, skill and competence shall be demonstrated by completing training courses approved by the department and by passing a qualification test (scoring 80% or higher) which may include, but not be limited to, knowledge of the following;

1. Operation and purpose of emissions control systems.

2. General relationship of hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and carbon monoxide emissions to timing and air-to-fuel ratio control.

3. General information regarding adjustment and repair based on manufacturers' specifications.

4. This regulation (9VAC5-91-10 et seq.).

5. General information regarding contemporary diagnostic and engine tune-up procedures.

6. The provisions of the Emissions Control Systems Performance Warranty pursuant to § 207(b) of the federal Clean Air Act as it applies to this chapter.

7. Visual inspection of the required emissions control equipment for 1973 and newer vehicles.

8. Operation of and proper use, care, maintenance, and gas span checking of certified analyzer systems.

9. Proper use of and distribution of motor vehicle inspection reports, certificates of emissions inspection, and supplemental documents.

10. Inspections for visible smoke emissions.

11. Functional testing of the evaporative emissions control system as required in the enhanced emissions inspection program.

12. 11. Safety and public health as it applies to the Virginia Vehicle Emissions Control Program.

13. 12. Public relations as it applies to the Virginia Vehicle Emissions Control Program.

9VAC5-91-410

9VAC5-91-410. General.

A. The key steps in the emissions inspection procedure are as follows:

1. Preliminary inspection of the vehicle to determine whether to accept the vehicle for testing or reject it, as approved by the department and according to 9VAC5-91-420 C. If the vehicle is rejected, the results of such preliminary inspection shall be provided to the customer.

2. Advise the customer of the ability of the emissions inspection station to perform emissions related repairs including the availability of certified emissions repair technicians and necessary equipment. If the vehicle failed the test, inform the customer of their right to seek repairs elsewhere.

3. An agreement between the customer and the emissions inspection station, oral or written, that an emissions inspection will be performed and the requisite fee paid.

4. Determination of the type of emissions test required, ASM or two-speed idle test, or OBD system test for OBD vehicles. For certain OBD vehicles, the director may require an exhaust test (ASM or two-speed idle) in addition to the OBD system test if he conducts appropriate studies and determines that (i) the expected failure rate for exhaust testing for these certain vehicles would be greater than 5.0%, (ii) additional emission reductions would be achieved, and (iii) the EPA acknowledges such emission reduction benefits.

5. The inspection of emissions control equipment and an evaluation for the presence of visible smoke.

6. The test of exhaust emissions levels, or the vehicle's on-board diagnostic system if applicable, using a certified analyzer system.

7. The evaporative system pressure test, if applicable, and fuel filler cap pressure test, as applicable according to the procedure determined automatically by the analyzer system.

8. 7. The distribution of documents and emissions inspection results. The emissions inspector shall sign each motor vehicle emissions inspection report for each emissions inspection performed by that inspector. The inspector's identification number or the inspector's signature, or both, shall be an endorsement that all aspects of the emissions inspection were performed by the inspector in accordance with this chapter.

9. 8. Advise customers of emissions inspection results, options for waiver if applicable, and the obligation of the station to perform a free retest within 14 days for failed vehicles and the conditions placed on the motorist in regard to free retests.

10. 9. Conduct free retest, if necessary, within 14 days of a chargeable initial test.

B. The emissions inspection station may charge a fee not to exceed the amount specified in § 46.2-1182 of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC5-91-420

9VAC5-91-420. Inspection procedure; rejection, pass, fail, waiver.

A. All aspects of the inspection shall be performed by an emissions inspector, using the instructions programmed in the certified analyzer system and procedures approved by the department, within the designated inspection area, and on the permitted premises.

B. The emissions inspection station shall notify the customer prior to initiating an emissions inspection that the emissions inspection station is either able or unable to perform the emission related emissions-related repairs required by 9VAC5-91-480 for that particular vehicle should that vehicle fail the inspection. The emissions inspector shall not conduct an inspection on a motor vehicle unless the customer gives approval after being so notified.

C. The emissions inspector shall not conduct an inspection on a motor vehicle if the vehicle is in an unsafe condition for testing according to the following conditions. The customer shall be informed of any such condition.

1. The vehicle shall not have holes or detectable leaks in the exhaust system. The inspector may check the system for leaks by listening or visually inspecting for such leaks or by measuring carbon dioxide. The presence of leaks shall cause the vehicle to be rejected from testing.

2. The motor vehicle shall be evaluated for the presence of visible smoke emissions. Those vehicles exhibiting any visible smoke emissions from the engine crankcase or exhaust system or both, shall be rejected from testing.

3. The vehicle shall not have any mechanical problems, such as engine, brake, or transmission problems or engine, radiator, or transmission fluid leaks which that would create a safety hazard for the applicable test, or bias test results. Such conditions shall cause the vehicle to be rejected from testing.

4. For vehicles receiving a test while operating on a dynamometer, the vehicle shall be rejected from testing if drive wheel tire tread wear indicators, tire cords, bubbles, cuts, or other damage are visible. Such vehicles shall be rejected from testing if space-saver spare tires are being used on a drive axle or if they do not have reasonably sized tires on the drive axle or axles based on dynamometer manufacturer safety criteria or if the set of tires is a mixture of radial and bias ply. Vehicles may be rejected if they have different sized tires on the drive axle or axles. Drive wheel tires shall be checked for appropriate tire pressure and adjusted as necessary as recommended by the tire or vehicle manufacturer.

5. The vehicle shall be rejected from testing if the fuel filler cap (gas cap) is missing or cannot be removed.

6. The vehicle shall be rejected from testing if a known, emissions-related, manufacturers recall has not been satisfied according to Part XI (9VAC5-91-720 et seq.).

7. Vehicles that are overheated shall be rejected from testing. Vehicles that indicate that an overheated condition will be achieved during testing may be rejected from testing at the discretion of the inspector.

8. Provided the OBD provisions of subdivision G 3 b of this section are being implemented, OBD vehicles shall be rejected from testing for any of the following:

a. The OBD data link cannot be accessed physically or electronically.

b. The testing equipment indicates that the OBD system is in a "not ready" status. A "not ready" status shall be indicated by the following:

(1) For model year 1996 through 2000, three or more monitors indicate "not ready."

