Agencies | Governor
Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

Action:
Amendment of Regulations Pertaining to Biosolids After Transfer ...
Stage: Final
9VAC25-20-20

9VAC25-20-20. Purpose.

Section 62.1-44.15:6 of the Code of Virginia requires the promulgation of regulations establishing a fee assessment and collection system to recover a portion of the State Water Control Board's, Department of Game and Inland Fisheries', and the Department of Conservation and Recreation's direct and indirect costs associated with the processing of an application to issue, reissue, or modify any permit, permit authorization or certificate which the board has the authority to issue from the applicant for such permit, permit authorization or certificate. Section 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia requires the promulgation of regulations establishing a fee to be charged to all permit holders and persons applying for permits and permit modifications associated with land application of sewage sludge biosolids. Section 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia also requires the promulgation of regulations requiring the payment of a fee by persons land applying sewage sludge biosolids. These regulations establish the required fee assessment and collection system.

9VAC25-20-60

Part II
Payment, Deposits and Use of Fees

9VAC25-20-60. Due dates.

A. Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) and Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permits.

1. Application fees for all new permit applications are due on the day an application is submitted and shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Applications will not be processed without payment of the required fee.

2. For reissuance of permits that expire on or before December 27, 2004, the application fee for new permit applications as set forth in this regulation is due on the day the application is submitted.

3. An application fee is due on the day an application is submitted for either a major modification or a permit reissuance that occurs (and becomes effective) before the stated permit expiration date. There is no application fee for a regularly scheduled renewal of an individual permit for an existing facility, unless the permit for the facility expires on or before December 27, 2004. There is no application fee for a major modification or amendment that is made at the board's initiative.

4. Permit maintenance fees shall be paid to the board by October 1 of each year. Additional permit maintenance fees for facilities that are authorized to land apply, distribute, or market ] biosolids,; ] are in a toxics management program, and for facilities that,; ] or have more than five process wastewater discharge outfalls at a single facility (not including "internal" outfalls) shall also be paid to the board by October 1 of each year. No permit will be reissued or [ automatically administratively ] continued without payment of the required fee.

a. Existing individual permit holders with an effective permit as of July 1, 2004, (including permits that have been administratively continued) shall pay the permit maintenance fee or fees to the board by October 1, 2004, unless one of the following conditions apply:

(1) The permit is terminated prior to October 1, 2004; or

(2) The permit holder applied or reapplied for a municipal minor VPDES permit with a design flow of 10,000 gallons per day or less between July 1, 2003, and July 1, 2004, and paid the applicable permit application fee.

b. Effective April 1, 2005, any permit holder whose permit is effective as of April 1 of a given year (including permits that have been administratively continued) shall pay the permit maintenance fee or fees to the board by October 1 of that same year.

B. Surface Water Withdrawal (SWW) and [ Ground Water Groundwater ] Withdrawal (GWW) permits.

1. All permit application fees are due on the day an application is submitted and shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Applications will not be processed without payment of the required fee. No permit will be automatically administratively continued without payment of the required fee.

2. For reissuance of GWW permits that expire on or before March 27, 2005, the application fee for new permit applications as set forth in this regulation is due on the day the application is submitted.

3. Application fees for major modifications or amendments are due on the day an application is submitted. Applications will not be processed without payment of the required fee. There is no fee for a major modification or amendment that is made at the board's initiative.

C. Virginia Water Protection (VWP) permits.

1. VWP permit application fees shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Review of applications may be initiated before the fee is received; however, draft permits or authorizations shall not be issued prior to payment of the required fee. No permit or permit authorization shall be automatically administratively continued without payment of the required fee.

2. VWP application fees for major modifications shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Review of applications may be initiated before the fee is received; however, major modifications shall not be issued prior to payment of the required fee. There is no application fee for a major modification that is made at the board's initiative.

D. Sewage sludge Biosolids land application fees. Except as specified in this regulation, all fees are due on the day specified by the department. Payment of the fee shall be made by land appliers following notification by the department of the fee due. The department may bill the land applier for amounts due following the submission of the monthly land application report. Payments are due 30 days after receipt of a bill from the department. No permit or modification of an existing permit will be approved in the jurisdiction where payment of the established fee by the land applier has not been received by the due date; until such time that the fees are paid in full. Existing permits may be revoked or approved sources may be reclassified as unapproved unless the required fee is paid within 60 days of the notification by the department of the fee due by the due date. No permit will be reissued or administratively continued or modified without full payment of any past due fee.

9VAC25-20-90

9VAC25-20-90. Deposit and use of fees.

A. Sludge Management Fund. All sewage sludge biosolids land application fees collected from permit holders who land apply sewage sludge biosolids in the Commonwealth of Virginia, and fees collected from permit holders and persons applying for permits and permit modifications pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia shall be deposited into the Sludge Management Fund established by, and used and accounted for as specified in § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia. Payments to the Department of Conservation and Recreation for their costs related to implementation of the sewage sludge biosolids land application program and to localities with duly adopted ordinances providing for the testing and monitoring of the land application of sewage sludge biosolids will be made from this fund. Fees collected shall be exempt from statewide indirect costs charged and collected by the Department of Accounts and shall not supplant or reduce the general fund appropriation to the department.

B. State Water Control Board Permit Program Fund. All fees collected in response to this chapter and not deposited into the Sludge Management Fund shall be deposited into the State Water Control Board Permit Program Fund established by, and used and accounted for as specified in § 62.1-44.15:7 of the Code of Virginia. Payment to the Departments of Conservation and Recreation and Game and Inland Fisheries for permit applications they are required under state law to review will be made from this fund. Fees collected shall be exempt from statewide indirect costs charged and collected by the Department of Accounts.

9VAC25-20-100

Part III
Determination of Fee Amount

9VAC25-20-100. General.

Each application for a new permit, permit authorization or certificate, each application for reissuance of a permit, permit authorization or certificate, each application for major modification of a permit, permit authorization or certificate, each revocation and reissuance of a permit, permit authorization or certificate, and each application of a dry ton of sewage sludge biosolids is a separate action and shall be assessed a separate fee, as applicable. The fees for each type of permit, permit authorization or certificate that the board has the authority to issue, reissue or modify will be as specified in this part.

9VAC25-20-110

9VAC25-20-110. Fee schedules for individual VPDES and VPA new permit issuance, and individual VWP, SWW and GWW new permit issuance and existing permit reissuance.

A. Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permits. The following fee schedules apply to applications for issuance of a new individual VPDES permit or certificate. (Note: All flows listed in the table below are facility "design" flows.)

 

VPDES Industrial Major

$24,000

VPDES Municipal Major

$21,300

VPDES Municipal Major Stormwater/MS4

$21,300

VPDES Industrial Minor/No Standard Limits

$10,200

VPDES Industrial Minor/Standard Limits

$3,300

VPDES Industrial Stormwater

$7,200

VPDES Municipal Minor/Greater Than 100,000 GPD

$7,500

VPDES Municipal Minor/10,001 GPD- 100,000 GPD

$6,000

VPDES Municipal Minor/1,001 GPD-10,000 GPD

$5,400

VPDES Municipal Minor/1,000 GPD or less

$2,000

VPDES Municipal Minor/1,000 GPD or less that includes - The authorization for land application [ , distribution, or marketing ] of biosolids or land disposal of sewage sludge

$5,000*

VPDES Municipal Minor Stormwater/MS4

$2,000

 

*For a new VPDES permit that includes authorization for land application [ , distribution, or marketing ] of biosolids or land disposal of sewage sludge, the $5,000 of the fee will be deposited into the Sludge Management Fund biosolids permit fee will be paid in addition to the required VPDES permit fee.

B. Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permits. The following fee schedules apply to applications for issuance of a new individual VPA permit or certificate. [ (Note: Land application rates listed in the table below are facility "design" rates.) ]

 

VPA Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

(Reserved)

VPA Intensified Animal Feeding Operation

(Reserved)

VPA Industrial Wastewater Operation/Land Application of 10 or More Inches Per Year

$15,000

VPA Industrial Wastewater Operation/Land Application of Less Than 10 Inches Per Year

$10,500

VPA Industrial Sludge Operation

$7,500

VPA Combined Sludge Operation - Industrial Sludge (excluding water treatment plant residuals) and Municipal Biosolids

$7,500 ]

VPA Municipal Wastewater Operation

$13,500

VPA Municipal Sludge Biosolids Operation

$5,000

All other operations not specified above

$750

C. Virginia Water Protection (VWP) permits. The following fee schedules apply to applications for issuance of a new individual and reissuance of an existing individual VWP permit or certificate. Only one permit application fee shall be assessed per application; for a permit application involving more than one of the operations described below, the governing fee shall be based upon the primary purpose of the proposed activity. (Note: Withdrawal amounts shown in the table below are maximum daily withdrawals.)

 

VWP Individual/Surface Water Impacts (Wetlands, Streams and/or Open Water)

$2,400 plus $220 for each 4,356 sq. ft. (1/10 acre) (or portion thereof) of incremental impact over 87,120 sq. ft. (two acres) ($60,000 maximum)

VWP Individual/Minimum Instream Flow - Withdrawals equal to or greater than 3,000,000 gallons on any day

$25,000

VWP Individual/Minimum Instream Flow - Withdrawals between 2,000,000 and 2,999,999 gallons on any day

$20,000

VWP Individual/Minimum Instream Flow - Withdrawals between 1,000,000 and 1,999,999 gallons on any day

$15,000

VWP Individual/Minimum Instream Flow - Withdrawals less than 1,000,000 gallons on any day that do not otherwise qualify for a general VWP permit for water withdrawals

$10,000

VWP Individual/Reservoir - Major

$35,000

VWP Individual/Reservoir - Minor

$25,000

VWP Individual/Nonmetallic Mineral Mining

$2,400 plus $220 for each 4,356 sq. ft. (1/10 acre) (or portion thereof) of incremental impact over 87,120 sq. ft. (two acres) ($7,500 maximum)

D. Surface Water Withdrawal (SWW) permits or certificates issued in response to Chapter 24 (§ 62.1-242 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. The following fee schedules apply to applications for issuance of a new individual, and reissuance of an existing individual SWW permit or certificate.

 

Agricultural withdrawal not exceeding 150 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal greater than 150 million gallons but less than 300 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal of 300 million gallons or greater in any single month

(Reserved)

Surface Water Withdrawal

$12,000

E. [ Ground Water Groundwater ] Withdrawal (GWW) Permits issued in response to Chapter 25 (§ 62.1-254 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. The following fee schedules apply to applications for issuance of a new individual, and reissuance of an existing individual GWW permit or certificate.

 

Agricultural withdrawal not exceeding 150 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal greater than 150 million gallons but less than 300 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal of 300 million gallons or greater in any single month

(Reserved)

Ground Water Groundwater ] Withdrawal/Initial Permit for an Existing Withdrawal Based Solely on Historic Withdrawals

$1,200

Ground Water Groundwater ] Withdrawal

$6,000

9VAC25-20-120

9VAC25-20-120. Fee schedules for major modification of individual permits or certificates requested by the permit or certificate holder.

A. The following fee schedules apply to applications for major modification of an individual permit or certificate requested by the permit or certificate holder:

1. Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permits. The application fees listed in the table below apply to a major modification that occurs (and becomes effective) before the stated permit expiration date. [ (Note: All flows listed in the table below are facility "design" flows.) ]

 

VPDES Industrial Major

$12,000

VPDES Municipal Major

$10,650

VPDES Municipal Major Stormwater/MS4

$5,150

VPDES Industrial Minor/No Standard Limits

$5,100

VPDES Industrial Minor/Standard Limits

$3,300

VPDES Industrial Stormwater

$3,600

VPDES Municipal Minor/Greater Than 100,000 GPD

$3,750

VPDES Municipal Minor/10,001 GPD - 100,000 GPD

$3,000

VPDES Municipal Minor/1,001 GPD - 10,000 GPD

$2,700

VPDES Municipal - modification relating to the authorization for land application, distribution, or marketing ] of biosolids or land disposal of sewage sludge

$1,000*

VPDES Municipal Minor/1,000 GPD or Less

$1,000

VPDES Municipal Minor Stormwater/MS4

$1,000

 

*The fee for modification of a VPDES permit due to changes relating to authorization for land application [ , distribution, or marketing ] of biosolids or land disposal of sewage sludge shall be $1,000, notwithstanding other modification fees incurred. The modification fee shall apply forthe any ] addition of land application sites to a permitwhen a public meeting is required as specified in 9VAC25-31-290 I 2 ].

2. Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permits. The application fees listed in the table below apply to a major modification that occurs (and becomes effective) before the stated permit expiration date. (Note: Land application rates listed in the table below are facility "design" rates.)

 

VPA Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

(Reserved)

VPA Intensified Animal Feeding Operation

(Reserved)

VPA Industrial Wastewater Operation/Land Application of 10 or More Inches Per Year

$7,500

VPA Industrial Wastewater Operation/Land Application of Less Than 10 Inches Per Year

$5,250

VPA Industrial Sludge Operation

$3,750 [ 1

VPA Combined Sludge Operation - Industrial Sludges (excluding water treatment plant residuals) and Municipal Biosolids

$3,7501 ]

VPA Municipal Wastewater Operation

$6,750

VPA Municipal Sludge Biosolids Operation

$1,000 [ *1, 2 ]

All other operations not specified above

$375

 

*1 ] The modification fee shall apply forthe any ] addition of land application sites to a permitwhen a public meeting is required as specified in 9VAC25-32-140 C 2 ].

2When adding any industrial source (excluding water treatment plant residuals) to a permit that only authorizes the land application of municipal biosolids, the modification fee for a VPA combined sludge operation shall apply. ]

3. Virginia Water Protection (VWP) permits. (Note: Only one permit application fee shall be assessed per application; for a permit application involving more than one of the operations described below, the governing fee shall be based upon the primary purpose of the proposed activity.)

 

VWP Individual/Surface Water Impacts (Wetlands, Streams and/or Open Water)

$1,200 plus $110 for each 4,356 sq. ft. (1/10 acre) (or portion thereof) of incremental impact over 87,120 sq. ft. (two acres) ($30,000 maximum)

VWP Individual/Minimum Instream Flow

$5,000

VWP Individual/Reservoir (Major or Minor)

$12,500

VWP Individual/Nonmetallic Mineral Mining

$1,200 plus $110 for each 4,356 sq. ft. (1/10 acre) (or portion thereof) of incremental impact over 87,120 sq. ft. (two acres) ($3,750 maximum)

4. Surface Water Withdrawal (SWW) permits or certificates issued in response to Chapter 24 (§ 62.1-242 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

 

Agricultural withdrawal not exceeding 150 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal greater than 150 million gallons but less than 300 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal of 300 million gallons or greater in any single month

(Reserved)

Surface Water Withdrawal

$6,000

5. [ Ground Water Groundwater ] Withdrawal (GWW) Permits issued in response to Chapter 25 (§ 62.1-254 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

 

Agricultural withdrawal not exceeding 150 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal greater than 150 million gallons but less than 300 million gallons in any single month

(Reserved)

Agricultural withdrawal of 300 million gallons or greater in any single month

(Reserved)

Ground Water Groundwater ] Withdrawal/Initial Permit for an Existing Withdrawal Based Solely on Historic Withdrawals

$600

Ground Water Groundwater ] Withdrawal

$3,000

B. All rates listed in the tables provided in this section are facility "design" rates unless noted otherwise. ]

9VAC25-20-142

9VAC25-20-142. Permit maintenance fees.

A. The following annual permit maintenance fees apply to each individual VPDES and VPA permit, including expired permits that have been administratively continued, except those exempted by 9VAC25-20-50 B or 9VAC25-20-60 A 4:

1. Base fee rate for Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permitted facilities. (Note: All flows listed in the table below are facility "design" flows.)

 

VPDES Industrial Major

$7,876

 

VPDES Municipal Major/Greater Than 10 MGD

$7,794

 

VPDES Municipal Major/2 MGD - 10 MGD

$7,138

 

VPDES Municipal Major/Less Than 2 MGD

$6,317

 

VPDES Municipal Major Stormwater/MS4

$6,235

 

VPDES Industrial Minor/No Standard Limits

$3,347

 

VPDES Industrial Minor/Standard Limits

$1,969

 

VPDES Industrial Minor/Water Treatment System

$1,969

 

VPDES Industrial Stormwater

$2,363

 

VPDES Municipal Minor/Greater Than 100,000 GPD

$2,461

 

VPDES Municipal Minor/10,001 GPD - 100,000 GPD

$1,969

 

VPDES Municipal Minor/1,001 GPD - 10,000 GPD

$1,772

 

VPDES Municipal Minor/1,000 GPD or Less

$656

 

VPDES Municipal Major – land application of biosolids or land disposal of sewage sludge

$1,000*

 

VPDES Municipal Minor Stormwater/MS4

$656

 

*The maintenance fee for the authorization of land application of biosolids or land disposal of sewage sludge shall be $1,000, in addition to the VPDES municipal maintenance fee, if land application of biosolids or land disposal of sewage sludge has occurred in the 12 months preceding the maintenance fee due date.

2. Base fee rate for Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permits. [ (Note: Land application rates listed in the table below are facility "design" rates.) ]

 

VPA Industrial Wastewater Operation/Land Application of 10 or More Inches Per Year

$2,461

 

VPA Industrial Wastewater Operation/Land Application of Less Than 10 Inches Per Year

$1,723

 

VPA Industrial Sludge Operation

$1,231

 

VPA Combined Sludge Operation - Industrial Sludges (excluding water treatment plant residuals) and Municipal Biosolids

$1,231 ]

 

VPA Municipal Wastewater Operation

$2,215

 

VPA Municipal Sludge Biosolids Operation

$1,231$500 $100 ]

 

VPA Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

(Reserved)

 

VPA Intensified Animal Feeding Operation

(Reserved)

 

All other operations not specified above

$123

3. The amount of the annual permit maintenance fee due from the owner for VPDES and VPA permits for a specified year as required by 9VAC25-20-40 C shall be calculated according to the following formulae:

 

F =

B x C

 

C =

1 + ∆CPI

 

∆CPI =

CPI - 215.15

215.15

where Where ]:

F = the permit maintenance fee amount due for the specified calendar year, expressed in dollars.

B = the base fee rate for the type of VPDES or VPA permit from subdivisions subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection, expressed in dollars.

C = the Consumer Price Index adjustment factor.

∆CPI = the difference between CPI and 215.15 (the average of the Consumer Price Index values for all-urban consumers for the 12-month period ending on April 30, 2009), expressed as a proportion of 215.15.

CPI = the average of the Consumer Price Index values for all-urban consumers for the 12-month period ending on April 30 of the calendar year before the specified year for which the permit maintenance fee is due. (The Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers is published by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. All items, CUUR0000SA0).

For example, if calculating the 2010 permit maintenance fee (F) for a VPDES Industrial Major source:

CPI = 215.15 (the average of CPI values from May 1, 2008, to April 30, 2009, inclusive would be used for the 2010 permit maintenance fee calculation).

∆CPI = zero for the 2010 permit maintenance fee calculation (i.e., (CPI - 215.15)/215.15 = (215.15 - 215.15)/215.15 = 0). (Note: ∆CPI for other years would not be zero.)

C = 1.0 for the 2010 permit maintenance fee calculation (i.e., 1 + ∆CPI = 1 + 0 = 1.0).

B = $7,876 (i.e. the value for a VPDES Industrial Major source, taken from subdivision 1 of this subsection).

F = $7,876 for the 2010 permit maintenance fee calculation for this VPDES Industrial Major source (i.e., $7,876 x 1.0 = $7,876).

4. Permit maintenance fees (F) calculated for each facility shall be rounded to the nearest dollar.

5. The total amount of permit fees collected by the board (permit maintenance fees plus permit application fees) shall not exceed 50% of direct costs for administration, compliance, and enforcement of VPDES and VPA permits. The director shall take whatever action is necessary to ensure that this limit is not exceeded.

B. Additional permit maintenance fees.

1. An additional permit maintenance fee of $1,000 shall be paid annually by permittees in a toxics management program. Any facility that performs acute or chronic biological testing for compliance with a limit or special condition requiring monitoring in a VPDES permit is included in the toxics management program.

2. An additional permit maintenance fee of $1,000 shall be paid annually by permittees that have more than five process wastewater discharge outfalls at a single facility (not including "internal" outfalls).

3. For a local government or public service authority with permits for multiple facilities in a single jurisdiction, the total permit maintenance fees for all permits held as of April 1, 2004, shall not exceed $32,818 per year.

C. If the category of a facility (as described in 9VAC25-20-142 A 1 or 2) (as described in subdivision A 1 or A 2 of this section) changes as the result of a permit modification, the permit maintenance fee based upon the permit category as of April 1 shall be submitted by October 1.

D. Annual permit maintenance fees may be discounted for participants in the Environmental Excellence Program as described in 9VAC25-20-145.

9VAC25-20-146

Part IV
Sewage Sludge Biosolids Fees and Reimbursable Costs

9VAC25-20-146. Established fees.

A. Land appliers shall remit the established fees to the department as specified in this regulation. The land appliers shall collect the required fees from the owners of the sewage treatment works and facilities that generate the biosolids. Such works and facilities shall be approved sources of biosolids in accordance with this regulation. Land application shall only include biosolids from approved sources as listed in the land application permit. The established fee shall be imposed on each dry ton of biosolids that is land applied in the Commonwealth of Virginia in accordance with 9VAC25-31 or 9VAC25-32.

B. The amount of the established fee and disbursement are as follows:

1. The fee shall be $7.50 per dry ton of biosolids land applied in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

2. Disbursement of the established fees collected by the department shall be made to reimburse or partially reimburse those counties, cities and towns with duly adopted local ordinances that submit documentation of reimbursable expenses acceptable to the department as provided for in this regulation.

3. Disbursement of the established fees collected by the department shall be made to reimburse the Department of Conservation and Recreation's costs for implementation of the sewage sludge biosolids application program.

9VAC25-20-147

9VAC25-20-147. Records and reports.

A. Records. Permittees shall maintain complete records of the land application activities and amounts of biosolids that they land apply in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Such records shall be maintained by the permittee for five years after the date of the activity in a form that is available for inspection by the department for five years after the date of the activity. Records of land application activities shall include the following at minimum information:

1. Name of permittee, DEQ permit number, and dates of activity.

2. Identification of land application site, including the county where taxes are remitted and permitted site identification name, letters and numbers, as appropriate DEQ control number.

3. The source of biosolids and approximate field area receiving those biosolids.

4. The amount of biosolids applied in dry tons and the method and calculations used to determine the reported value.

5. Dates and type of any interactions with local monitors and names of individuals involved in the interactions.

6. 5. Name of responsible representative of permittee and a statement signed and dated by that representative indicating that the information submitted has been verified by that representative as correctly reported in accordance with this regulation.

B. Reports and notification. The permittee shall submit a monthly report by the 15th day of [ the each ] month [ following the month that land application occurs for land application activity that occurred in the previous calendar month ], unless another date is specified in the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-80 I 4, following the month that land application occurs. That The report shall include (i) the recorded information listed in subsection A of this section and present (ii) a calculation of the total fee that is required in accordance with this regulation. The submitted report shall include a summary list of the total amount of biosolids applied and the calculated fee based on the land-applied biosolids for each county in which land application occurred in alphabetical order by county. [ If no land application occurs under a permit during the calendar month, a report shall be submitted stating that no land application occurred. ]

9VAC25-20-148

9VAC25-20-148. Reimbursable local monitoring costs.

The following describes the kinds of activities for which expenses may, if reasonable, A. Reasonable expenses for the following types of activities may be submitted for reimbursement:

1. Charges for reviewing the permit to identify potential health and environmental protection issues upon notification by the permittee that operations will be initiated on permitted sites.

2. Charges and expenses, including local travel for site monitoring, inspections, collection and delivery of biosolids or soil samples to a nearby laboratory and examination of records.

3. Charges for recordkeeping.

4. Charges for complaint and incident response.

5. Charges for biosolids and soil sample testing costs.

6. Charges for the training of local monitors.

B. Charges for site monitoring not associated with determining compliance with state or federal law or regulation are ineligible for reimbursement.

9VAC25-20-149

9VAC25-20-149. Reimbursement of local monitoring costs.

A. Reimbursement of local monitoring costs deemed reasonable by the department will be made in order of receipt of an acceptable invoice. Such invoices will be reimbursed for reasonable costs up to $2.50, as adjusted, per dry ton of biosolids land applied in a county during the period of time specified in the submitted invoice. If sufficient revenue exists from the fees collected monthly, then invoiced claims exceeding $2.50, as adjusted, per dry ton of biosolids land applied in that county, during the period of time specified in the submitted invoice, may be released for reimbursement Costs of up to $4.00 per dry ton of biosolids land applied in that a county during the month period of time that the reimbursable costs were incurred, based on the order of receipt of the invoice may be reimbursed with prior approval from the department.

A. B. Application. Local A local government must submit a reimbursement application to request reimbursement from the department. All information is to shall be clearly typed or printed and all required or supporting documents must be attached. The county administrator or designated local biosolids monitor shall sign and date the application where indicated. The original signed application with one copy of each of the supporting documents is to shall be [ forwarded submitted ] to the department. Applications may not be submitted by facsimile or through electronic means. A reimbursement invoice form as described in this regulation must be completed before a reimbursement application can be submitted. The invoice form must include all expenses for which reimbursement is requested during the designated time period.

B. C. Application forms and submittal. The application for reimbursement must be submitted within 30 days of the last day of the month in which the reimbursable activity occurred. All applications received after this time frame will be ineligible for reimbursement. The following is a description of the application forms and an explanation of their use. The application forms and detailed instructions can be obtained from the department.

1. Form 1 - Reimbursement Application. An invoice form shall be submitted with each application for reimbursement. The invoice form should shall list all reimbursable charges. To be reimbursed for eligible expenses, an applicant must provide documentation to demonstrate that the expenses were incurred. Invoices are acceptable proof of incurred expenses. Include legible copies of invoices Invoices signed by the local biosolids monitor or agent who performed or managed the monitoring activities shall be legible. All invoices are to include the following:

a. DEQ permit number and site identification;

b. Number or site address DEQ control number for application fields;

c. Biosolids contractor's name;

d. Date and type of activity monitored;

e. Name of biosolids monitor;

f. Number of hours to be reimbursed and charge per hour;

g. List of expenses for which reimbursement is sought; [ and ]

h. Type of sampling activity performed and associated laboratory expense vouchers.

2. The application requires the county administrator to certify that the responsible official has read and understands the requirements for reimbursement and that the application submitted is not fraudulent. The local monitor must attest to the accuracy and completeness of the information provided.

2. 3. Form 2 - Multiple Owners Payment Assignment Form. When there are multiple local governments as claimants, a separate, signed and notarized invoice form for each claimant must be filled out and submitted with the application.

Submittal of the original completed reimbursement application, including the application worksheets and the appropriate supporting documentation, should be accomplished by mailing these documents to: Department of Environmental Quality, Receipts Control, P.O. Box 1105, Richmond, VA 23218.

C. D. Processing applications.

1. If contacted by the department regarding an incomplete reimbursement application, an applicant will have 14 days from the date of the call or letter to submit the information requested and cure correct any deficiencies. Extensions of the 14-day deadline will not be granted. An application that does not contain all of the required information after the 14-day time frame may be rejected or processed "as is," which can result in complete denial or a partial reimbursement.

2. Only invoices pertaining to the monitoring activity claimed in the current application will be accepted. Costs omitted from previous claims are ineligible for reimbursement in subsequent claims. Likewise, invoices Invoices submitted in previous claims will are not be eligible documentation for reimbursement of costs in subsequent claims. To reduce the risk of disqualification of costs, costs for different monitoring activities should be invoiced separately. If possible, invoices should be structured so that costs are grouped according to task or activity.

D. E. Reconsideration process.

1. Claimants may submit a written response indicating why they believe costs denied on the reimbursement decision should be paid.

2. If the claimant disagrees with the decision in the reimbursement payment package, a notice of intent (NOI) to object and a reconsideration claim form must be submitted to the department within the filing deadlines specified in the reconsideration procedure package  

a. If filing deadlines are not met, the decision in the reimbursement payment package is final. This written objection is to shall be in the format specified in the reconsideration procedure package and explain the reasons for disagreement with the decisions in the reimbursement payment letter and supply any additional supporting documentation.

b. Upon receipt of this information and at the claimant's request, the department may schedule a reconsideration meeting to reevaluate the denied costs.

3. Claimants will be given an opportunity to contest the reimbursement decisions in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia). Within the filing deadline, the claimant must submit a written summary of the issues that will be contested using the reconsideration claim form.

4. The reconsideration procedures provide the department the opportunity to correct certain errors. The following types of errors can be corrected as follows:

a. Failure of the reviewer to verify an invoice form that was received prior to completing the verification package for the reimbursement.

b. Errors the reviewer makes in verifying an invoice form.

c. Failure of the claimant to submit all invoices.

5. Errors ineligible for reconsideration. Notwithstanding the above, some types of errors cannot be corrected using the reconsideration process. It is the responsibility of the claimant or consultant, or both, to ensure that all application forms (invoice forms, and sampling and testing verification) are completely and accurately filled out complete and accurate. Failure to exercise proper care in preparing an application The following types of errors may result in a denial of costs, which cannot be corrected through the reconsideration process, including:

a. Items omitted from the invoice form will not be eligible for reimbursement.;

b. Unverified sampling and testing results will not be eligible for reimbursement.;

c. No additions Additions or revisions to the invoice forms will be accepted from the claimant submitted after the reviewer forwards the verification package to the department.;

d. Using one invoice in multiple claims. Invoices submitted in an application cannot be used as documentation for reimbursement of costs in subsequent claims.;

e. The following are types of errors that cannot be corrected:

(1) e. Failure to claim performed work on the invoice. form;

(2) f. Failure to claim sampling and testing costs as authorized.; or

(3) Failure to claim all costs in a submitted invoice.

(4) Failure to submit to the reviewer all supporting documentation to demonstrate the necessity of work performed that exceeds expected activities. Such documentation must be submitted before the reviewer forwards the verification package to the department.

g. Failure to obtain prior approval from the department for costs that exceed $2.50 per dry ton of biosolids land applied.

9VAC25-20-9998

FORMS (9VAC25-20)

DEQ Water Division Permit Application Fee Form Effective January 1, 2008 (rev. 1/10).

Form 1 Biosolids Land Application Local Monitoring Expenses - Reimbursement Invoice (rev. 5/10).

Form 2 Biosolids Land Application Fee - Reimbursement Multiple Owners Payment Assignment (2007).

Form 3 Biosolids Land Application Fee - Reimbursement Notice of Intent to Seek Reconsideration (rev. 8/07).

Form 4 Biosolids Land Application Fee - Reimbursement Reconsideration Claim Form (rev. 8/07).

Department of Environmental Quality Water Division Permit Application Fee Form Effective January 1, 2008 (rev. 5/13).

Biosolids Land Application Local Monitoring Expenses Reimbursement Invoice, Form 1 (rev. 6/13).

Biosolids Land Application Local Monitoring Expenses Multiple Owners Payment Assignment, Form 2 (rev. 6/13).

Biosolids Land Application Fee Reimbursement Notice of Intent to Seek Reconsideration, Form 3 (rev. 8/07).