(2) For model year 2001 and newer, two or more monitors indicate "not ready."

(3) For vehicles that failed the emissions inspection for a catalytic converter related fault code, and the catalyst monitor indicates "not ready" during a reinspection.

c. The director, based on information discovered in this or other state programs or received from motor vehicle manufacturers or the EPA, may determine that a "not ready" status is indicated by more than the minimum number of monitors that indicate "not ready" as set forth in subdivision 8 b of this subsection. The catalyst monitor or oxygen sensor monitor, or both, are not supported, except for models exempt by the director.

d. The OBD system is unable to communicate successfully with the analyzer system.

e. The OBD system indicates evidence of tampering.

f. The director may adjust the number of "not ready" monitors required for rejection from testing for specific vehicle models based upon information from this program or other state programs, vehicle manufacturers, or the EPA.

D. The emissions inspection procedure shall be performed under the following conditions:

1. For vehicles subject to exhaust emissions testing, the entire vehicle shall be in normal operating condition as indicated by a temperature gauge or touch test on the radiator hose. If ASM testing is performed, a cooling fan shall be directed at the engine cooling system if the ambient temperature exceeds 72°F.

2. The inspection shall be performed with the transmission in park or neutral for OBD testing or for two-speed idle testing, or in drive (if automatic), or the appropriate gear to achieve necessary RPM range (if manual) for ASM testing; and with all accessories off.

3. All electronic and mechanical testing equipment shall be properly attached according to vehicle and analyzer system manufacturer requirements and instructions.

4. For the purpose of conducting the evaporative system pressure test, or gas cap pressure test, or both, the vehicle may be turned off unless the vehicle manufacturer has instructed otherwise.

5. 4. For vehicles subject to exhaust emissions testing, the analyzer probe shall be properly inserted into the exhaust system.

a. The analyzer probe shall be inserted into the tailpipe as recommended by the gas analyzer manufacturer for a quality sample, or at least 10 inches if not specified by the manufacturer.

b. If a baffle or screen prevents probe insertion to an adequate depth, a suitable probe adapter or extension boot which effectively lengthens the tail pipe must be used.

c. If the vehicle is equipped with multiple unique exhaust outlets, a suitable analyzer system manufacturer recommended adapter or other apparatus shall be used in order to provide a single supply of the sample exhaust to the gas analyzer.

d. Vehicle exhaust shall be vented safely out of the inspection area and facility.

6. 5. If the vehicle stops running or the engine stalls during the test it shall be started as soon as possible and, for vehicles subject to exhaust emissions testing, shall be running for at least 30 seconds prior to the restart of the test.

7. 6. For vehicles subject to exhaust emissions testing, the exhaust test shall be terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time for the applicable test, or if CO plus CO2 concentration falls below 6.0% as determined by the analyzer system.

8. 7. Each emissions inspection, whether initial or retest, shall be conducted in its entirety with the exception of: (i) conditions which require that the vehicle be rejected from testing in accordance with 9VAC5-91-420 subsection C of this section, (ii) invalid test conditions, or (iii) conditions beyond the emissions inspector's control that cause the test to be aborted.

E. In consideration of maintaining inspection integrity:

1. The temperature of the inspection area shall be between 41°F and 110°F during the inspection. Inspection area temperatures shall be accurately measured in a well-ventilated location away from vehicle engine and exhaust heat sources and out of direct sunlight. The analyzer system shall not be operated when the temperature of the inspection area is not within the range stated above.

2. The analyzer system shall be kept in a stable environment which affords adequate protection from the weather and local sources of hydrocarbons or other pollutants that may interfere with gas analyzer performance or accuracy of test results, or both.

3. The electrical supply to the analyzer system shall be able to meet the manufacturer's requirements for voltage and frequency stability.

4. The inspection location shall meet all applicable zoning requirements.

5. The analyzer system shall be operated according to quality assurance procedures and other procedures approved by the department.

F. The emissions inspector shall accurately identify and enter vehicle information, visual component and visible smoke inspection results as applicable for vehicle emissions inspection records. The data entered into the certified analyzer system and recorded on the certificate of vehicle emissions inspection shall be the data from the vehicle being inspected and must be obtained from that vehicle.

G. The emissions inspector shall perform an inspection of the emissions control systems. The inspection shall include the following:

1. An examination of the emissions control information decal (sticker) under the hood, reference manual, and applications guide to determine if the vehicle, as manufactured or certified for sale or use within the United States, should be equipped with a catalytic converter system, air injection system, fuel evaporative emissions control system, positive crankcase ventilation system, exhaust gas recirculation valve, on-board diagnostic system, or thermostatic air cleaner system, as appropriate.

2. Based on the determinations made in 9VAC5-91-420 G subdivision 1 of this subsection, a visual inspection for the presence and operability of the catalytic converter system and, for vehicles subject to exhaust emissions testing, the air injection system, fuel evaporative emissions control system, positive crankcase ventilation system, exhaust gas recirculation system and thermostatic air cleaner system. If any of these parts or systems are inoperable, or have been removed or damaged, or rendered inoperable, the vehicle will not qualify for an emissions inspection approval or waiver. If systems are missing which the reference manual or applications guide indicates should be present, the motor vehicle manufacturer's emissions control information provided for that vehicle shall apply. The inspector shall enter the result of the visual inspection, "pass," "fail," or "not applicable" as appropriate into the certified analyzer system. The department may issue a temporary waiver because of the unavailability of component parts listed in subdivision 2 of this subsection if it is determined that the subject components or parts are not available provided the following conditions have been met:

a. The owner of the vehicle obtains a signed statement from the manufacturer's dealer or automotive parts source that supplies parts for the vehicle model indicating the nonavailability of such parts.

b. The statement submitted must be on letterhead or other official form or document and signed by an officer, owner or other responsible official of the automotive parts source.

c. The statement must identify the parts by description and part number and must indicate whether the parts are not currently stocked, have been superseded by other parts, or are out of production.

d. The department may conduct an independent investigation to locate any such parts or to verify the information on the statement prior to the issuance of any vehicle inspection report. The vehicle shall be held to all applicable inspection parameters, test type and standards or other conditions with the exception of the emissions control components and parts that have been verified as unavailable.

e. Any additional requirements to repair the vehicle to meet the applicable emissions standards or to qualify for an emissions inspection waiver under 9VAC5-91-420 N subsection M of this section shall apply.

f. If the department is able to determine that (i) the unavailable part, or parts, is the only method of controlling the emissions for which the vehicle has failed an emissions inspection or (ii) no other repairs will be effective in reducing such emissions, the department may issue a temporary waiver notwithstanding the provisions of 9VAC5-91-420 N subsection M of this section.