Biosolids Land Application Fee Reimbursement Reconsideration Claim Form, Form 4 (rev. 8/07). ]

9VAC25-31-10

Part I
Definitions and General Program Requirements

9VAC25-31-10. Definitions.

"Act" means Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the Clean Water Act [ (CWA) ], as amended, 33 USC § 1251 et seq.

"Administrator" means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or an authorized representative.

"Animal feeding operation" or "AFO" means a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met: (i) animals (other than aquatic animals) have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and (ii) crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.

"Applicable standards and limitations" means all state, interstate, and federal standards and limitations to which a discharge, a sewage sludge use or disposal practice, or a related activity is subject under the [ Clean Water Act (CWA) CWA ] (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) and the law, including effluent limitations, water quality standards, standards of performance, toxic effluent standards or prohibitions, best management practices, pretreatment standards, and standards for [ biosolids use or ] sewage sludge [ use or ] disposal under §§ 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 403 and 405 of CWA.

"Approval authority" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Approved POTW Pretreatment Program" or "Program" or "POTW Pretreatment Program" means a program administered by a POTW that meets the criteria established in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter and which has been approved by the director or by the administrator in accordance with 9VAC25-31-830.

"Approved program" or "approved state" means a state or interstate program which has been approved or authorized by EPA under 40 CFR Part 123.

"Aquaculture project" means a defined managed water area which uses discharges of pollutants into that designated area for the maintenance or production of harvestable freshwater, estuarine, or marine plants or animals.

"Average monthly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar month, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar month divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that month.

"Average weekly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar week, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar week divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that week.

"Best management practices (BMPs)" means schedules of activities, prohibitions of practices, maintenance procedures, and other management practices to implement the prohibitions listed in 9VAC25-31-770 and to prevent or reduce the pollution of surface waters. BMPs also include treatment requirements, operating procedures, and practices to control plant site run-off, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-31-540, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this chapter. Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight. ]

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.

"Bypass" means the intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment facility.

"Class I sludge management facility" means any POTW identified under Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter as being required to have an approved pretreatment program and any other treatment works treating domestic sewage classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the regional administrator, in conjunction with the director, because of the potential for its sludge use or disposal practices to adversely affect public health and the environment.

"Concentrated animal feeding operation" or "CAFO" means an AFO that is defined as a Large CAFO or as a Medium CAFO, or that is designated as a Medium CAFO or a Small CAFO. Any AFO may be designated as a CAFO by the director in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC25-31-130 B.

1. "Large CAFO." An AFO is defined as a Large CAFO if it stables or confines as many or more than the numbers of animals specified in any of the following categories:

a. 700 mature dairy cows, whether milked or dry;

b. 1,000 veal calves;

c. 1,000 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes but is not limited to heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;

d. 2,500 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;

e. 10,000 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;

f. 500 horses;

g. 10,000 sheep or lambs;

h. 55,000 turkeys;

i. 30,000 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;

j. 125,000 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

k. 82,000 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

l. 30,000 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system; or

m. 5,000 ducks if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system.

2. "Medium CAFO." The term Medium CAFO includes any AFO with the type and number of animals that fall within any of the ranges below that has been defined or designated as a CAFO. An AFO is defined as a Medium CAFO if:

a. The type and number of animals that it stables or confines falls within any of the following ranges:

(1) 200 to 699 mature dairy cattle, whether milked or dry;

(2) 300 to 999 veal calves;

(3) 300 to 999 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes but is not limited to heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;

(4) 750 to 2,499 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;

(5) 3,000 to 9,999 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;

(6) 150 to 499 horses;

(7) 3,000 to 9,999 sheep or lambs;

(8) 16,500 to 29,999 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;

(9) 37,500 to 124,999 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(10) 25,000 to 81,999 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(11) 10,000 to 29,999 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(12) 1,500 to 4,999 ducks, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system; and

b. Either one of the following conditions are met:

(1) Pollutants are discharged into surface waters of the state through a manmade ditch, flushing system, or other similar manmade device; or

(2) Pollutants are discharged directly into surface waters of the state that originate outside of and pass over, across, or through the facility or otherwise come into direct contact with the animals confined in the operation.

3. "Small CAFO." An AFO that is designated as a CAFO and is not a Medium CAFO.

"Concentrated aquatic animal production facility" means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria of this definition, or which the board designates under 9VAC25-31-140. A hatchery, fish farm, or other facility is a concentrated aquatic animal production facility if it contains, grows, or holds aquatic animals in either of the following categories:

1. Cold water fish species or other cold water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year but does not include:

a. Facilities which produce less than 9,090 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 20,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year; and

b. Facilities which feed less than 2,272 kilograms (approximately 5,000 pounds) of food during the calendar month of maximum feeding; or

2. Warm water fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year, but does not include:

a. Closed ponds which discharge only during periods of excess run-off; or

b. Facilities which produce less than 45,454 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 100,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year.

Cold water aquatic animals include, but are not limited to, the Salmonidae family of fish (e.g., trout and salmon).

Warm water aquatic animals include, but are not limited to, the Ictaluridae, Centrarchidae and Cyprinidae families of fish (e.g., respectively, catfish, sunfish and minnows).

"Contiguous zone" means the entire zone established by the United States under Article 24 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (37 FR 11906).

"Continuous discharge" means a discharge which occurs without interruption throughout the operating hours of the facility, except for infrequent shutdowns for maintenance, process changes, or other similar activities.

"Control authority" refers to the POTW if the POTW's pretreatment program submission has been approved in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC25-31-830 or the approval authority if the submission has not been approved.

"Co-permittee" means a permittee to a VPDES permit that is only responsible for permit conditions relating to the discharge for which it is the operator.

"CWA" means the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) (formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972) Public Law 92-500, as amended by Public Law 95-217, Public Law 95-576, Public Law 96-483, [ and ] Public Law 97-117 [ , and Public Law 100-4 ].

"CWA and regulations" means the Clean Water Act (CWA) and applicable regulations promulgated thereunder. For the purposes of this chapter, it includes state program requirements.

"Daily discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant measured during a calendar day or any 24-hour period that reasonably represents the calendar day for purposes of sampling. For pollutants with limitations expressed in units of mass, the daily discharge is calculated as the total mass of the pollutant discharged over the day. For pollutants with limitations expressed in other units of measurement, the daily discharge is calculated as the average measurement of the pollutant over the day.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

"Designated project area" means the portions of surface within which the permittee or permit applicant plans to confine the cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including, but not limited to, physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific evidence, is expected to ensure that specific individual organisms comprising an aquaculture crop will enjoy increased growth attributable to the discharge of pollutants, and be harvested within a defined geographic area.

"Direct discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality or an authorized representative.

"Discharge," when used without qualification, means the discharge of a pollutant.

"Discharge," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means "indirect discharge" as defined in this section.

"Discharge of a pollutant" means:

1. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to surface waters from any point source; or

2. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to the waters of the contiguous zone or the ocean from any point source other than a vessel or other floating craft which is being used as a means of transportation.

This definition includes additions of pollutants into surface waters from: surface run-off which is collected or channeled by man; discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances owned by a state, municipality, or other person which do not lead to a treatment works; and discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances, leading into privately owned treatment works. This term does not include an addition of pollutants by any indirect discharger.

"Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR)" means the form supplied by the department or an equivalent form developed by the permittee and approved by the board, for the reporting of self-monitoring results by permittees.

"Draft permit" means a document indicating the board's tentative decision to issue or deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate, or reissue a permit. A notice of intent to terminate a permit, and a notice of intent to deny a permit are types of draft permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination is not a draft permit. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.

"Effluent limitation" means any restriction imposed by the board on quantities, discharge rates, and concentrations of pollutants which are discharged from point sources into surface waters, the waters of the contiguous zone, or the ocean.

"Effluent limitations guidelines" means a regulation published by the administrator under § 304(b) of the CWA to adopt or revise effluent limitations.

"Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Existing source" means any source which is not a new source or a new discharger.

"Facilities or equipment" means buildings, structures, process or production equipment or machinery which form a permanent part of a new source and which will be used in its operation, if these facilities or equipment are of such value as to represent a substantial commitment to construct. It excludes facilities or equipment used in connection with feasibility, engineering, and design studies regarding the new source or water pollution treatment for the new source.

"Facility or activity" means any VPDES point source or treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other facility or activity (including land or appurtenances thereto) that is subject to regulation under the VPDES program.

"General permit" means a VPDES permit authorizing a category of discharges under the CWA and the law within a geographical area.

"Hazardous substance" means any substance designated under the Code of Virginia and 40 CFR Part 116 pursuant to § 311 of the CWA.

"Incorporated place" means a city, town, township, or village that is incorporated under the Code of Virginia.

"Indian country" means (i) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and including rights-of-way running through the reservation; (ii) all dependent Indian communities with the borders of the United States whether within the originally or subsequently acquired territory thereof, and whether within or without the limits of a state; and (iii) all Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same.

"Indirect discharge" means the introduction of pollutants into a POTW from any nondomestic source regulated under § 307(b), (c) or (d) of the CWA and the law.

"Indirect discharger" means a nondomestic discharger introducing pollutants to a POTW.

"Individual control strategy" means a final VPDES permit with supporting documentation showing that effluent limits are consistent with an approved wasteload allocation or other documentation that shows that applicable water quality standards will be met not later than three years after the individual control strategy is established.

"Industrial user" or "user" means a source of indirect discharge.

"Interference" means an indirect discharge which, alone or in conjunction with an indirect discharge or discharges from other sources, both: (i) inhibits or disrupts the POTW, its treatment processes or operations, or its sludge processes, use or disposal; and therefore (ii) is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation) or of the prevention of biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal in compliance with the following statutory provisions and regulations or permits issued thereunder (or more stringent state or local regulations): Section 405 of the Clean Water Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (including Title II, more commonly referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 USC § 6901 et seq.), and including state regulations contained in any state sludge management plan prepared pursuant to Subtitle D of the SWDA) the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 701 et seq.), the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC § 2601 et seq.), and the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (33 USC § 1401 et seq.).

"Interstate agency" means an agency of two or more states established by or under an agreement or compact approved by Congress, or any other agency of two or more states having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the control of pollution as determined and approved by the administrator under the CWA and regulations.

"Land application area" means [ , in regard to an AFO, ] land under the control of an AFO owner or operator, that is owned, rented, or leased to which manure, litter or process wastewater from the production area may be applied.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback area, where biosolids may be applied. ]

"Log sorting" and "log storage facilities" means facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with bark or after removal of bark held in self-contained bodies of water (mill ponds or log ponds) or stored on land where water is applied intentionally on the logs (wet decking).

"Major facility" means any VPDES facility or activity classified as such by the regional administrator in conjunction with the board.

"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors normally associated with biosolids or sewage sludge. ]

"Manmade" means constructed by man and used for the purpose of transporting wastes.

"Manure" means manure, bedding, compost and raw materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal.

"Maximum daily discharge limitation" means the highest allowable daily discharge.

"Municipality" means a city, town, county, district, association, or other public body created by or under state law and having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization, or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA.

"National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)" System" or "NPDES" means the national program for issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating, monitoring and enforcing permits, and imposing and enforcing pretreatment requirements under §§ 307, 402, 318, and 405 of the CWA. The term includes an approved program.

"National pretreatment standard," "pretreatment standard," or "standard," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means any regulation containing pollutant discharge limits promulgated by the EPA in accordance with § 307(b) and (c) of the CWA, which applies to industrial users. This term includes prohibitive discharge limits established pursuant to 9VAC25-31-770.

"New discharger" means any building, structure, facility, or installation:

1. From which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants;

2. That did not commence the discharge of pollutants at a particular site prior to August 13, 1979;

3. Which is not a new source; and

4. Which has never received a finally effective VPDES permit for discharges at that site.

This definition includes an indirect discharger which commences discharging into surface waters after August 13, 1979. It also includes any existing mobile point source (other than an offshore or coastal oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or a coastal oil and gas developmental drilling rig) such as a seafood processing rig, seafood processing vessel, or aggregate plant, that begins discharging at a site for which it does not have a permit; and any offshore or coastal mobile oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile oil and gas developmental drilling rig that commences the discharge of pollutants after August 13, 1979.

"New source," except when used in Part VII of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced:

(a) After promulgation of standards of performance under § 306 of the CWA which are applicable to such source; or

(b) After proposal of standards of performance in accordance with § 306 of the CWA which are applicable to such source, but only if the standards are promulgated in accordance with § 306 of the CWA within 120 days of their proposal.

"New source," when used in Part VII of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced after the publication of proposed pretreatment standards under § 307(c) of the CWA which will be applicable to such source if such standards are thereafter promulgated in accordance with that section, provided that:

1. a. The building, structure, facility or installation is constructed at a site at which no other source is located;

b. The building, structure, facility, or installation totally replaces the process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or

c. The production of wastewater generating processes of the building, structure, facility, or installation are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these are substantially independent, factors such as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant, and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source should be considered.

2. Construction on a site at which an existing source is located results in a modification rather than a new source if the construction does not create a new building, structure, facility, or installation meeting the criteria of subdivision 1 b or c of this definition but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process or production equipment.

3. Construction of a new source as defined under this subdivision has commenced if the owner or operator has:

a. Begun, or caused to begin, as part of a continuous on-site construction program:

(1) Any placement, assembly, or installation of facilities or equipment; or

(2) Significant site preparation work including clearing, excavation, or removal of existing buildings, structures, or facilities which is necessary for the placement, assembly, or installation of new source facilities or equipment; or

b. Entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or equipment which are intended to be used in its operation within a reasonable time. Options to purchase or contracts which can be terminated or modified without substantial loss, and contracts for feasibility, engineering, and design studies do not constitute a contractual obligation under this subdivision.

"Overburden" means any material of any nature, consolidated or unconsolidated, that overlies a mineral deposit, excluding topsoil or similar naturally occurring surface materials that are not disturbed by mining operations.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including, but not limited to, sanitation district commissions and authorities, and any public or private institution, corporation, association, firm or company organized or existing under the laws of this or any other state or country, or any officer or agency of the United States, or any person or group of persons acting individually or as a group that owns, operates, charters, rents, or otherwise exercises control over or is responsible for any actual or potential discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters, or any facility or operation that has the capability to alter the physical, chemical, or biological properties of state waters in contravention of § 62.1-44.5 of the Code of Virginia.

"Owner" or "operator" means the owner or operator of any facility or activity subject to regulation under the VPDES program.

"Pass through" means a discharge which exits the POTW into state waters in quantities or concentrations which, alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from other sources, is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation).

"Permit" means an authorization, certificate, license, or equivalent control document issued by the board to implement the requirements of this chapter. Permit includes a VPDES general permit. Permit does not include any permit which has not yet been the subject of final agency action, such as a draft permit or a proposed permit.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.

"Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance including, but not limited to, any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, landfill leachate collection system, vessel, or other floating craft from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agriculture or agricultural storm water run-off.

"Pollutant" means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials (except those regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 USC § 2011 et seq.)), heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water. It does not mean:

1. Sewage from vessels; or

2. Water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil and gas production and disposed of in a well if the well used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes is approved by the board, and if the board determines that the injection or disposal will not result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.

"Publicly owned treatment works" or "POTW" means a treatment works as defined by § 212 of the Act, which is owned by a state or municipality (as defined by § 502(4) of the Act). This definition includes any devices and systems used in the storage, treatment, recycling and reclamation of municipal sewage or industrial wastes of a liquid nature. It also includes sewers, pipes and other conveyances only if they convey wastewater to a POTW treatment plant. The term also means the municipality as defined in § 502(4) of the Act, which has jurisdiction over the indirect discharges to and the discharges from such a treatment works. ]

"POTW treatment plant" means that portion of the POTW which is designed to provide treatment (including recycling and reclamation) of municipal sewage and industrial waste.

"Pretreatment" means the reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to or in lieu of discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants into a POTW. The reduction or alteration may be obtained by physical, chemical or biological processes, process changes or by other means, except as prohibited in Part VII of this chapter. Appropriate pretreatment technology includes control equipment, such as equalization tanks or facilities, for protection against surges or slug loadings that might interfere with or otherwise be incompatible with the POTW. However, where wastewater from a regulated process is mixed in an equalization facility with unregulated wastewater or with wastewater from another regulated process, the effluent from the equalization facility must meet an adjusted pretreatment limit calculated in accordance with Part VII of this chapter.

"Pretreatment requirements" means any requirements arising under Part VII of this chapter including the duty to allow or carry out inspections, entry or monitoring activities; any rules, regulations, or orders issued by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works; or any reporting requirements imposed by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works or by the regulations of the board. Pretreatment requirements do not include the requirements of a national pretreatment standard.

"Primary industry category" means any industry category listed in the NRDC settlement agreement (Natural Resources Defense Council et al. v. Train, 8 E.R.C. 2120 (D.D.C. 1976), modified 12 E.R.C. 1833 (D.D.C. 1979)); also listed in 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix A.

"Privately owned treatment works (PVOTW)" means any device or system which is (i) used to treat wastes from any facility whose operator is not the operator of the treatment works and (ii) not a POTW.

"Process wastewater" means any water which, during manufacturing or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste product. Process wastewater from an AFO means water directly or indirectly used in the operation of the AFO for any of the following: spillage or overflow from animal or poultry watering systems; washing, cleaning, or flushing pens, barns, manure pits, or other AFO facilities; direct contact swimming, washing, or spray cooling of the animals; or dust control. Process wastewater from an AFO also includes any water that comes into contact with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding.

"Production area" means that part of an AFO that includes the animal confinement area, the manure storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area includes but is not limited to open lots, housed lots, feedlots, confinement houses, stall barns, free stall barns, milkrooms, milking centers, cowyards, barnyards, medication pens, walkers, animal walkways, and stables. The manure storage area includes but is not limited to lagoons, runoff ponds, storage sheds, stockpiles, under house or pit storages, liquid impoundments, static piles, and composting piles. The raw materials storage areas includes but is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and bedding materials. The waste containment area includes but is not limited to settling basins, and areas within berms and diversions that separate uncontaminated storm water. Also included in the definition of production area is any egg washing or egg processing facility, and any area used in the storage, handling, treatment, or disposal of mortalities.

"Proposed permit" means a VPDES permit prepared after the close of the public comment period (and, when applicable, any public hearing and administrative appeals) which is sent to EPA for review before final issuance. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.

"Publicly owned treatment works (POTW)" means a treatment works as defined by§ 212 of the CWA, which is owned by a state or municipality (as defined by § 502(4) of the CWA). This definition includes any devices and systems used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal sewage or industrial wastes of a liquid nature. It also includes sewers, pipes, and other conveyances only if they convey wastewater to a POTW treatment plant. The term also means the municipality as defined in § 502(4) of the CWA, which has jurisdiction over the indirect discharges to and the discharges from such a treatment works.

"Recommencing discharger" means a source which recommences discharge after terminating operations.

"Regional administrator" means the Regional Administrator of Region III of the Environmental Protection Agency or the authorized representative of the regional administrator.

"Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities" means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap.

"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures included in a permit, including an enforceable sequence of interim requirements (for example, actions, operations, or milestone events) leading to compliance with the law, the CWA and regulations.

"Secondary industry category" means any industry category which is not a primary industry category.

"Secretary" means the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers.

"Septage" means the liquid and solid material pumped from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar domestic sewage treatment system, or a holding tank when the system is cleaned or maintained.

"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied. ]

"Severe property damage" means substantial physical damage to property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to become inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural resources which can reasonably be expected to occur in the absence of a bypass. Severe property damage does not mean economic loss caused by delays in production.

"Sewage from vessels" means human body wastes and the wastes from toilets and other receptacles intended to receive or retain body wastes that are discharged from vessels and regulated under § 312 of CWA.

"Sewage sludge" means any solid, semisolid, or liquid residue removed during the treatment of municipal waste water or domestic sewage. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, solids removed during primary, secondary, or advanced waste water treatment, scum, domestic septage, portable toilet pumpings, type III marine sanitation device pumpings, and sewage sludge products. Sewage sludge does not include grit or screenings, or ash generated during the incineration of sewage sludge.

"Sewage sludge use" or "disposal practice" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use of biosolids, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Significant industrial user" or "SIU" means:

1. Except as provided in subdivisions 2 and 3 of this definition:

a. All industrial users subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and incorporated by reference in 9VAC25-31-30; and

b. Any other industrial user that: discharges an average of 25,000 gallons per day or more of process wastewater to the POTW (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater); contributes a process wastestream which makes up 5.0% or more of the average dry weather hydraulic or organic capacity of the POTW treatment plant; or is designated as such by the Control Authority, on the basis that the industrial user has a reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement.

2. The control authority may determine that an industrial user subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N is a nonsignificant categorical industrial user rather than a significant industrial user on a finding that the industrial user never discharges more than 100 gallons per day (gpd) of total categorical wastewater (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater, unless specifically included in the pretreatment standard) and the following conditions are met:

a. The industrial user, prior to control authority's finding, has consistently complied with all applicable categorical pretreatment standards and requirements;

b. The industrial user annually submits the certification statement required in 9VAC25-31-840 together with any additional information necessary to support the certification statement; and

c. The industrial user never discharges any untreated concentrated wastewater.

3. Upon a finding that an industrial user meeting the criteria in subdivision 1 b of this definition has no reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement, the control authority may at any time, on its own initiative or in response to a petition received from an industrial user or POTW, and in accordance with Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, determine that such industrial user is not a significant industrial user.

"Significant materials" means, but is not limited to: raw materials; fuels; materials such as solvents, detergents, and plastic pellets; finished materials such as metallic products; raw materials used in food processing or production; hazardous substances designated under § 101(14) of CERCLA (42 USC § 9601(14)); any chemical the facility is required to report pursuant to § 313 of Title III of SARA (42 USC § 11023); fertilizers; pesticides; and waste products such as ashes, slag and sludge that have the potential to be released with storm water discharges.

"Silvicultural point source" means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are operated in connection with silvicultural activities and from which pollutants are discharged into surface waters. The term does not include nonpoint source silvicultural activities such as nursery operations, site preparation, reforestation and subsequent cultural treatment, thinning, prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting operations, surface drainage, or road construction and maintenance from which there is natural run-off. However, some of these activities (such as stream crossing for roads) may involve point source discharges of dredged or fill material which may require a CWA § 404 permit.

"Site" means the land or water area where any facility or activity is physically located or conducted, including adjacent land used in connection with the facility or activity.

"Sludge-only facility" means any treatment works treating domestic sewage whose methods of biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal are subject to regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA, and is required to obtain a VPDES permit.

"Source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants.

"Standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal" means the regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA which govern minimum requirements for sludge quality, management practices, and monitoring and reporting applicable to sewage sludge or the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge by any person.

"State" means the Commonwealth of Virginia.

"State/EPA agreement" means an agreement between the regional administrator and the state which coordinates EPA and state activities, responsibilities and programs including those under the CWA and the law.

"State Water Control Law" or "Law" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Storm water" means storm water run-off, snow melt run-off, and surface run-off and drainage.

"Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity" means the discharge from any conveyance which is used for collecting and conveying storm water and which is directly related to manufacturing, processing or raw materials storage areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities excluded from the VPDES program. For the categories of industries identified in this definition, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant yards; immediate access roads and rail lines used or traveled by carriers of raw materials, manufactured products, waste material, or by-products used or created by the facility; material handling sites; refuse sites; sites used for the application or disposal of process waste waters; sites used for the storage and maintenance of material handling equipment; sites used for residual treatment, storage, or disposal; shipping and receiving areas; manufacturing buildings; storage areas (including tank farms) for raw materials, and intermediate and final products; and areas where industrial activity has taken place in the past and significant materials remain and are exposed to storm water. For the purposes of this definition, material handling activities include the storage, loading and unloading, transportation, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate product, final product, by-product, or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the plant's industrial activities, such as office buildings and accompanying parking lots as long as the drainage from the excluded areas is not mixed with storm water drained from the above described areas. Industrial facilities (including industrial facilities that are federally, state, or municipally owned or operated that meet the description of the facilities listed in subdivisions 1 through 10 of this definition) include those facilities designated under the provisions of 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 c. The following categories of facilities are considered to be engaging in industrial activity for purposes of this subsection:

1. Facilities subject to storm water effluent limitations guidelines, new source performance standards, or toxic pollutant effluent standards (except facilities with toxic pollutant effluent standards which are exempted under category 10);

2. Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 24 (except 2434), 26 (except 265 and 267), 28 (except 283), 29, 311, 32 (except 323), 33, 3441, 373;

3. Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 10 through 14 (mineral industry) including active or inactive mining operations (except for areas of coal mining operations no longer meeting the definition of a reclamation area under 40 CFR 434.11(l) because the performance bond issued to the facility by the appropriate SMCRA authority has been released, or except for areas of non-coal mining operations which have been released from applicable state or federal reclamation requirements after December 17, 1990) and oil and gas exploration, production, processing, or treatment operations, or transmission facilities that discharge storm water contaminated by contact with or that has come into contact with, any overburden, raw material, intermediate products, finished products, by-products, or waste products located on the site of such operations; (inactive mining operations are mining sites that are not being actively mined, but which have an identifiable owner/operator; inactive mining sites do not include sites where mining claims are being maintained prior to disturbances associated with the extraction, beneficiation, or processing of mined materials, nor sites where minimal activities are undertaken for the sole purpose of maintaining a mining claim);

4. Hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, including those that are operating under interim status or a permit under Subtitle C of RCRA (42 USC § 6901 et seq.);

5. Landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that receive or have received any industrial wastes (waste that is received from any of the facilities described under this subsection) including those that are subject to regulation under Subtitle D of RCRA (42 USC § 6901 et seq.);

6. Facilities involved in the recycling of materials, including metal scrapyards, battery reclaimers, salvage yards, and automobile junkyards, including but limited to those classified as Standard Industrial Classification 5015 and 5093;

7. Steam electric power generating facilities, including coal handling sites;

8. Transportation facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 40, 41, 42 (except 4221-25), 43, 44, 45, and 5171 which have vehicle maintenance shops, equipment cleaning operations, or airport deicing operations. Only those portions of the facility that are either involved in vehicle maintenance (including vehicle rehabilitation, mechanical repairs, painting, fueling, and lubrication), equipment cleaning operations, airport deicing operations, or which are otherwise identified under subdivisions 1 through 7 or 9 and 10 of this definition are associated with industrial activity;

9. Treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other sewage sludge or wastewater treatment device or system, used in the storage treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated to the disposal of sewage sludge that are located within the confines of the facility, with a design flow of 1.0 mgd or more, or required to have an approved pretreatment program. Not included are farm lands, domestic gardens or lands used for sludge management where sludge is beneficially reused and which are not physically located in the confines of the facility, or areas that are in compliance with § 405 of the CWA; and

10. Facilities under Standard Industrial Classifications 20, 21, 22, 23, 2434, 25, 265, 267, 27, 283, 30, 31 (except 311), 323, 34 (except 3441), 35, 36, 37 (except 373), 38, 39, and 4221-25.

"Submission" means: (i) a request by a POTW for approval of a pretreatment program to the regional administrator or the director; (ii) a request by POTW to the regional administrator or the director for authority to revise the discharge limits in categorical pretreatment standards to reflect POTW pollutant removals; or (iii) a request to the EPA by the director for approval of the Virginia pretreatment program.

"Surface waters" means:

1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate wetlands;

3. All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:

a. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or

c. Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce.

4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters under this definition;

5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;

6. The territorial sea; and

7. Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.

Waste treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons designed to meet the requirements of the CWA and the law, are not surface waters. Surface waters do not include prior converted cropland. Notwithstanding the determination of an area's status as prior converted cropland by any other agency, for the purposes of the Clean Water Act, the final authority regarding the Clean Water Act jurisdiction remains with the EPA.

"Total dissolved solids" means the total dissolved (filterable) solids as determined by use of the method specified in 40 CFR Part 136.

"Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under § 307(a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of sludge use or disposal practices, any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405(d) of the CWA.

"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).

"Treatment works" means any devices and systems used for the storage, treatment, recycling or reclamation of sewage or liquid industrial waste, or other waste or necessary to recycle or reuse water, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power and other equipment and their appurtenances; extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, or alterations thereof; and any works, including land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment; or any other method or system used for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined sewer water and sanitary sewer systems.

"Treatment works treating domestic sewage" means a POTW or any other sewage sludge or waste water treatment devices or systems, regardless of ownership (including federal facilities), used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated for the disposal of sewage sludge. This definition does not include septic tanks or similar devices. For purposes of this definition, domestic sewage includes waste and waste water from humans or household operations that are discharged to or otherwise enter a treatment works.

"TWTDS" means treatment works treating domestic sewage.

"Uncontrolled sanitary landfill" means a landfill or open dump, whether in operation or closed, that does not meet the requirements for run-on or run-off controls established pursuant to subtitle D of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 USC § 6901 et seq.).

"Upset," except when used in Part VII of this chapter, means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology based permit effluent limitations because of factors beyond the reasonable control of the permittee. An upset does not include noncompliance to the extent caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.

"Variance" means any mechanism or provision under § 301 or § 316 of the CWA or under 40 CFR Part 125, or in the applicable effluent limitations guidelines which allows modification to or waiver of the generally applicable effluent limitation requirements or time deadlines of the CWA. This includes provisions which allow the establishment of alternative limitations based on fundamentally different factors or on §§ 301(c), 301(g), 301(h), 301(i), or 316(a) of the CWA.

"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters. ]

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit" means a document issued by the board pursuant to this chapter authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters and the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge. Under the approved state program, a VPDES permit is equivalent to an NPDES permit.

"VPDES application" or "application" means the standard form or forms, including any additions, revisions or modifications to the forms, approved by the administrator and the board for applying for a VPDES permit.

"Wastewater," when used in Part VII of this chapter, means liquid and water carried industrial wastes and domestic sewage from residential dwellings, commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities and institutions, whether treated or untreated, which are contributed to the POTW.

"Wastewater works operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of wastewater works.

"Water Management Division Director" means the director of the Region III Water Management Division of the Environmental Protection Agency or this person's delegated representative.

"Wetlands" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or [ groundwater ground water ] at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.

"Whole effluent toxicity" means the aggregate toxic effect of an effluent measured directly by a toxicity test.

9VAC25-31-60

9VAC25-31-60. Effect of a permit.

A. Compliance with a permit.

1. Except for any toxic effluent standards and prohibitions imposed under § 307 of the CWA and standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal under § 405(d) of the CWA, compliance with a permit during its term constitutes compliance, for purposes of enforcement, with the law and with §§ 301, 302, 306, 307, 318, 403, and 405 (a) through (b) of the CWA. However, a permit may be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated during its term for cause as set forth in this chapter.

2. Compliance with a permit condition which implements a particular standard for biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal shall be an affirmative defense in any enforcement action brought for a violation of that standard for biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal pursuant to the law and §§ 309 and 405(e) of the CWA.

B. The issuance of a permit does not convey any property rights of any sort, or any exclusive privilege.

C. The issuance of a permit does not authorize any injury to persons or property or invasion of other private rights, or any infringement of state or local law or regulations.