3. For OBD vehicles, an electronic inspection of the applicable on-board diagnostic (OBD) system according to manufacturer specifications and procedures approved by the EPA. The exhaust emissions test may also be performed on a limited basis as specified by the department for quality control or program evaluation purposes.

a. Pending availability and installation of necessary hardware and software, emissions-related results of sensing of OBD systems for OBD vehicles shall be recorded in the inspection record in addition to the exhaust emissions test procedures and reported to the customer. The OBD results shall not cause the vehicle to be rejected from testing or to fail the emissions inspection.

b. Beginning October 1, 2002, or a later date as determined by the department pending availability and installation of necessary hardware and software, emissions-related a. Emissions-related failure codes that cause the malfunction indicator lamp to be commanded "on" provided by OBD systems of OBD vehicles shall cause the vehicle to fail the emissions inspection. If testing equipment or visual inspection indicates that the malfunction indicator lamp is inoperable, the vehicle shall fail the emissions inspection. If the testing equipment indicates that the OBD system is in a "not ready" status, the vehicle shall be rejected from testing according to 9VAC5-91-420 subdivision C 8 of this section.

c. Beginning October 1, 2004, emissions-related b. Emissions-related failure codes that cause the malfunction indicator lamp to be commanded "on" as provided by OBD systems of light duty diesel powered vehicles of model years 1997 and newer shall cause the vehicle to fail the inspection. In addition, if the testing equipment or visual examination indicates that the malfunction indicator lamp is inoperable, the vehicle shall fail the emissions inspection. If the testing equipment indicates that the OBD system is in a "not ready" status, the vehicle shall be rejected from testing according to subdivision C 8 of this section. The director may increase or decrease the number of "not ready" monitors allowed based on an analysis of the program data, data from other state's programs and the EPA. If the director finds that the necessary hardware and software necessary to perform this OBD test are not available or installed by October 1, 2004, the effective date shall be October 1, 2006.

d. c. The department may exempt vehicle models or some classes of vehicles from OBD testing due to known OBD system problems or anomalies associated with such vehicles. If exempted from OBD testing, such vehicles shall receive the ASM or TSI test as applicable.

H. For vehicles otherwise subject to ASM testing based on model year and weight classification, the department may determine, due to complications identified in this or other state programs, or consultation with vehicle manufacturers, that certain vehicle makes or models shall be tested using the two-speed idle test in lieu of the ASM test or using a mixture of test modes such as an ASM 2525 coupled with an idle test.

I. For 1981 model year and newer vehicles with a GVWR up to and including 8,500 pounds, the exhaust emissions inspection procedure, if applicable, shall be an ASM, two-mode (ASM 5015 plus ASM 2525), loaded test, performed while the vehicle is operating on the analyzer system a dynamometer. The test shall be preceded by a 30-90 second preconditioning period, as determined by the department, using the ASM 2525 load simulation.

J. The exhaust emissions inspection procedure, if applicable, shall be a two-speed idle test as specified in section (II) of Appendix B of 40 CFR Part 51, Subpart S, and 9VAC5-91-440 for the following affected motor vehicles:

1. Vehicles with a GVWR greater than 8,500 pounds and up to and including 10,000 pounds;

2. Vehicles of model years 1980 and older;

3. Vehicles which employ full-time four wheel drive systems;

4. Vehicles which have traction control or anti-lock brake systems which have been determined by the manufacturer or the department to interfere with proper ASM testing; or

5. Vehicles which have some other configuration which has been determined by the department to interfere with proper ASM testing.

K. For vehicles originally factory equipped with an evaporative emissions control system, the vehicle's evaporative emissions control system shall be checked by performing an evaporative system pressure test, if applicable, and a fuel filler cap pressure test,, as applicable according to the phase-in of testing specified in 9VAC5-91-200.

L. K. In order to obtain a vehicle registration from the Department of Motor Vehicles, a certificate of emissions inspection shall be issued by an emissions inspector or the department indicating that the vehicle has either passed the emissions inspection or has received a waiver as specified below in subsections L and M of this section. A motor vehicle shall pass the emissions inspection and a certificate of vehicle emissions inspection and a motor vehicle inspection report indicating the vehicle has passed shall be issued if the following conditions are met:

1. The motor vehicle meets the applicable emissions control systems inspection requirements.

2. For vehicles subject to exhaust emissions testing, the vehicle emissions levels are the same as or less than the applicable exhaust emission standards in Part III (9VAC5-91-160 et seq.) and Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.), as applicable; or for vehicles subject to OBD, the vehicle passes the OBD test and exhaust emissions test, if applicable.

3. There are no visible smoke emissions from the vehicle engine crankcase or tail pipe, or both.

4. The vehicle passes the evaporative system pressure test, if applicable, and fuel filler cap pressure test.

M. L. If the vehicle fails the initial emissions inspection, a certificate of emissions inspection and a motor vehicle inspection report shall be issued indicating a failure, and the owner shall have 14 days in which to have repairs or adjustments made and return the vehicle to the emissions inspection station which performed the initial inspection for one free reinspection.

N. M. A certificate of vehicle emissions inspection waiver may be issued if all of the following conditions are met:

1. The vehicle passes the emissions control systems inspection described by subsection G of this section if applicable.

2. There are no visible smoke emissions from the vehicle engine crankcase or exhaust system, or both.

3. The vehicle passes the evaporative system pressure test, if applicable, and fuel filler cap pressure test.

4. 3. The vehicle continues to exceed applicable emissions standards after emissions related repairs required by 9VAC5-91-480 have been performed.