9VAC25-31-100

Part II
Permit Applications and Special VPDES Permit Programs

9VAC25-31-100. Application for a permit.

A. Duty to apply. Any person who discharges or proposes to discharge pollutants or who owns or operates a sludge-only facility whose sewage sludge use or disposal practice is regulated by 9VAC25-31-420 through 9VAC25-31-720 and who does not have an effective permit, except persons covered by general permits, excluded from the requirement for a permit by this chapter, or a user of a privately owned treatment works unless the board requires otherwise, The following shall submit a complete application to the department in accordance with this section [ . The requirements for concentrated animal feeding operations are described in subdivisions C 1 and 3 of 9VAC25-31-130.: ]

1. Any person who discharges or proposes to discharge pollutants; and

2. Any person who owns or operates a sludge-only facility whose biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practice is regulated by 9VAC25-31-420 through 9VAC25-31-720 and who does not have an effective permit.

All concentrated animal feeding operations have a duty to seek coverage under a VPDES permit. ]

B. Exceptions: The following are not required to submit a complete application to the department in accordance with this section unless the board requires otherwise:

1. Persons covered by general permits;

2. Persons excluded from the requirement for a permit by this chapter; or

3. A user of a privately owned treatment works.

B. C. Who applies. When a facility or activity is owned by one person but is operated by another person, it is the operator's duty to obtain a permit.

1. The owner of the facility or operation.

2. When a facility or activity is owned by one person but is operated by another person, it is the operator's duty to obtain a permit.

3. Notwithstanding the requirements of subdivision 2 of this subsection, biosolids land application by the operator may be authorized by the owner's permit.

C. D. Time to apply.

1. Any person proposing a new discharge, shall submit an application at least 180 days before the date on which the discharge is to commence, unless permission for a later date has been granted by the board. Facilities proposing a new discharge of storm water associated with industrial activity shall submit an application 180 days before that facility commences industrial activity which may result in a discharge of storm water associated with that industrial activity. Different submittal dates may be required under the terms of applicable general permits. Persons proposing a new discharge are encouraged to submit their applications well in advance of the 90 or 180 day requirements to avoid delay. New discharges composed entirely of storm water, other than those dischargers identified in 9VAC25-31-120 A 1, shall apply for and obtain a permit according to the application requirements in 9VAC25-31-120 B.

2. All TWTDS whose sewage sludge biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practices are regulated by 9VAC25-31-420 through 9VAC25-31-720 must submit permit applications according to the applicable schedule in subdivision 2 a or b of this subsection.

a. A TWTDS with a currently effective VPDES permit must submit a permit application at the time of its next VPDES permit renewal application. Such information must be submitted in accordance with subsection D of this section.

b. Any other TWTDS not addressed under subdivision 2 a of this subsection must submit the information listed in subdivisions 2 b (1) through (5) of this subsection to the department within one year after publication of a standard applicable to its sewage sludge biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practice(s) practice or practices, using a form provided by the department. The board will determine when such TWTDS must submit a full permit application.

(1) The TWTDS's name, mailing address, location, and status as federal, state, private, public or other entity;

(2) The applicant's name, address, telephone number, and ownership status;

(3) A description of the sewage sludge biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practices. Unless the sewage sludge biosolids meets the requirements of subdivision P 8 d Q 9 d of this section, the description must include the name and address of any facility where biosolids or sewage sludge is sent for treatment or disposal and the location of any land application sites;

(4) Annual amount of sewage sludge generated, treated, used or disposed (estimated dry weight basis); and

(5) The most recent data the TWTDS may have on the quality of the biosolids or sewage sludge.

c. Notwithstanding subdivision 2 a or b of this subsection, the board may require permit applications from any TWTDS at any time if the board determines that a permit is necessary to protect public health and the environment from any potential adverse effects that may occur from toxic pollutants in sewage sludge.

d. Any TWTDS that commences operations after promulgation of an applicable standard for sewage sludge biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal shall submit an application to the department at least 180 days prior to the date proposed for commencing operations.

D. E. Duty to reapply. All permittees with a currently effective permit shall submit a new application at least 180 days before the expiration date of the existing permit, unless permission for a later date has been granted by the board. The board shall not grant permission for applications to be submitted later than the expiration date of the existing permit.

E. F. Completeness.

1. The board shall not issue a permit before receiving a complete application for a permit except for VPDES general permits. An application for a permit is complete when the board receives an application form and any supplemental information which are completed to its satisfaction. The completeness of any application for a permit shall be judged independently of the status of any other permit application or permit for the same facility or activity.

2. No application for a VPDES permit to discharge sewage into or adjacent to state waters from a privately owned treatment works serving, or designed to serve, 50 or more residences shall be considered complete unless the applicant has provided the department with notification from the State Corporation Commission that the applicant is incorporated in the Commonwealth and is in compliance with all regulations and relevant orders of the State Corporation Commission.

3. No application for a new individual VPDES permit authorizing a new discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes shall be considered complete unless it contains notification from the county, city, or town in which the discharge is to take place that the location and operation of the discharging facility are consistent with applicable ordinances adopted pursuant to Chapter 22 (§ 15.2-2200 et seq.) of Title 15.2 of the Code of Virginia. The county, city or town shall inform in writing the applicant and the board of the discharging facility's compliance or noncompliance not more than 30 days from receipt by the chief administrative officer, or his agent, of a request from the applicant. Should the county, city or town fail to provide such written notification within 30 days, the requirement for such notification is waived. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any discharge for which a valid VPDES permit had been issued prior to March 10, 2000.

4. A permit application shall not be considered complete if the board has waived application requirements under subsection J or P of this section and the EPA has disapproved the waiver application. If a waiver request has been submitted to the EPA more than 210 days prior to permit expiration and the EPA has not disapproved the waiver application 181 days prior to permit expiration, the permit application lacking the information subject to the waiver application shall be considered complete.

5. In accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 A of the Code of Virginia, no application for a permit or variance to authorize the storage of sewage sludge biosolids shall be complete unless it contains certification from the governing body of the locality in which the sewage sludge biosolids is to be stored that the storage site is consistent with all applicable ordinances. The governing body shall confirm or deny consistency within 30 days of receiving a request for certification. If the governing body does not so respond, the site shall be deemed consistent.

6. No application for a permit to land apply biosolids in accordance with Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter shall be complete unless it includes the written consent of the landowner to apply biosolids on his property.

F. G. Information requirements. All applicants for VPDES permits, other than POTWs and other TWTDS, shall provide the following information to the department, using the application form provided by the department (additional information required of applicants is set forth in subsections G H through K L of this section).

1. The activities conducted by the applicant which require it to obtain a VPDES permit;

2. Name, mailing address, and location of the facility for which the application is submitted;

3. Up to four SIC codes which best reflect the principal products or services provided by the facility;

4. The operator's name, address, telephone number, ownership status, and status as federal, state, private, public, or other entity;

5. Whether the facility is located on Indian lands;

6. A listing of all permits or construction approvals received or applied for under any of the following programs:

a. Hazardous Waste Management program under RCRA (42 USC § 6921);

b. UIC program under SDWA (42 USC § 300h);

c. VPDES program under the CWA and the law;

d. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 4701 et seq.);

e. Nonattainment program under the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 4701 et seq.);

f. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAPS) preconstruction approval under the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 4701 et seq.);

g. Ocean dumping permits under the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act (33 USC § 14 et seq.);

h. Dredge or fill permits under § 404 of the CWA; and

i. Other relevant environmental permits, including state permits.

7. A topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) extending one mile beyond the property boundaries of the source, depicting the facility and each of its intake and discharge structures; each of its hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities; each well where fluids from the facility are injected underground; and those wells, springs, other surface water bodies, and drinking water wells listed in public records or otherwise known to the applicant in the map area; and

8. A brief description of the nature of the business.

G. H. Application requirements for existing manufacturing, commercial, mining, and silvicultural dischargers. Existing manufacturing, commercial mining, and silvicultural dischargers applying for VPDES permits, except for those facilities subject to the requirements of 9VAC25-31-100 H subsection I of this section, shall provide the following information to the department, using application forms provided by the department.

1. The latitude and longitude of each outfall to the nearest 15 seconds and the name of the receiving water.

2. A line drawing of the water flow through the facility with a water balance, showing operations contributing wastewater to the effluent and treatment units. Similar processes, operations, or production areas may be indicated as a single unit, labeled to correspond to the more detailed identification under subdivision 3 of this subsection. The water balance must show approximate average flows at intake and discharge points and between units, including treatment units. If a water balance cannot be determined (for example, for certain mining activities), the applicant may provide instead a pictorial description of the nature and amount of any sources of water and any collection and treatment measures.

3. A narrative identification of each type of process, operation, or production area which contributes wastewater to the effluent for each outfall, including process wastewater, cooling water, and storm water run-off; the average flow which each process contributes; and a description of the treatment the wastewater receives, including the ultimate disposal of any solid or fluid wastes other than by discharge. Processes, operations, or production areas may be described in general terms (for example, dye-making reactor, distillation tower). For a privately owned treatment works, this information shall include the identity of each user of the treatment works. The average flow of point sources composed of storm water may be estimated. The basis for the rainfall event and the method of estimation must be indicated.

4. If any of the discharges described in subdivision 3 of this subsection are intermittent or seasonal, a description of the frequency, duration and flow rate of each discharge occurrence (except for storm water run-off, spillage or leaks).

5. If an effluent guideline promulgated under § 304 of the CWA applies to the applicant and is expressed in terms of production (or other measure of operation), a reasonable measure of the applicant's actual production reported in the units used in the applicable effluent guideline. The reported measure must reflect the actual production of the facility.

6. If the applicant is subject to any present requirements or compliance schedules for construction, upgrading or operation of waste treatment equipment, an identification of the abatement requirement, a description of the abatement project, and a listing of the required and projected final compliance dates.

7. a. Information on the discharge of pollutants specified in this subdivision (except information on storm water discharges which is to be provided as specified in 9VAC25-31-120).

a. When quantitative data for a pollutant are required, the applicant must collect a sample of effluent and analyze it for the pollutant in accordance with analytical methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136. When no analytical method is approved, the applicant may use any suitable method but must provide a description of the method. When an applicant has two or more outfalls with substantially identical effluents, the board may allow the applicant to test only one outfall and report that the quantitative data also apply to the substantially identical outfalls. The requirements in e and f of this subdivision 7 e and f of this subsection that an applicant must provide quantitative data for certain pollutants known or believed to be present do not apply to pollutants present in a discharge solely as the result of their presence in intake water; however, an applicant must report such pollutants as present. Grab samples must be used for pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus. For all other pollutants, 24-hour composite samples must be used. However, a minimum of one grab sample may be taken for effluents from holding ponds or other impoundments with a retention period greater than 24 hours. In addition, for discharges other than storm water discharges, the board may waive composite sampling for any outfall for which the applicant demonstrates that the use of an automatic sampler is infeasible and that the minimum of four grab samples will be a representative sample of the effluent being discharged.

b. For storm water discharges, all samples shall be collected from the discharge resulting from a storm event that is greater than 0.1 inch and at least 72 hours from the previously measurable (greater than 0.1 inch rainfall) storm event. Where feasible, the variance in the duration of the event and the total rainfall of the event should not exceed 50% from the average or median rainfall event in that area. For all applicants, a flow-weighted composite shall be taken for either the entire discharge or for the first three hours of the discharge. The flow-weighted composite sample for a storm water discharge may be taken with a continuous sampler or as a combination of a minimum of three sample aliquots taken in each hour of discharge for the entire discharge or for the first three hours of the discharge, with each aliquot being separated by a minimum period of 15 minutes (applicants submitting permit applications for storm water discharges under 9VAC25-31-120 C may collect flow-weighted composite samples using different protocols with respect to the time duration between the collection of sample aliquots, subject to the approval of the board). However, a minimum of one grab sample may be taken for storm water discharges from holding ponds or other impoundments with a retention period greater than 24 hours. For a flow-weighted composite sample, only one analysis of the composite of aliquots is required. For storm water discharge samples taken from discharges associated with industrial activities, quantitative data must be reported for the grab sample taken during the first 30 minutes (or as soon thereafter as practicable) of the discharge for all pollutants specified in 9VAC25-31-120 B 1. For all storm water permit applicants taking flow-weighted composites, quantitative data must be reported for all pollutants specified in 9VAC25-31-120 except pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus. The board may allow or establish appropriate site-specific sampling procedures or requirements, including sampling locations, the season in which the sampling takes place, the minimum duration between the previous measurable storm event and the storm event sampled, the minimum or maximum level of precipitation required for an appropriate storm event, the form of precipitation sampled (snow melt or rain fall), protocols for collecting samples under 40 CFR Part 136, and additional time for submitting data on a case-by-case basis. An applicant is expected to know or have reason to believe that a pollutant is present in an effluent based on an evaluation of the expected use, production, or storage of the pollutant, or on any previous analyses for the pollutant. (For example, any pesticide manufactured by a facility may be expected to be present in contaminated storm water run-off from the facility.)

c. Every applicant must report quantitative data for every outfall for the following pollutants:

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) [ ; ]

(2) Chemical oxygen demand [ ; ]

(3) Total organic carbon [ ; ]

(4) Total suspended solids [ ; ]

(5) Ammonia (as N) [ ; ]

(6) Temperature (both winter and summer) [ ; and ]

(7) pH [ . ]

d. The board may waive the reporting requirements for individual point sources or for a particular industry category for one or more of the pollutants listed in subdivision 7 c of this subsection if the applicant has demonstrated that such a waiver is appropriate because information adequate to support issuance of a permit can be obtained with less stringent requirements.

e. Each applicant with processes in one or more primary industry category (see 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix A) contributing to a discharge must report quantitative data for the following pollutants in each outfall containing process wastewater, except as indicated in subdivisions 7 c (3), (4), and (5) of this subsection:

(1) The organic toxic pollutants in the fractions designated in Table I of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D for the applicant's industrial category or categories unless the applicant qualifies as a small business under subdivision 8 of this subsection. Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D lists the organic toxic pollutants in each fraction. The fractions result from the sample preparation required by the analytical procedure which uses gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A determination that an applicant falls within a particular industrial category for the purposes of selecting fractions for testing is not conclusive as to the applicant's inclusion in that category for any other purposes; and.

(2) The pollutants listed in Table III of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the toxic metals, cyanide, and total phenols).

(3) Subdivision H 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of the VPDES application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to coal mines.

(4) Subdivision H 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of Item V-C of the VPDES application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to:

(a) Testing and reporting for all four organic fractions in the Greige Mills Subcategory of the Textile Mills industry (subpart C-Low water use processing of 40 CFR Part 410), and testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

(b) Testing and reporting for the volatile, base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the Base and Precious Metals Subcategory of the Ore Mining and Dressing industry (subpart B of 40 CFR Part 440), and testing and reporting for all four fractions in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

(c) Testing and reporting for all four GC/MS fractions in the Porcelain Enameling industry.

(5) Subdivision H 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of Item V-C of the VPDES application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to:

(a) Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin-Based Derivatives Subcategory (subpart F) of the Gum and Wood Chemicals industry (40 CFR Part 454), and testing and reporting for the pesticide and base-neutral fractions in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

(b) Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the leather tanning and finishing, paint and ink formulation, and photographic supplies industrial categories.

(c) Testing and reporting for the acid, base/neutral, and pesticide fractions in the petroleum refining industrial category.

(d) Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Papergrade Sulfite Subcategories (subparts J and U) of the Pulp and Paper industry (40 CFR Part 430); testing and reporting for the base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: Deink (subpart Q), Dissolving Kraft (subpart F), and Paperboard from Waste Paper (subpart E); testing and reporting for the volatile, base/neutral, and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: BCT Bleached Kraft (subpart H), Semi-Chemical (subparts B and C), and Nonintegrated-Fine Papers (subpart R); and testing and reporting for the acid, base/neutral, and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: Fine Bleached Kraft (subpart I), Dissolving Sulfite Pulp (subpart K), Groundwood-Fine Papers (subpart O), Market Bleached Kraft (subpart G), Tissue from Wastepaper (subpart T), and Nonintegrated-Tissue Papers (subpart S).

(e) Testing and reporting for the base/neutral fraction in the Once-Through Cooling Water, Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Transport Water process waste streams of the Steam Electric Power Plant industrial category.

f. (1) Each applicant must indicate whether it knows or has reason to believe that any of the pollutants in Table IV of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain conventional and nonconventional pollutants) is discharged from each outfall. If an applicable effluent limitations guideline either directly limits the pollutant or, by its express terms, indirectly limits the pollutant through limitations on an indicator, the applicant must report quantitative data. For every pollutant discharged which is not so limited in an effluent limitations guideline, the applicant must either report quantitative data or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to be discharged.

(2) g. Each applicant must indicate whether it knows or has reason to believe that any of the pollutants listed in Table II or Table III of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the toxic pollutants and total phenols) for which quantitative data are not otherwise required under subdivision 7 e of this subsection, is discharged from each outfall. For every pollutant expected to be discharged in concentrations of 10 ppb or greater the applicant must report quantitative data. For acrolein, acrylonitrile, 2,4 dinitrophenol, and 2-methyl-4,6 dinitrophenol, where any of these four pollutants are expected to be discharged in concentrations of 100 ppb or greater the applicant must report quantitative data. For every pollutant expected to be discharged in concentrations less than 10 ppb, or in the case of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 2,4 dinitrophenol, and 2-methyl-4,6 dinitrophenol, in concentrations less than 100 ppb, the applicant must either submit quantitative data or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to be discharged. An applicant qualifying as a small business under subdivision 8 of this subsection is not required to analyze for pollutants listed in Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the organic toxic pollutants).

g. h. Each applicant must indicate whether it knows or has reason to believe that any of the pollutants in Table V of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain hazardous substances and asbestos) are discharged from each outfall. For every pollutant expected to be discharged, the applicant must briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to be discharged, and report any quantitative data it has for any pollutant.

h. i. Each applicant must report qualitative data, generated using a screening procedure not calibrated with analytical standards, for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) if it:

(1) Uses or manufactures 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5,-T); 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propanoic acid (Silvex, 2,4,5,-TP); 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) ethyl, 2,2-dichloropropionate (Erbon); O,O-dimethyl O-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) phosphorothioate (Ronnel); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP); or hexachlorophene (HCP); or

(2) Knows or has reason to believe that TCDD is or may be present in an effluent.

8. An applicant which qualifies as a small business under one of the following criteria is exempt from the requirements in subdivision 7 e (1) or 7 f (1) of this subsection to submit quantitative data for the pollutants listed in Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the organic toxic pollutants):

a. For coal mines, a probable total annual production of less than 100,000 tons per year; or

b. For all other applicants, gross total annual sales averaging less than $100,000 per year (in second quarter 1980 dollars).

9. A listing of any toxic pollutant which the applicant currently uses or manufactures as an intermediate or final product or byproduct. The board may waive or modify this requirement for any applicant if the applicant demonstrates that it would be unduly burdensome to identify each toxic pollutant and the board has adequate information to issue the permit.

10. Reserved.

11. An identification of any biological toxicity tests which the applicant knows or has reason to believe have been made within the last three years on any of the applicant's discharges or on a receiving water in relation to a discharge.

12. If a contract laboratory or consulting firm performed any of the analyses required by subdivision 7 of this subsection, the identity of each laboratory or firm and the analyses performed.

13. In addition to the information reported on the application form, applicants shall provide to the board, at its request, such other information, including pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board, as the board may reasonably require to assess the discharges of the facility and to determine whether to issue a VPDES permit. The additional information may include additional quantitative data and bioassays to assess the relative toxicity of discharges to aquatic life and requirements to determine the cause of the toxicity.

H. I. Application requirements for manufacturing, commercial, mining and silvicultural facilities which discharge only nonprocess wastewater. Except for storm water discharges, all manufacturing, commercial, mining and silvicultural dischargers applying for VPDES permits which discharge only nonprocess wastewater not regulated by an effluent limitations guideline or new source performance standard shall provide the following information to the department using application forms provided by the department:

1. Outfall number, latitude and longitude to the nearest 15 seconds, and the name of the receiving water;

2. Date of expected commencement of discharge;

3. An identification of the general type of waste discharged, or expected to be discharged upon commencement of operations, including sanitary wastes, restaurant or cafeteria wastes, or noncontact cooling water. An identification of cooling water additives (if any) that are used or expected to be used upon commencement of operations, along with their composition if existing composition is available;

4. a. Quantitative data for the pollutants or parameters listed below, unless testing is waived by the board. The quantitative data may be data collected over the past 365 days, if they remain representative of current operations, and must include maximum daily value, average daily value, and number of measurements taken. The applicant must collect and analyze samples in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. Grab samples must be used for pH, temperature, oil and grease, total residual chlorine, and fecal coliform. For all other pollutants, 24-hour composite samples must be used. New dischargers must include estimates for the pollutants or parameters listed below instead of actual sampling data, along with the source of each estimate. All levels must be reported or estimated as concentration and as total mass, except for flow, pH, and temperature.

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5).

(2) Total suspended solids (TSS).

(3) Fecal coliform (if believed present or if sanitary waste is or will be discharged).

(4) Total residual chlorine (if chlorine is used).

(5) Oil and grease.

(6) Chemical oxygen demand (COD) (if noncontact cooling water is or will be discharged).

(7) Total organic carbon (TOC) (if noncontact cooling water is or will be discharged).

(8) Ammonia (as N).

(9) Discharge flow.

(10) pH.

(11) Temperature (winter and summer).

b. The board may waive the testing and reporting requirements for any of the pollutants or flow listed in subdivision 4 a of this subsection if the applicant submits a request for such a waiver before or with his application which demonstrates that information adequate to support issuance of a permit can be obtained through less stringent requirements.

c. If the applicant is a new discharger, he must submit the information required in subdivision 4 a of this subsection by providing quantitative data in accordance with that section no later than two years after commencement of discharge. However, the applicant need not submit testing results which he has already performed and reported under the discharge monitoring requirements of his VPDES permit.

d. The requirements of subdivisions 4 a and 4 c of this subsection that an applicant must provide quantitative data or estimates of certain pollutants do not apply to pollutants present in a discharge solely as a result of their presence in intake water. However, an applicant must report such pollutants as present. Net credit may be provided for the presence of pollutants in intake water if the requirements of 9VAC25-31-230 G are met;

5. A description of the frequency of flow and duration of any seasonal or intermittent discharge (except for storm water run-off, leaks, or spills);

6. A brief description of any treatment system used or to be used;

7. Any additional information the applicant wishes to be considered, such as influent data for the purpose of obtaining net credits pursuant to 9VAC25-31-230 G;

8. Signature of certifying official under 9VAC25-31-110; and

9. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board.

I. J. Application requirements for new and existing concentrated animal feeding operations and aquatic animal production facilities. New and existing concentrated animal feeding operations and concentrated aquatic animal production facilities shall provide the following information to the department, using the application form provided by the department:

1. For concentrated animal feeding operations:

a. The name of the owner or operator;

b. The facility location and mailing address;

c. Latitude and longitude of the production area (entrance to the production area);

d. A topographic map of the geographic area in which the CAFO is located showing the specific location of the production area, in lieu of the requirements of subdivision F 7 of this section;

e. Specific information about the number and type of animals, whether in open confinement or housed under roof (beef cattle, broilers, layers, swine weighing 55 pounds or more, swine weighing less than 55 pounds, mature dairy cows, dairy heifers, veal calves, sheep and lambs, horses, ducks, turkeys, other);

f. The type of containment and storage (anaerobic lagoon, roofed storage shed, storage ponds, underfloor pits, above ground storage tanks, below ground storage tanks, concrete pad, impervious soil pad, other) and total capacity for manure, litter, and process wastewater storage (tons/gallons);

g. The total number of acres under control of the applicant available for land application of manure, litter, or process wastewater;

h. Estimated amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater generated per year (tons/gallons); and

i. For CAFOs required to seek coverage under a permit after December 31, 2009, a nutrient management plan that at a minimum satisfies the requirements specified in subsection E of 9VAC25-31-200 and subdivision C 9 of 9VAC25-31-130, including, for all CAFOs subject to 40 CFR Part 412 Subpart C or Subpart D, the requirements of 40 CFR 412.4(c), as applicable.

2. For concentrated aquatic animal production facilities:

a. The maximum daily and average monthly flow from each outfall;

b. The number of ponds, raceways, and similar structures;

c. The name of the receiving water and the source of intake water;

d. For each species of aquatic animals, the total yearly and maximum harvestable weight;

e. The calendar month of maximum feeding and the total mass of food fed during that month; and

f. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board.

J. K. Application requirements for new and existing POTWs and treatment works treating domestic sewage. Unless otherwise indicated, all POTWs and other dischargers designated by the board must provide to the department, at a minimum, the information in this subsection using an application form provided by the department. Permit applicants must submit all information available at the time of permit application. The information may be provided by referencing information previously submitted to the department. The board may waive any requirement of this subsection if it has access to substantially identical information. The board may also waive any requirement of this subsection that is not of material concern for a specific permit, if approved by the regional administrator. The waiver request to the regional administrator must include the board's justification for the waiver. A regional administrator's disapproval of the board's proposed waiver does not constitute final agency action but does provide notice to the board and permit applicant(s) that the EPA may object to any board-issued permit issued in the absence of the required information.

1. All applicants must provide the following information:

a. Name, mailing address, and location of the facility for which the application is submitted;

b. Name, mailing address, and telephone number of the applicant and indication as to whether the applicant is the facility's owner, operator, or both;

c. Identification of all environmental permits or construction approvals received or applied for (including dates) under any of the following programs:

(1) Hazardous Waste Management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subpart C;

(2) Underground Injection Control program under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA);

(3) NPDES program under the Clean Water Act (CWA);

(4) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act;

(5) Nonattainment program under the Clean Air Act;

(6) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) preconstruction approval under the Clean Air Act;

(7) Ocean dumping permits under the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act;

(8) Dredge or fill permits under § 404 of the CWA; and

(9) Other relevant environmental permits, including state permits;

d. The name and population of each municipal entity served by the facility, including unincorporated connector districts. Indicate whether each municipal entity owns or maintains the collection system and whether the collection system is separate sanitary or combined storm and sanitary, if known;

e. Information concerning whether the facility is located in Indian country and whether the facility discharges to a receiving stream that flows through Indian country;

f. The facility's design flow rate (the wastewater flow rate the plant was built to handle), annual average daily flow rate, and maximum daily flow rate for each of the previous three years;

g. Identification of type(s) of collection system(s) used by the treatment works (i.e., separate sanitary sewers or combined storm and sanitary sewers) and an estimate of the percent of sewer line that each type comprises; and

h. The following information for outfalls to surface waters and other discharge or disposal methods:

(1) For effluent discharges to surface waters, the total number and types of outfalls (e.g., treated effluent, combined sewer overflows, bypasses, constructed emergency overflows);

(2) For wastewater discharged to surface impoundments:

(a) The location of each surface impoundment;

(b) The average daily volume discharged to each surface impoundment; and

(c) Whether the discharge is continuous or intermittent;

(3) For wastewater applied to the land:

(a) The location of each land application site;

(b) The size of each land application site, in acres;

(c) The average daily volume applied to each land application site, in gallons per day; and

(d) Whether land application is continuous or intermittent;

(4) For effluent sent to another facility for treatment prior to discharge:

(a) The means by which the effluent is transported;

(b) The name, mailing address, contact person, and phone number of the organization transporting the discharge, if the transport is provided by a party other than the applicant;

(c) The name, mailing address, contact person, phone number, and VPDES permit number (if any) of the receiving facility; and

(d) The average daily flow rate from this facility into the receiving facility, in millions of gallons per day; and

(5) For wastewater disposed of in a manner not included in subdivisions 1 h (1) through (4) of this subsection (e.g., underground percolation, underground injection):

(a) A description of the disposal method, including the location and size of each disposal site, if applicable;

(b) The annual average daily volume disposed of by this method, in gallons per day; and

(c) Whether disposal through this method is continuous or intermittent;

2. All applicants with a design flow greater than or equal to 0.1 mgd must provide the following information:

a. The current average daily volume of inflow and infiltration, in gallons per day, and steps the facility is taking to minimize inflow and infiltration;

b. A topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) extending at least one mile beyond property boundaries of the treatment plant, including all unit processes, and showing:

(1) Treatment plant area and unit processes;

(2) The major pipes or other structures through which wastewater enters the treatment plant and the pipes or other structures through which treated wastewater is discharged from the treatment plant. Include outfalls from bypass piping, if applicable;

(3) Each well where fluids from the treatment plant are injected underground;

(4) Wells, springs, and other surface water bodies listed in public records or otherwise known to the applicant within 1/4 mile of the treatment works' property boundaries;

(5) Sewage sludge management facilities (including on-site treatment, storage, and disposal sites); and

(6) Location at which waste classified as hazardous under RCRA enters the treatment plant by truck, rail, or dedicated pipe;

c. Process flow diagram or schematic.

(1) A diagram showing the processes of the treatment plant, including all bypass piping and all backup power sources or redundancy in the system. This includes a water balance showing all treatment units, including disinfection, and showing daily average flow rates at influent and discharge points, and approximate daily flow rates between treatment units; and

(2) A narrative description of the diagram; and

d. The following information regarding scheduled improvements:

(1) The outfall number of each outfall affected;

(2) A narrative description of each required improvement;

(3) Scheduled or actual dates of completion for the following:

(a) Commencement of construction;

(b) Completion of construction;

(c) Commencement of discharge; and

(d) Attainment of operational level; and

(4) A description of permits and clearances concerning other federal or state requirements;

3. Each applicant must provide the following information for each outfall, including bypass points, through which effluent is discharged, as applicable:

a. The following information about each outfall:

(1) Outfall number;

(2) State, county, and city or town in which outfall is located;

(3) Latitude and longitude, to the nearest second;

(4) Distance from shore and depth below surface;

(5) Average daily flow rate, in million gallons per day;

(6) The following information for each outfall with a seasonal or periodic discharge:

(a) Number of times per year the discharge occurs;

(b) Duration of each discharge;

(c) Flow of each discharge; and

(d) Months in which discharge occurs; and

(7) Whether the outfall is equipped with a diffuser and the type (e.g., high-rate) of diffuser used.

b. The following information, if known, for each outfall through which effluent is discharged to surface waters:

(1) Name of receiving water;

(2) Name of watershed/river/stream system and United States Soil Conservation Service 14-digit watershed code;

(3) Name of State Management/River Basin and United States Geological Survey 8-digit hydrologic cataloging unit code; and

(4) Critical flow of receiving stream and total hardness of receiving stream at critical low flow (if applicable).

c. The following information describing the treatment provided for discharges from each outfall to surface waters:

(1) The highest level of treatment (e.g., primary, equivalent to secondary, secondary, advanced, other) that is provided for the discharge for each outfall and:

(a) Design biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 or CBOD5) removal (percent);

(b) Design suspended solids (SS) removal (percent); and, where applicable;

(c) Design phosphorus (P) removal (percent);

(d) Design nitrogen (N) removal (percent); and

(e) Any other removals that an advanced treatment system is designed to achieve.

(2) A description of the type of disinfection used, and whether the treatment plant dechlorinates (if disinfection is accomplished through chlorination).