5. 4. An amount equal to or greater than the adjusted waiver cost for enhanced emissions inspection programs specified in subsection O subsection N of this section has been spent on emissions related repairs as specified in 9VAC5-91-480 provided that:

a. Proof that emission related repairs have been accomplished and costs for that specific vehicle have been provided to the emissions inspection station in the form of an itemized bill, invoice, paid work order, or statement in which emissions related parts or repairs, or both, are specifically identified, and to the extent practical, the inspector can confirm the repairs by visual examination;

b. The emissions inspector has been provided with a properly completed emissions repair data form indicating that the repair work was performed at a certified emissions repair facility and that the repairs were performed by or under the supervision or approval of a certified emissions repair technician at a certified emissions repair facility; and

c. The repair work was performed no earlier than 60 days prior to the initial inspection.

O. Beginning January 1, 2003, the N. The repair cost requirements for waiver eligibility for the enhanced emissions inspection program shall be $450 adjusted to reflect the increase in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and adjusted annually thereafter, as described at 40 CFR 51.360(a)(7) and § 46.2-1181 C of the Code of Virginia.

P. O. A waiver shall not be issued for a vehicle which is eligible for the emissions control systems performance warranty, under the provisions of § 207(b) of the federal Clean Air Act. In accordance with the provisions of § 207(b) of the federal Clean Air Act, the repair costs necessary for compliance with emissions standards specified in Part III (9VAC5-91-160 et seq.) and Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.) will be borne by the vehicle manufacturer or authorized dealer representative.

Q. P. The analyzer system shall generate an electronic record of the certificate of emissions inspection and transmit the appropriate data to the department and the emissions inspector shall make distribution of the vehicle inspection report to the customer.

R. Q. The customer shall be advised as specified below upon completion or termination of the inspection procedure.

1. If the test is terminated prior to completion, explain the problem with the vehicle or equipment and, if applicable, advise of free retest and time limit.

2. If the vehicle passes or receives a waiver, provide a motor vehicle inspection report and advise motorist of registration requirement and process, including the process to be used in case of interruption of the electronic data transfer system.

3. If the vehicle fails:

a. Give vehicle inspection report of failure to customer;

b. Advise of type of failure;

c. Advise of free retest and time limit;

d. Advise of repair facility information as provided by the department; and

e. Advise of waiver requirements, if applicable.

S. R. In cases of complaints or disputes between the emissions inspector or emissions inspection station and the customer, the customer shall be advised of the location and phone number of a department representative to be contacted to obtain assistance in resolving disputes.

9VAC5-91-430

9VAC5-91-430. ASM test procedure.

A. The ASM equipment shall be in proper operating condition according to the manufacturer's instructions prior to initiating a test.

1. The vehicle shall be maneuvered onto the dynamometer with the drive wheels positioned on the dynamometer rolls. Prior to test initiation, the rolls shall be rotated until the vehicle laterally stabilizes on the dynamometer. Vehicles that cannot be stabilized on the dynamometer shall be rejected from testing. Drive wheel tires shall be dried if necessary to prevent slippage.

2. Prior to initiating the ASM exhaust test procedure:

a. Vehicles that are also required to receive OBD or evaporative emissions testing shall be connected to the appropriate test equipment according to 9VAC5-91-450 and vehicle and analyzer system manufacturer instructions.

b. The OBD test, evaporative system pressure test, if applicable, and fuel filler cap pressure test, including second chance fuel filler cap pressure test if required, shall be performed prior to the ASM test.

3. When ambient temperatures exceed 72°F, testing shall not begin until the cooling fan is positioned and activated. The cooling fan shall be positioned to direct air to the vehicle cooling system, but shall not be directed at the catalytic converter.

4. Testing shall not begin until the vehicle is properly restrained for ASM testing.

5. Testing shall not begin until the exhaust ventilation system is properly functioning and attached or positioned as necessary.

6. To ensure that the motor vehicle and the dynamometer are in a warmed-up condition prior to official testing, a 30-90 second preconditioning, as determined by the department, shall be performed using the ASM 2525 load simulation.

7. Prior to each test or mode of a test, the analyzer system shall automatically select the load setting of the dynamometer.

8. Engine speed shall be monitored by means of an RPM sensor and recorded in the test record.

B. The test sequence shall consist of first chance and, if applicable, second chance tests in both ASM modes described in this section. Vehicles that fail the first chance test as described within 150% of the standard shall receive a second chance test. The department may increase this percentage to 200% when interim or final standards take effect according to 9VAC5-91-170 B. The second chance test shall consist of a repetition of the mode or modes that were failed in the first chance test. The department may eliminate the need to do a second chance test if the vehicle has already failed an emission component check.

C. The ASM 2525 mode timer shall start when the dynamometer speed (and corresponding power) are maintained at 25 ±1.0 miles per hour for five continuous seconds. If the acceleration simulation exceeds the tolerance specified by the analyzer system equipment manufacturer for more than five consecutive seconds after the mode timer is started, the test mode timer shall be reset. Should this happen a third time, the test shall be aborted and another started. The dynamometer shall apply the required torque load for 25.0 mph at any testing speed within the tolerance of 25 ±1.0 miles per hour (i.e., constant torque load over speed range). The torque tolerance shall be ±5.0% of the correct torque at 25 mph.

1. The analyzer system shall automatically select the proper load setting for the dynamometer and test standards, based on the Equivalent Test Weight (ETW) and the look-up table in Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.), using vehicle identification information.

2. If the dynamometer speed or torque falls outside the speed or torque tolerance for more than two consecutive seconds, or for more than five seconds total, the test mode time shall reset to zero and resume timing. The minimum mode length shall be 45 seconds. The maximum mode length shall be 90 seconds elapsed time.

3. During the 10 second period used for the pass/fail decision, dynamometer speed shall not fall more than 0.5 mph (absolute drop, not cumulative). If the speed at the end of the 10 second period is more than 0.5 mph less than the speed at the start of the 10 second period, testing shall continue until the speed stabilizes enough to meet this criterion.

4. The pass/fail analysis shall begin after an elapsed time of 30 seconds, which may include up to 15 seconds of the preconditioning time period if the ASM 2525 torque and speed tolerances are maintained. A pass or fail determination shall be made for the vehicle and the mode shall be terminated as follows:

a. The vehicle shall pass the ASM 2525 mode and the mode shall be immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds and 90 seconds, the 10 second running average measured values for each pollutant are simultaneously less than or equal to the applicable test standards described in Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.).

b. The vehicle shall fail the ASM 2525 mode and the mode shall be terminated if subdivision C 4 a of this section is not satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds.