4. Effluent monitoring for specific parameters.

a. As provided in subdivisions 4 b through j 4 k of this subsection, all applicants must submit to the department effluent monitoring information for samples taken from each outfall through which effluent is discharged to surface waters, except for CSOs. The board may allow applicants to submit sampling data for only one outfall on a case-by-case basis, where the applicant has two or more outfalls with substantially identical effluent. The board may also allow applicants to composite samples from one or more outfalls that discharge into the same mixing zone.

b. All applicants must sample and analyze for the following pollutants:

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 or CBOD5);

(2) Fecal coliform;

(3) Design flow rate;

(4) pH;

(5) Temperature; and

(6) Total suspended solids.

c. All applicants with a design flow greater than or equal to 0.1 mgd must sample and analyze for the following pollutants:

(1) Ammonia (as N);

(2) Chlorine (total residual, TRC);

(3) Dissolved oxygen;

(4) Nitrate/Nitrite;

(5) Kjeldahl nitrogen;

(6) Oil and grease;

(7) Phosphorus; and

(8) Total dissolved solids.

d. Facilities that do not use chlorine for disinfection, do not use chlorine elsewhere in the treatment process, and have no reasonable potential to discharge chlorine in their effluent may delete chlorine.

d. e. All POTWs with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, all POTWs with approved pretreatment programs or POTWs required to develop a pretreatment program, and other POTWs, as required by the board must sample and analyze for the pollutants listed in Table 2 of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix J, and for any other pollutants for which the board or EPA have established water quality standards applicable to the receiving waters.

e. f. The board may require sampling for additional pollutants, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis.

f. g. Applicants must provide data from a minimum of three samples taken within 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the permit application. Samples must be representative of the seasonal variation in the discharge from each outfall. Existing data may be used, if available, in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of this application. The board may require additional samples, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis.

g. h. All existing data for pollutants specified in subdivisions 4 b through e 4 f of this subsection that is collected within 4-1/2 years of the application must be included in the pollutant data summary submitted by the applicant. If, however, the applicant samples for a specific pollutant on a monthly or more frequent basis, it is only necessary, for such pollutant, to summarize all data collected within one year of the application.

h. i. Applicants must collect samples of effluent and analyze such samples for pollutants in accordance with analytical methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136 unless an alternative is specified in the existing VPDES permit. Grab samples must be used for pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, and fecal coliform. For all other pollutants, 24-hour composite samples must be used. For a composite sample, only one analysis of the composite of aliquots is required.

i. j. The effluent monitoring data provided must include at least the following information for each parameter:

(1) Maximum daily discharge, expressed as concentration or mass, based upon actual sample values;

(2) Average daily discharge for all samples, expressed as concentration or mass, and the number of samples used to obtain this value;

(3) The analytical method used; and

(4) The threshold level (i.e., method detection limit, minimum level, or other designated method endpoints) for the analytical method used.

j. k. Unless otherwise required by the board, metals must be reported as total recoverable.

5. Effluent monitoring for whole effluent toxicity.

a. All applicants must provide an identification of any whole effluent toxicity tests conducted during the 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the application on any of the applicant's discharges or on any receiving water near the discharge.

b. As provided in subdivisions 5 c through i of this subsection, the following applicants must submit to the department the results of valid whole effluent toxicity tests for acute or chronic toxicity for samples taken from each outfall through which effluent is discharged to surface waters, except for combined sewer overflows:

(1) All POTWs with design flow rates greater than or equal to one million gallons per day;

(2) All POTWs with approved pretreatment programs or POTWs required to develop a pretreatment program;

(3) Other POTWs, as required by the board, based on consideration of the following factors:

(a) The variability of the pollutants or pollutant parameters in the POTW effluent (based on chemical-specific information, the type of treatment plant, and types of industrial contributors);

(b) The ratio of effluent flow to receiving stream flow;

(c) Existing controls on point or nonpoint sources, including total maximum daily load calculations for the receiving stream segment and the relative contribution of the POTW;

(d) Receiving stream characteristics, including possible or known water quality impairment, and whether the POTW discharges to a coastal water, or a water designated as an outstanding natural resource water; or

(e) Other considerations (including, but not limited to, the history of toxic impacts and compliance problems at the POTW) that the board determines could cause or contribute to adverse water quality impacts.

c. Where the POTW has two or more outfalls with substantially identical effluent discharging to the same receiving stream segment, the board may allow applicants to submit whole effluent toxicity data for only one outfall on a case-by-case basis. The board may also allow applicants to composite samples from one or more outfalls that discharge into the same mixing zone.

d. Each applicant required to perform whole effluent toxicity testing pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must provide:

(1) Results of a minimum of four quarterly tests for a year, from the year preceding the permit application; or

(2) Results from four tests performed at least annually in the 4-1/2 year period prior to the application, provided the results show no appreciable toxicity using a safety factor determined by the board.

e. Applicants must conduct tests with multiple species (no less than two species, e.g., fish, invertebrate, plant) and test for acute or chronic toxicity, depending on the range of receiving water dilution. The board recommends that applicants conduct acute or chronic testing based on the following dilutions: (i) acute toxicity testing if the dilution of the effluent is greater than 100:1 at the edge of the mixing zone or (ii) chronic toxicity testing if the dilution of the effluent is less than or equal to 100:1 at the edge of the mixing zone.

f. Each applicant required to perform whole effluent toxicity testing pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must provide the number of chronic or acute whole effluent toxicity tests that have been conducted since the last permit reissuance.

g. Applicants must provide the results using the form provided by the department, or test summaries if available and comprehensive, for each whole effluent toxicity test conducted pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection for which such information has not been reported previously to the department.

h. Whole effluent toxicity testing conducted pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must be conducted using methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136, as directed by the board.

i. For whole effluent toxicity data submitted to the department within 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the application, applicants must provide the dates on which the data were submitted and a summary of the results.

j. Each POTW required to perform whole effluent toxicity testing pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must provide any information on the cause of toxicity and written details of any toxicity reduction evaluation conducted, if any whole effluent toxicity test conducted within the past 4-1/2 years revealed toxicity.

6. Applicants must submit the following information about industrial discharges to the POTW:

a. Number of significant industrial users (SIUs) and categorical industrial users (CIUs) discharging to the POTW; and

b. POTWs with one or more SIUs shall provide the following information for each SIU, as defined in 9VAC25-31-10, that discharges to the POTW:

(1) Name and mailing address;

(2) Description of all industrial processes that affect or contribute to the SIU's discharge;

(3) Principal products and raw materials of the SIU that affect or contribute to the SIU's discharge;

(4) Average daily volume of wastewater discharged, indicating the amount attributable to process flow and nonprocess flow;

(5) Whether the SIU is subject to local limits;

(6) Whether the SIU is subject to categorical standards and, if so, under which category and subcategory; and

(7) Whether any problems at the POTW (e.g., upsets, pass through, interference) have been attributed to the SIU in the past 4-1/2 years.

c. The information required in subdivisions 6 a and b of this subsection may be waived by the board for POTWs with pretreatment programs if the applicant has submitted either of the following that contain information substantially identical to that required in subdivisions 6 a and b of this subsection:

(1) An annual report submitted within one year of the application; or

(2) A pretreatment program.

7. Discharges from hazardous waste generators and from waste cleanup or remediation sites. POTWs receiving Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or RCRA Corrective Action wastes or wastes generated at another type of cleanup or remediation site must provide the following information:

a. If the POTW receives, or has been notified that it will receive, by truck, rail, or dedicated pipe any wastes that are regulated as RCRA hazardous wastes pursuant to 40 CFR Part 261, the applicant must report the following:

(1) The method by which the waste is received (i.e., whether by truck, rail, or dedicated pipe); and

(2) The hazardous waste number and amount received annually of each hazardous waste.

b. If the POTW receives, or has been notified that it will receive, wastewaters that originate from remedial activities, including those undertaken pursuant to CERCLA and § 3004(u) or 3008(h) of RCRA, the applicant must report the following:

(1) The identity and description of the site or facility at which the wastewater originates;

(2) The identities of the wastewater's hazardous constituents, as listed in Appendix VIII of 40 CFR Part 261, if known; and

(3) The extent of treatment, if any, the wastewater receives or will receive before entering the POTW.

c. Applicants are exempt from the requirements of subdivision 7 b of this subsection if they receive no more than 15 kilograms per month of hazardous wastes, unless the wastes are acute hazardous wastes as specified in 40 CFR 261.30(d) and 261.33(e).

8. Each applicant with combined sewer systems must provide the following information:

a. The following information regarding the combined sewer system:

(1) A map indicating the location of the following:

(a) All CSO discharge points;

(b) Sensitive use areas potentially affected by CSOs (e.g., beaches, drinking water supplies, shellfish beds, sensitive aquatic ecosystems, and outstanding national resource waters); and

(c) Waters supporting threatened and endangered species potentially affected by CSOs; and

(2) A diagram of the combined sewer collection system that includes the following information:

(a) The location of major sewer trunk lines, both combined and separate sanitary;

(b) The locations of points where separate sanitary sewers feed into the combined sewer system;

(c) In-line and off-line storage structures;

(d) The locations of flow-regulating devices; and

(e) The locations of pump stations.

b. The following information for each CSO discharge point covered by the permit application:

(1) The following information on each outfall:

(a) Outfall number;

(b) State, county, and city or town in which outfall is located;

(c) Latitude and longitude, to the nearest second;

(d) Distance from shore and depth below surface;

(e) Whether the applicant monitored any of the following in the past year for this CSO: (i) rainfall, (ii) CSO flow volume, (iii) CSO pollutant concentrations, (iv) receiving water quality, or (v) CSO frequency; and

(f) The number of storm events monitored in the past year;

(2) The following information about CSO overflows from each outfall:

(a) The number of events in the past year;

(b) The average duration per event, if available;

(c) The average volume per CSO event, if available; and

(d) The minimum rainfall that caused a CSO event, if available, in the last year;

(3) The following information about receiving waters:

(a) Name of receiving water;

(b) Name of watershed/stream system and the United States Soil Conservation Service watershed (14-digit) code, if known; and

(c) Name of State Management/River Basin and the United States Geological Survey hydrologic cataloging unit (8-digit) code, if known; and

(4) A description of any known water quality impacts on the receiving water caused by the CSO (e.g., permanent or intermittent beach closings, permanent or intermittent shellfish bed closings, fish kills, fish advisories, other recreational loss, or exceedance of any applicable state water quality standard).

9. All applicants must provide the name, mailing address, telephone number, and responsibilities of all contractors responsible for any operational or maintenance aspects of the facility.

10. All applications must be signed by a certifying official in compliance with 9VAC25-31-110.

11. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board.

K. L. Application requirements for new sources and new discharges. New manufacturing, commercial, mining and silvicultural dischargers applying for VPDES permits (except for new discharges of facilities subject to the requirements of subsection H of this section or new discharges of storm water associated with industrial activity which are subject to the requirements of 9VAC25-31-120 B 1 and this subsection) shall provide the following information to the department, using the application forms provided by the department:

1. The expected outfall location in latitude and longitude to the nearest 15 seconds and the name of the receiving water;

2. The expected date of commencement of discharge;

3. a. Description of the treatment that the wastewater will receive, along with all operations contributing wastewater to the effluent, average flow contributed by each operation, and the ultimate disposal of any solid or liquid wastes not discharged;

b. A line drawing of the water flow through the facility with a water balance as described in subdivision G 2;

c. If any of the expected discharges will be intermittent or seasonal, a description of the frequency, duration and maximum daily flow rate of each discharge occurrence (except for storm water run-off, spillage, or leaks); and

4. If a new source performance standard promulgated under § 306 of the CWA or an effluent limitation guideline applies to the applicant and is expressed in terms of production (or other measure of operation), a reasonable measure of the applicant's expected actual production reported in the units used in the applicable effluent guideline or new source performance standard for each of the first three years. Alternative estimates may also be submitted if production is likely to vary;

5. The requirements in subdivisions H 4 a, b, and c of this section that an applicant must provide estimates of certain pollutants expected to be present do not apply to pollutants present in a discharge solely as a result of their presence in intake water; however, an applicant must report such pollutants as present. Net credits may be provided for the presence of pollutants in intake water if the requirements of 9VAC25-31-230 G are met. All levels (except for discharge flow, temperature, and pH) must be estimated as concentration and as total mass.

a. Each applicant must report estimated daily maximum, daily average, and source of information for each outfall for the following pollutants or parameters. The board may waive the reporting requirements for any of these pollutants and parameters if the applicant submits a request for such a waiver before or with his application which demonstrates that information adequate to support issuance of the permit can be obtained through less stringent reporting requirements.

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).

(2) Chemical oxygen demand (COD).

(3) Total organic carbon (TOC).

(4) Total suspended solids (TSS).

(5) Flow.

(6) Ammonia (as N).

(7) Temperature (winter and summer).

(8) pH.

b. Each applicant must report estimated daily maximum, daily average, and source of information for each outfall for the following pollutants, if the applicant knows or has reason to believe they will be present or if they are limited by an effluent limitation guideline or new source performance standard either directly or indirectly through limitations on an indicator pollutant: all pollutants in Table IV of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain conventional and nonconventional pollutants).

c. Each applicant must report estimated daily maximum, daily average and source of information for the following pollutants if he knows or has reason to believe that they will be present in the discharges from any outfall:

(1) The pollutants listed in Table III of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the toxic metals, in the discharge from any outfall, Total cyanide, and total phenols);

(2) The organic toxic pollutants in Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (except bis (chloromethyl) ether, dichlorofluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane). This requirement is waived for applicants with expected gross sales of less than $100,000 per year for the next three years, and for coal mines with expected average production of less than 100,000 tons of coal per year.

d. The applicant is required to report that 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (TCDD) may be discharged if he uses or manufactures one of the following compounds, or if he knows or has reason to believe that TCDD will or may be present in an effluent:

(1) 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) (CAS #93-76-5);

(2) (2) 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propanoic acid (Silvex, 2,4,5-TP) (CAS #93-72-1);

(3) 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) ethyl 2,2-dichloropropionate (Erbon) (CAS #136-25-4);

(4) 0,0-dimethyl 0-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) phosphorothioate (Ronnel) (CAS #299-84-3);

(5) 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) (CAS #95-95-4); or

(6) Hexachlorophene (HCP) (CAS #70-30-4);

e. Each applicant must report any pollutants listed in Table V of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain hazardous substances) if he believes they will be present in any outfall (no quantitative estimates are required unless they are already available).

f. No later than two years after the commencement of discharge from the proposed facility, the applicant is required to submit the information required in subsection G of this section. However, the applicant need not complete those portions of subsection G of this section requiring tests which he has already performed and reported under the discharge monitoring requirements of his VPDES permit;

6. Each applicant must report the existence of any technical evaluation concerning his wastewater treatment, along with the name and location of similar plants of which he has knowledge;

7. Any optional information the permittee wishes to have considered;

8. Signature of certifying official under 9VAC25-31-110; and

9. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board.

L. M. Variance requests by non-POTWs. A discharger which is not a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) may request a variance from otherwise applicable effluent limitations under any of the following statutory or regulatory provisions within the times specified in this subsection:

1. Fundamentally different factors.

a. A request for a variance based on the presence of fundamentally different factors from those on which the effluent limitations guideline was based shall be filed as follows:

(1) For a request from best practicable control technology currently available (BPT), by the close of the public comment period for the draft permit; or

(2) For a request from best available technology economically achievable (BAT) and/or best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT), by no later than:

(a) July 3, 1989, for a request based on an effluent limitation guideline promulgated before February 4, 1987, to the extent July 3, 1989, is not later than that provided under previously promulgated regulations; or

(b) 180 days after the date on which an effluent limitation guideline is published in the Federal Register for a request based on an effluent limitation guideline promulgated on or after February 4, 1987.

b. The request shall explain how the requirements of the applicable regulatory or statutory criteria have been met.