5. Upon termination of the ASM 2525 mode, the vehicle and dynamometer shall immediately begin a transition to the speed required for the ASM 5015 mode. The dynamometer torque shall smoothly transition during the transition period and shall automatically reset to the load required for the ASM 5015 mode as specified in subdivision D 1 of this subsection section.

D. The ASM 5015 mode timer shall start when the dynamometer speed (and corresponding power) are maintained at 15 ±1.0 miles per hour for five continuous seconds. If the acceleration simulation exceeds the tolerance specified by the analyzer system manufacturer for more than five consecutive seconds after the mode timer is started, the test mode timer shall be reset. Should this happen a third time, the test shall be aborted and another started. The dynamometer shall apply the required torque for 15.0 mph at any testing speed within the tolerance of 15 ±1.0 miles per hour (i.e., constant torque load over speed range). The torque tolerance shall be ±5.0% of the correct torque at 15 mph.

1. The analyzer system shall automatically select the proper load setting for the dynamometer and test standards, based on the ETW and the look-up table in Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.), using vehicle identification information.

2. If the dynamometer speed or torque falls outside the speed or torque tolerance for more than two consecutive seconds, or for more than five seconds total, the mode timer shall reset to zero and resume timing. The minimum mode length shall be 40 seconds. The maximum mode length shall be 90 seconds elapsed time.

3. During the 10 second period used for the pass/fail decision, dynamometer speed shall not fall more than 0.5 mph (absolute drop, not cumulative). If the speed at the end of the 10 second period is more than 0.5 mph less than the speed at the start of the 10 second period, testing shall continue until the speed stabilizes enough to meet this criterion.

4. The pass/fail analysis shall begin after an elapsed time of 30 seconds. A pass or fail determination shall be made for the vehicle and the mode shall be terminated as follows:

a. The vehicle shall pass the ASM 5015 mode if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds and 90 seconds, the 10-second running average measured values for each pollutant are simultaneously less than or equal to the applicable test standards described in Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.). If the vehicle passed the ASM 2525 mode, the ASM 5015 mode shall be terminated upon obtaining passing scores for all three pollutants.

b. The vehicle shall fail the first chance ASM 5015 mode if subdivision D 4 a of this section is not satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds.

E. The inspector shall perform a second chance test on vehicles which fail either mode of the previous test sequence as follows:

1. If the vehicle fails the first-chance test, the test timer shall reset to zero and a second-chance test shall be performed, except as noted below. The second-chance test shall have an overall maximum test time of 145 seconds if one mode is repeated, an overall maximum time of 290 seconds if two modes are repeated.

2. If the vehicle failed only the ASM 2525 mode of the first chance test, then that mode shall be repeated upon completion of the first chance ASM 5015 mode. The repeated mode shall be performed as described in this section except that the provisions of subdivision C 5 of this section shall be omitted.

3. If the vehicle failed only the ASM 5015 mode of the first chance test, then the first chance ASM 5015 mode shall not end at 90 seconds but shall continue for up to 180 seconds.

4. If the vehicle failed both ASM 5015 and ASM 2525 modes of the first chance test, then the vehicle shall receive a second-chance test for the ASM 2525 mode immediately following the first chance ASM 5015 mode. If the vehicle fails the second-chance ASM 2525 mode, then the vehicle shall fail the test, otherwise the vehicle shall also receive a second-chance ASM 5015 mode test.

9VAC5-91-440

9VAC5-91-440. Two-speed idle test procedure.

A. The emissions inspection procedure shall be a two-speed idle test as specified in section (II) of Appendix B of 40 CFR Part 51, Subpart S.

1. The two-speed idle test shall consist of a test of the vehicle's exhaust emissions at idle and at 2500 rpm while the vehicle's gear selector is in neutral or park.

2. The idle test shall be administered after the 2500 rpm test. The tests shall be run consecutively.

3. The complete test shall consist of a first chance 2500 RPM mode test; followed by a first chance idle mode test. If either first chance mode fails, the first chance shall be followed by a preconditioning at 2500 RPM for up to three minutes and a second chance 2500 RPM mode test followed by a second chance idle mode. The department may eliminate the need to repeat a mode that passed the first chance test.

4. If the vehicle fails the first chance test, the second chance test and preconditioning shall be omitted if no exhaust hydrocarbon concentration less than 1800 ppm is detected within an elapsed time of 30 seconds. The department may eliminate the need to do a second chance test if the vehicle has already failed an emission component check.

5. Motor vehicle manufacturers and the Environmental Protection Agency may issue special test instructions for specific vehicle models which shall be followed in lieu of the test procedures specified in this section if such instructions are provided through the administrator.

6. In order to pass the two-speed idle test, the vehicle's exhaust shall not exceed the standards listed in 9VAC5-91-160.

7. Prior to initiating the two-speed idle exhaust test procedure the following conditions shall be met:

a. 7. Vehicles which are required to receive OBD or evaporative emissions testing shall be connected to the appropriate test equipment according to 9VAC5-91-450 and vehicle and analyzer manufacturer instructions. b. The OBD test, evaporative system pressure test, if applicable, or fuel filler cap pressure test, including second chance fuel filler cap pressure test if required, shall be performed prior to the two-speed idle test.

B. The idle test mode shall be performed as follows:

1. The vehicle transmission shall be in neutral or park and the parking brake applied; the engine shall be operating at curb idle and there shall not be any manipulation of the engine throttle mechanism.

2. The engine speed (RPM) shall be obtained and shall be between 400 and 1250 RPM for the duration of the test mode.

3. The pass/fail analysis shall begin after an elapsed time of 10 seconds.

4. The idle mode elapsed time shall be 30 seconds.

5. The exhaust concentrations shall be measured as percent carbon monoxide and parts per million hydrocarbons after stabilized readings are obtained and averaged over the last five seconds at the end of the idle test mode.

C. The 2500 RPM test mode shall be performed as follows:

1. The vehicle transmission shall be in neutral or park.

2. The vehicle engine speed shall be increased from idle to between 2200 and 2800 RPM and maintained at that level.

3. If the engine speed varies outside the parameters of 2200 to 2800 RPM for more than two seconds during a sampling period, the 2500 RPM mode shall be invalid and the 2500 RPM test shall be restarted. If the engine speed varies outside such parameters for more than a cumulative total of 10 seconds, the 2500 RPM test mode shall be invalid and another initiated.

4. The pass/fail analysis shall begin after an elapsed time of 10 seconds.

5. The 2500 RPM mode elapsed time shall be 30 seconds.

6. The exhaust concentrations shall be measured as percent carbon monoxide and parts per million hydrocarbons after stabilized readings are obtained and averaged over the last five seconds at the end of the 2500 RPM test mode.

9VAC5-91-450

9VAC5-91-450. Evaporative system pressure test and gas cap pressure test procedure. (Repealed.)

A. The evaporative system pressure test, if applicable, and fuel filler cap pressure test shall be performed according to the requirements of 40 CFR 51.357(a)(10) and (b)(3), or according to alternate procedures approved by the Environmental Protection Agency and approved by the department as part of a certified analyzer system.

B. The evaporative system pressure test shall be performed as follows:

1. The gas cap shall be removed and the appropriate adapter connected to the fuel filler inlet.

2. The gas cap shall be connected to an appropriate adapter, either as part of the adapter connected to the fuel filler inlet or as part of a separate gas cap pressure test rig.

3. The vapor hose or line in the fuel system connecting the evaporative canister to the fuel tank shall be clamped as close as possible to the canister. If the vapor line cannot be clamped to prevent vapor passage, it shall be disconnected from the canister and plugged to prevent vapor passage.

4. The fuel tank shall be pressurized with ambient air, or a suitable, equivalent gas, to a pressure of 14 inches, ±0.5 inches, of water.

5. The flow shall be turned off and the decay of pressure monitored for up to two minutes.

6. If at any time during the two minutes the fuel tank vapor system is being monitored the pressure drops from the starting pressure by more than six inches of water, the test shall be terminated and the vehicle shall be determined to fail the evaporative system pressure test.

7. After two minutes, the clamp shall be removed from the vapor line or the line shall be unplugged and the system monitored for a drop in pressure. If a pressure drop is detected, and the fuel tank vapor system did not fail the conditions in step 6 above, the vehicle shall pass the evaporative system pressure test. If the gas cap is also connected to the fuel filler neck adapter during the evaporative system pressure test, then the vehicle shall also pass the gas cap pressure test.

8. If no pressure drop was detected after unclamping or unplugging the vapor line, the fuel tank, and cap if attached to the fuel inlet adapter, shall be pressurized to a pressure of 28 inches, ±1.0 inches, of water, and steps 5, 6, and 7 above repeated.

9. At the termination of the test, the vapor hose and gas cap shall be reinstalled.

C. The gas cap pressure test shall be performed using the following procedures:

1. The gas cap shall be connected to an adapter on a separate gas cap pressure test rig and shall be pressurized to a pressure of 28 inches, ±1.0 inches, of water.

2. The flow shall be turned off and the decay of pressure monitored for up to two minutes.

3. If at any time during the two minutes the gas cap pressure test rig is being monitored the pressure drops from the starting pressure by more than six inches of water, the test shall be terminated and the vehicle shall be determined to fail the evaporative system pressure test; otherwise the vehicle shall pass the gas cap pressure test.

4. Vehicles equipped with more than one functional fuel tank shall have all gas caps tested.

D. If the vehicle fails the gas cap pressure test, a new gas cap may be installed and a second chance gas cap pressure test performed. Any failure and subsequent pass under this second chance testing must be recorded as part of the emissions inspection and reported to the customer.

9VAC5-91-570

9VAC5-91-570. Expiration, reinstatement, renewal and requalification.

A. Upon expiration, suspension, or revocation of the certification, the emissions repair technician shall no longer be authorized to perform emissions related repairs and have them apply toward emissions inspection waivers as described in 9VAC5-91-420 N 9VAC5-91-420 M.

B. Certification of an emissions repair technician is required as a result of revocation or expiration of the certification.

C. The director shall reinstate certification of an emissions repair technician at the end of a suspension period upon notification by the emissions repair technician that the suspension period has ended.

D. Requalification may be required at any time by the department based on the results of monitoring of the performance of the emissions repair technician or based on changes in applicable vehicle emissions control or repair technology. Failure to requalify within three months of notification shall result in expiration of the emissions repair technician certification.

E. The department will endeavor to notify technicians prior to the expiration of their certification. However, it is the responsibility of the emissions repair technician to maintain a current certification.

F. Upon expiration or notification of revocation or suspension, the technician shall surrender to the department all certification documents issued by the department.

G. Requalification requirements for all emissions repair technicians.

1. When necessary to update the technical qualifications of emissions repair technicians, or when technician performance monitoring indicates a need for additional training or other action, holders of emissions repair technician certifications shall be required to requalify.

2. Emissions repair technicians shall be required to requalify within 90 days from the date of written notification by the department. Notice of this requirement shall be mailed, by postal or electronic delivery, to the address of record as maintained by the department. The notice shall inform the person of the necessity of requalification and the nature of such skills, systems, and procedures requiring the training for the continued performance as an emissions repair technician. The notice shall give the name and location of training sources approved or accredited for purposes of retraining, the necessity of requalification by a certain date, and the nature and evidence of documentation to be filed with the department evidencing such requalification.

9VAC5-91-640

9VAC5-91-640. Applicability.

A. The provisions of this chapter apply to any system used for measuring or determining exhaust gases and evaporative emissions from motor vehicles in the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Program.

B. No owner or other person shall conduct emissions inspections required by the Virginia Vehicle Emissions Control Program pursuant to this chapter unless the analyzer system used to perform such inspections is certified by the department and such other required equipment meets the provision of this chapter.

9VAC5-91-650

9VAC5-91-650. Design goals.

A. The analyzer system shall be designed for maximum operational simplicity with a minimum number of operational decisions required by the emissions inspector in the performance of a complete emissions analysis including exhaust tests, evaporative system or fuel filler cap pressure tests, other emissions-related electronic or mechanical tests, or a combination of such tests.

B. The analyzer system shall be unaffected by ambient conditions in a typical emissions inspection station environment and its use shall be primarily for compliance inspection purposes. It shall be capable of providing emissions characteristics, independent of the inspection function, which can be used for vehicle diagnostic work as well.

C. The analyzer system shall be of a design which can perform both ASM and OBD testing using an analyzer certified under 9VAC5-91-680 with the addition of (i) a dynamometer, (ii) a NOX analyzer, (iii) evaporative system pressure test equipment, (iv) fuel filler cap pressure test equipment, and (v) a two-dimensional bar code reader and laser printer.

D. The analyzer shall be readily upgradable, without replacing the existing central processing unit, to incorporate on-board diagnostic (OBD) testing equipment and additional electronic vehicle identification equipment such as video and audio processes.

9VAC5-91-660

9VAC5-91-660. Warranty; service contract (effective during periods without a designated program coordinator).

A. A certified emissions analyzer system shall include, at a minimum, a one-year warranty, including parts and labor, which shall begin on the day that the emissions inspection station is permitted by the department, or that the emissions analyzer system is installed and operational, whichever is later. The disk drive system in the central processing unit shall be warranted for two years.

B. Emissions analyzer system manufacturers or vendors shall offer, at a price to be stated at the time such system is offered for sale, an extended warranty for an additional five years beyond the initial one-year warranty.

C. Emissions analyzer system manufacturers or vendors shall offer, at a price to be stated at the time such system is offered for sale, a maintenance service contract for the period of time remaining from the startup date to a date six years afterward.

9VAC5-91-665

9VAC5-91-665. Warranty: service contract with program coordinator.

A. On or after July 1, 2013, and upon designation of a program coordinator, a service contract approved by the department shall be established between each inspection station owner and the program coordinator providing, at a minimum, the following services:

1. The delivery, installation, calibration, and verification of the proper operating condition of an analyzer system that has been certified in writing by the department.

2. The instruction of all inspectors currently employed by the emissions inspection station at the time of installation to include but not be limited to:

a. The proper use, maintenance, and operation of the exhaust analyzer system;

b. The step‑by‑step procedure for performing an emissions inspection including OBD system test as appropriate;

c. The proper safety precautions for dynamometer use; and

d. The proper safety precautions for exhaust and calibration gas ventilation procedures.

B. The agreement shall provide for equipment maintenance and service or replacement of components of the certified analyzer system including dynamometer control devices, optional analyzer equipment, and dynamometer preventative maintenance. Repair or replacement of analyzer system components, other than minimal maintenance items established in the service contract, must be performed by the program coordinator or his authorized agent.

C. The fee to be charged by the program coordinator for each certified analyzer system shall be determined by the department and shall not exceed $3,500 per year, not including optional devices and services and minimal maintenance items established in the service contract.

D. The program coordinator may contract with the inspection station to provide services or equipment beyond the minimum requirements of the contract specified in subsection A of this section.

9VAC5-91-670

9VAC5-91-670. Owner-provided services. Inspection station owner requirements (effective during periods without a designated program coordinator).

A. The owner of an emissions inspection station shall enter into an agreement with a manufacturer or its authorized representative to provide the following services to the emissions inspection station at an initial fixed cost per analyzer system to be agreed upon by both parties.

1. Delivery, installation, calibration, and verification of the proper operating condition of an analyzer system which has been certified in writing by the department.

2. Training of all inspectors employed by the emissions inspection station at the time of installation in (i) the proper use, maintenance, and operation of the exhaust analyzer system, (ii) the step-by-step procedure for performing an emissions inspection and any evaporative emissions control system test or fuel filler cap pressure test required, and (iii) proper safety precautions for dynamometer use and exhaust and calibration gas ventilation procedures.

3. Annual updates, except those to be performed by department personnel, of the preexisting internal computer software of the analyzer as specified by the department including, but not limited to:

a. Changes to the emissions standards;

b. Changes to the listed vehicle codes;

c. Changes to the items in the printing system to correspond to changes in other requirements; and

d. Additions or changes to the emissions control equipment list.

B. Emissions inspection stations shall maintain their analyzer systems and dynamometer in good working condition such that they continue to meet certification requirements. Any further arrangements regarding service or maintenance are at the discretion of the emissions inspection station and the manufacturer or equipment vendor.

C. Repair or replacement of analyzer system components, other than for normal maintenance, must be performed by the analyzer system manufacturer or authorized agent.

9VAC5-91-675

9VAC5-91-675. Inspection station owner requirements (effective during periods with a designated program coordinator).

A. On or after July 1, 2013, and upon notification of designation of a program coordinator, the owner of an emissions inspection station shall enter into an agreement with the program coordinator according to the requirements of 9VAC5-91-665.

B. The station shall provide minimal maintenance items established in the service contract with the program coordinator. The inspection station shall supply any printer paper and toner and gas analyzer probe tips if needed.

C. The station shall supply a safe and fully functional dynamometer at the time certified enhanced analyzer system equipment is provided by the program coordinator. The station shall provide preventative maintenance of the dynamometer until a service contract with a program coordinator is established. Any further arrangements regarding dynamometer service or maintenance are at the discretion of the emissions inspection station and the program coordinator.

9VAC5-91-680

9VAC5-91-680. Certification of analyzer systems.

A. No analyzer system may be installed, sold or represented as a certified enhanced analyzer system without prior written certification by the department.

B. The analyzer system must have a certificate from the manufacturer that it meets the specifications of 40 CFR Part 85, Subpart W. This certification is necessary so that inspections performed using that analyzer system will qualify applicable vehicles for warranty repair coverage according to the provisions of § 207(b) of the federal Clean Air Act.

C. A person requesting the certification of an emissions analyzer system for use in the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Program shall make application to the department using procedures approved by the department.

D. The analyzer system, in order to become certified for use and be used for emissions inspections, shall conform to the equipment specifications and quality control requirements of EPA Technical Guidance document EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2 EPA420-B-04-011 (see 9VAC5-91-50) unless requirements contained therein are excluded or superseded by requirements of this chapter as enumerated below.

1. Vehicles powered by a fuel other than gasoline are not covered by ASM testing and references to emissions standards and correction factors to test such vehicles do not currently apply to ASM testing. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2, § 85.1(b)(1)(iv)).

2. The emissions inspection equipment is not required to incorporate vehicle brake sensing. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2, § 85.2(a)(5)).

3. 1. The preconditioning period for all vehicles undergoing an ASM test may be up to 90 seconds. System prompts regarding queuing time are unnecessary. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2 EPA420-B-04-011, § 85.2(b)(10)(i)). 85.2(b)(11).)

4. 2. All OBD vehicles shall have engine RPM and emissions-related information read through the OBD connection pending availability and installation of necessary hardware and software or January 1, 2003, whichever occurs last. Emissions inspection equipment shall have the necessary equipment to perform such testing by this date, or as specified in 9VAC5-91-420 G 3. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2, § 85.3(c)(5)).

5. 3. Vehicles subject to ASM testing shall receive the ASM 2525 and ASM 5015 modes in that sequence, followed by any second chance testing for which the vehicle is eligible in the same sequence. Second chance tests shall only be performed on vehicles which failed the first chance test within the software specifications of all applicable standards. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2 EPA420-B-04-011, § 85.2(d) and (e)). 85.2(e).)

6. 4. Dynamometers shall be calibrated through a coast-down procedure every 72 hours. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2 EPA420-B-04-011, § 85.4(b)(1)). 85.4 (b)(1).)

7. Analyzer calibration gas bottles shall be bar-coded or have bar-coded labels providing the specifications of the gas contained within and the analyzer system shall require a reading of these specifications, through the system bar code reader, whenever the bottles are changed. The calibration gases, therefore, may have up to a 5.0% blend tolerance. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2, § 85.4(d)(2)(iv)).

8. Analyzer audit gas bottles shall be bar-coded or have bar-coded labels providing the specifications of the gas contained within and the analyzer system shall require a reading of these specifications, through the system bar code reader, whenever the audit is conducted. The calibration gases, therefore, may have up to a 5.0% blend tolerance. (Ref. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2, § 85.4(d)(3)(iv)).

9VAC5-91-690

9VAC5-91-690. Span gases; gases for calibration purposes.

A. The gases used by emissions inspection stations in the emissions inspection shall be approved by the department and shall comply with the requirements of this section.

B. The gas concentrations, requirements, and tolerances of gases shall conform to the specifications contained in the EPA Technical Guidance document, EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2 EPA420-B-04-011, July 2004 (see 9VAC5-91-50), and each container shall bear a bar-coded label containing concentration and tolerance information as required for calibration and audit purposes.

C. Gases shall be supplied in containers which meet all the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration as specified in 29 CFR 1910.101, Subpart H.

D. Gases shall be manufactured in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency technical report, EPA-AA-TSS-83-8-B (see 9VAC5-91-50).

E. The station owner shall maintain a comprehensive, up-to-date list provided by the department, including addresses and phone numbers, of gas blenders approved by the department.

F. Each analyzer instrument shall be permanently labeled with its optical correction factor (also referred to as "C" factor, propane equivalency factor, or propane to hexane conversion factor), carried to at least two decimal places (within the gas accuracy limits), e.g., (0.52). Factor confirmation shall be made on each assembled analyzer by measuring both N-hexane and propane on assembly line quality checks.

9VAC5-91-700

9VAC5-91-700. Calibration of exhaust gas analyzers.

The department shall use, and require for use, gases and containers meeting the following parameters, blends, and specifications in the calibration of exhaust gas analyzers:

1. The calibration gases for standardizing instruments shall conform to the provisions outlined in EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2 EPA 420-B-04-011.

2. Analyzers Gas analyzers shall pass a two-point gas calibration for HC, CO, CO2 and NO, within 72 hours before each test.

3. Analyzers Gas analyzers shall pass a five-point gas audit for HC, CO, CO2, and NO at least two times within 12 months, and each time an analyzer system emissions measurement system, sensor, or other electronic components are repaired or replaced in response to an audit failure.

4. The director may reduce the frequency of calibrations in subdivision 2 of this section and audits in subdivision 3 of this section or both if evidence indicates accuracy would not be adversely affected.

9VAC5-91-710

9VAC5-91-710. Upgrade of analyzer system.

A. Any requirement to upgrade a certified emissions analyzer system beyond the specifications and requirements described in this chapter and EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2 EPA 420-B-04-011 shall apply to all such systems certified under this chapter and shall require an amendment to this chapter except for software or equipment upgrades provided under 9VAC5-91-670 or 9VAC5-91-675 as applicable.

B. Such upgrade may include, but not be limited to, enhanced on-board diagnostic (OBD) testing equipment, any evaporative system pressure test, and electronic vehicle identification systems such as video and audio processes.

9VAC5-91-720

Part XI
Manufacturer Recall

9VAC5-91-720. Vehicle manufacturer recall.

A. Motor vehicles subject to the enhanced emissions inspection program shall have any known emissions-related, vehicle manufacturer recall requirement satisfied prior to testing, as feasible and practicable pending the availability of an emissions recall database, installation of necessary hardware and software, and on a schedule as determined by the director.

B. Manufacturers' emissions-related recall requirements may be pursuant to either a "Voluntary Emissions Recall" as defined at 40 CFR 85.1902(d) or to a remedial plan determination made pursuant to 42 USC § 7541(c).

C. The motor vehicle owner shall provide proof of compliance with such recall requirement to the emissions inspector or to the department.

1. Such proof shall consist of dated receipts from a motor vehicle dealer or repair facility authorized by the vehicle manufacturer to perform such repair or adjustment required by the recall.

2. The motor vehicle owner is responsible for obtaining satisfactory resolution of any such recall requirement and retaining all pertinent records and data.

D. Notification by mail, by postal or electronic delivery, to the motor vehicle owner of an emissions-related manufacturer recall at least 60 days prior to the requirement for an emissions inspection shall constitute adequate notice. Such notice may be provided through motor vehicle registration renewal notification, motor vehicle dealer notification, notification by the department, or other means.

9VAC5-91-9999

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (9VAC5-91)

EPA Recommended Practice for Naming I/M Calibration Gas, EPA-AA-TSS-83-8-B, Environmental Protection Agency, September 1983

Acceleration Simulation Mode Test Procedures, Emission Standards, Quality Control Requirements and Equipment Specifications, EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-2, Environmental Protection Agency, July 1996

Acceleration Simulation Mode Test Procedures, Emission Standards, Quality Control Requirements and Equipment Specifications, EPA 420-B-04-011, Environmental Protection Agency, July 2004

The BOCA National Mechanical Code/1993, Eighth Edition, Building Officials & Code Administrators International, Inc.