2. A request for a variance from the BAT requirements for CWA § 301(b)(2)(F) pollutants (commonly called nonconventional pollutants) pursuant to § 301(c) of the CWA because of the economic capability of the owner or operator, or pursuant to § 301(g) of the CWA (provided however that a § 301(g) variance may only be requested for ammonia; chlorine; color; iron; total phenols (when determined by the Administrator to be a pollutant covered by § 301(b)(2)(F) of the CWA) and any other pollutant which the administrator lists under § 301(g)(4) of the CWA) must be made as follows:

a. For those requests for a variance from an effluent limitation based upon an effluent limitation guideline by:

(1) Submitting an initial request to the regional administrator, as well as to the department, stating the name of the discharger, the permit number, the outfall number(s), the applicable effluent guideline, and whether the discharger is requesting a §§ 301(c) or 301(g) of the CWA modification, or both. This request must have been filed not later than 270 days after promulgation of an applicable effluent limitation guideline; and

(2) Submitting a completed request no later than the close of the public comment period for the draft permit demonstrating that: (i) all reasonable ascertainable issues have been raised and all reasonably available arguments and materials supporting their position have been submitted; and (ii) that the applicable requirements of 40 CFR Part 125 have been met. Notwithstanding this provision, the complete application for a request under § 301(g) of the CWA shall be filed 180 days before EPA must make a decision (unless the Regional Division Director establishes a shorter or longer period); or

b. For those requests for a variance from effluent limitations not based on effluent limitation guidelines, the request need only comply with subdivision 2 a (2) of this subsection and need not be preceded by an initial request under subdivision 2 a (1) of this subsection.

3. A modification under § 302(b)(2) of the CWA of requirements under § 302(a) of the CWA for achieving water quality related effluent limitations may be requested no later than the close of the public comment period for the draft permit on the permit from which the modification is sought.

4. A variance for alternate effluent limitations for the thermal component of any discharge must be filed with a timely application for a permit under this section, except that if thermal effluent limitations are established on a case-by-case basis or are based on water quality standards the request for a variance may be filed by the close of the public comment period for the draft permit. A copy of the request shall be sent simultaneously to the department.

M. N. Variance requests by POTWs. A discharger which is a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) may request a variance from otherwise applicable effluent limitations under any of the following statutory provisions as specified in this paragraph:

1. A request for a modification under § 301(h) of the CWA of requirements of § 301(b)(1)(B) of the CWA for discharges into marine waters must be filed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR Part 125, Subpart G.

2. A modification under § 302(b)(2) of the CWA of the requirements under § 302(a) of the CWA for achieving water quality based effluent limitations shall be requested no later than the close of the public comment period for the draft permit on the permit from which the modification is sought.

N. O. Expedited variance procedures and time extensions.

1. Notwithstanding the time requirements in subsections L M and M N of this section, the board may notify a permit applicant before a draft permit is issued that the draft permit will likely contain limitations which are eligible for variances. In the notice the board may require the applicant as a condition of consideration of any potential variance request to submit a request explaining how the requirements of 40 CFR Part 125 applicable to the variance have been met and may require its submission within a specified reasonable time after receipt of the notice. The notice may be sent before the permit application has been submitted. The draft or final permit may contain the alternative limitations which may become effective upon final grant of the variance.

2. A discharger who cannot file a timely complete request required under subdivisions L 2 a (2) or L 2 b M 2 a (2) or M 2 b of this section may request an extension. The extension may be granted or denied at the discretion of the board. Extensions shall be no more than six months in duration.

O. P. Recordkeeping. Except for information required by subdivision C 2 D 2 of this section, which shall be retained for a period of at least five years from the date the application is signed (or longer as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter), applicants shall keep records of all data used to complete permit applications and any supplemental information submitted under this section for a period of at least three years from the date the application is signed.

P. Q. Sewage sludge management. All TWTDS subject to subdivision C 2 a D 2 a of this section must provide the information in this subsection to the department using an application form approved by the department. New applicants must submit all information available at the time of permit application. The information may be provided by referencing information previously submitted to the department. The board may waive any requirement of this subsection if it has access to substantially identical information. The board may also waive any requirement of this subsection that is not of material concern for a specific permit, if approved by the regional administrator. The waiver request to the regional administrator must include the board's justification for the waiver. A regional administrator's disapproval of the board's proposed waiver does not constitute final agency action, but does provide notice to the board and the permit applicant that the EPA may object to any board issued permit issued in the absence of the required information.

1. All applicants must submit the following information:

a. The name, mailing address, and location of the TWTDS for which the application is submitted;

b. Whether the facility is a Class I Sludge Management Facility;

c. The design flow rate (in million gallons per day);

d. The total population served;

e. The TWTDS's status as federal, state, private, public, or other entity;

f. The name, mailing address, and telephone number of the applicant; and

g. Indication whether the applicant is the owner, operator, or both.

2. All applicants must submit the facility's VPDES permit number, if applicable, and a listing of all other federal, state, and local permits or construction approvals received or applied for under any of the following programs:

a. Hazardous Waste Management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA);

b. UIC program under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA);

c. NPDES program under the Clean Water Act (CWA);

d. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act;

e. Nonattainment program under the Clean Air Act;

f. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) preconstruction approval under the Clean Air Act;

g. Dredge or fill permits under § 404 of the CWA;

h. Other relevant environmental permits, including state or local permits.

3. All applicants must identify any generation, treatment, storage, land application of biosolids, or disposal of sewage sludge that occurs in Indian country.

4. All applicants must submit a topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) extending one mile beyond property boundaries of the facility and showing the following information:

a. All sewage sludge management facilities, including on-site treatment, storage, and disposal sites; and

b. Wells, springs, and other surface water bodies that are within 1/4 mile of the property boundaries and listed in public records or otherwise known to the applicant.

5. All applicants must submit a line drawing and/or a narrative description that identifies all sewage sludge management practices employed during the term of the permit, including all units used for collecting, dewatering, storing, or treating sewage sludge; the destination(s) of all liquids and solids leaving each such unit; and all processes used for pathogen reduction and vector attraction reduction.

6. All applicants must submit an odor control plan that contains at minimum:

a. Methods used to minimize odor in producing biosolids;

b. Methods used to identify malodorous biosolids before land application (at the generating facility);

c. Methods used to identify and abate malodorous biosolids that have been delivered to the field, prior to land application; and

d. Methods used to abate malodor from biosolids if land applied.

6. 7. The applicant must submit sewage sludge biosolids monitoring data for the pollutants for which limits in sewage sludge biosolids have been established in Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter for the applicant's use or disposal practices on the date of permit application with the following conditions:

a. When applying for authorization to land apply a biosolids source not previously included in a VPDES or Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit, the biosolids shall be sampled and analyzed for PCBs. The sample results shall be submitted with the permit application or request to add the source.

a. b. The board may require sampling for additional pollutants, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis.

b. c. Applicants must provide data from a minimum of three samples taken within 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the permit application. Samples must be representative of the sewage sludge biosolids and should be taken at least one month apart. Existing data may be used in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of this application.

c. d. Applicants must collect and analyze samples in accordance with analytical methods specified in 9VAC25-31-490 [ unless an alternative has been specified in an existing ] sewage sludgebiosolids use permit. Samples for PCB analysis shall be collected and analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 1668 B., 40 CFR Part 503 (March 26, 2007) and 40 CFR Part 136 (March 26, 2007). ]

d. e. The monitoring data provided must include at least the following information for each parameter:

(1) Average monthly concentration for all samples (mg/kg dry weight), based upon actual sample values;

(2) The analytical method used; and

(3) The method detection level.

7. 8. If the applicant is a person who prepares biosolids or sewage sludge, as defined in 9VAC25-31-500, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. If the applicant's facility generates biosolids or sewage sludge, the total dry metric tons per 365-day period generated at the facility.

b. If the applicant's facility receives biosolids or sewage sludge from another facility, the following information for each facility from which biosolids or sewage sludge is received:

(1) The name, mailing address, and location of the other facility;

(2) The total dry metric tons per 365-day period received from the other facility; and

(3) A description of any treatment processes occurring at the other facility, including blending activities and treatment to reduce pathogens or vector attraction characteristics.

c. If the applicant's facility changes the quality of biosolids or sewage sludge through blending, treatment, or other activities, the following information:

(1) Whether the Class A pathogen reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A or the Class B pathogen reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B are met, and a description of any treatment processes used to reduce pathogens in sewage sludge;

(2) Whether any of the vector attraction reduction options of 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through 8 are met, and a description of any treatment processes used to reduce vector attraction properties in sewage sludge; and

(3) A description of any other blending, treatment, or other activities that change the quality of sewage sludge.

d. If sewage sludge biosolids from the applicant's facility meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B [ Table ] 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B [ Table ] 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through 8, and if the sewage sludge biosolids is applied to the land, the applicant must provide the total dry metric tons per 365-day period of sewage sludge subject to this subsection that is applied to the land.

e. If sewage sludge biosolids from the applicant's facility is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, and the sewage sludge biosolids is not subject to subdivision 7 8 d of this subsection, the applicant must provide the following information:

(1) The total dry metric tons per 365-day period of sewage sludge biosolids subject to this subsection that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land; and

(2) A copy of all labels or notices that accompany the sewage sludge biosolids being sold or given away.

f. If biosolids or sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is provided to another person who prepares sewage sludge, biosolids, as defined in 9VAC25-31-500, and the sewage sludge biosolids is not subject to subdivision 7 8 d of this subsection, the applicant must provide the following information for each facility receiving the biosolids or sewage sludge:

(1) The name and mailing address of the receiving facility;

(2) The total dry metric tons per 365-day period of biosolids or sewage sludge subject to this subsection that the applicant provides to the receiving facility;

(3) A description of any treatment processes occurring at the receiving facility, including blending activities and treatment to reduce pathogens or vector attraction characteristic;

(4) A copy of the notice and necessary information that the applicant is required to provide the receiving facility under 9VAC25-31-530 G; and

(5) If the receiving facility places sewage sludge biosolids in bags or containers for sale or give-away to for application to the land, a copy of any labels or notices that accompany the sewage sludge biosolids.

8. 9. If sewage sludge biosolids from the applicant's facility is applied to the land in bulk form and is not subject to subdivision 7 8 d, e, or f of this subsection, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. [ Written permission of landowners on the most current form approved by the board.

b. ] The total dry metric tons per 365-day period of sewage sludge biosolids subject to this subsection that is applied to the land.

b. c. ] If any land application sites are located in states other than the state where the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared, a description of how the applicant will notify the permitting authority for the state(s) where the land application sites are located.

c. d. ] The following information for each land application site that has been identified at the time of permit application:

(1) The name (if any), DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying the land application field or site. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the site identification code used by the permit applicant to report activities ] and the site's location for the land application site;

(2) The site's latitude and longitude [ to the nearest second, in decimal degrees to three decimal places ] and method of determination;

(3) A topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) that shows the site's location; A legible topographic mapand aerial photograph, including legend, ] of proposed application areas to scale as needed to depict the following features:

(a) Property boundaries;

(b) Surface water courses;

(c) Water supply wells and springs;

(d) Roadways;

(e) Rock outcrops;

(f) Slopes;

(g) Frequently flooded areas (National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) designation);and

(h) Occupied dwellings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and all existing extended dwelling and property line setback distances;

(i) Publicly accessible properties and occupied buildings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and the associated extended setback distances; and

(j) ] The gross acreage of the fields where biosolids will be applied;

(4) County map or other map of sufficient detail to show general location of the site and proposed transport vehicle haul routes to be utilized from the treatment plant;

(5) County tax mapslabeled with Tax Parcel ID or IDs ] for each farm to be included in the permit, which may include multiple fields, to depict properties within 400 feet of the field boundaries ];

(6) A USDA soil survey map, if available, of proposed sites for land application of biosolids;

(4) (7) The name, mailing address, and telephone number of [ the each ] site owner, if different from the applicant;

(5) (8) The name, mailing address, and telephone number of the person who applies sewage sludge biosolids to the site, if different from the applicant;

(6) (9) Whether the site is agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, as such site types are defined in 9VAC25-31-500;

(7) (10) The type of vegetation grown on the site, if known, and the nitrogen requirement for this vegetation Description of agricultural practices including a list of proposed crops to be grown;

(8) (11) Whether either of the vector attraction reduction options of 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or 10 is met at the site, and a description of any procedures employed at the time of use to reduce vector attraction properties in sewage sludge biosolids; and

(12) Pertinent calculations justifying storage and land area requirements for biosolids application including an annual biosolids balance incorporating such factors as precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil percolation rates, wastewater loading, and monthly storage (input and drawdown); and

(9) (13) Other information that describes how the site will be managed, as specified by the board.

d. For permit applications proposing frequent application of biosolids, the following additional site information will be necessary:

(1) Information specified (subdivisions 2 a and 4 of this subsection);

(2) Representative soil borings and test pits to a depth of five feet or to bedrock if shallower are to be coordinated for each major soil type and the following tests performed and data collected:

(a) Soil type;

(b) Soil texture for each horizon (USDA classification);

(c) Soil color for each horizon;

(d) Depth from surface to mottling and bedrock if less than two feet;

(e) Depth from surface to subsoil restrictive layer;

(f) Indicated infiltration rate (surface soil); and

(g) Indicated permeability of subsoil restrictive layer.

(3) Additional soil testing in accordance with Table 6 (9VAC25-32-460); and

(4) Ground water monitoring plans for the land treatment area including pertinent geohydrologic data to justify upgradient and downgradient well location and depth. ]

d. e. The following information for each land application site that has been identified at the time of permit application, if the applicant intends to apply bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B [ Table ] 2 to the site:

(1) Whether the applicant has contacted the permitting authority in the state where the bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to 9VAC25-31-540 B [ Table ] 2 will be applied, to ascertain whether bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to 9VAC25-31-540 B [ Table ] 2 has been applied to the site on or since July 20, 1993, and if so, the name of the permitting authority and the name and phone number of a contact person at the permitting authority; [ and ]

(2) Identification of facilities other than the applicant's facility that have sent, or are sending, sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B [ Table ] 2 to the site since July 20, 1993, if, based on the inquiry in subdivision 8 d 9 e (1) of this subsection, bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B [ Table ] 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993.

e.f. If not all land application sites have been identified at the time of permit application, the applicant must submit a land application plan that, at a minimum:

(1) Describes the geographical area covered by the plan;

(2) Identifies the site selection criteria;

(3) Describes how the site(s) will be managed;

(4) Provides for advance notice to the board department of specific land application sites ] and reasonable time for the board to object prior to land application of the sewage sludge and to notify persons residing on property bordering such sites for the purpose of receiving written comments from those persons for a period not to exceed 30 days. The department shall, based upon these comments, determine whether additional site-specific requirements should be included in the authorization for land application at the sitein a manner prescribed by 9VAC25-31-485 D; and

(5) Provides for advance notice of land application sites in a manner prescribed by 9VAC25-31-290. ]

(5) Provides for advance public notice of land application sites in a newspaper of general circulation in the area of the land application site.

A request to increase the acreage authorized by the initial permit by 50% or more shall be treated as a new application for purposes of public notice and public hearings.

10. Biosolids storage facilities not located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant. Plans and specifications for biosolids storage facilities not located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant generating the biosolids, including routine and on-site storage, shall be submitted for issuance of a certificate to construct and a certificate to operate in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790) and shall depict the following information:

a. Site layout on a recent 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle or other appropriate scaled map;

b. Location of any required soil, geologic, and hydrologic test holes or borings;

c. Location of the following field features within 0.25 miles of the site boundary (indicate on map) with the approximate distances from the site boundary:

(1) Water wells (operating or abandoned);

(2) Surface waters;

(3) Springs;

(4) Public water supplies;

(5) Sinkholes;

(6) Underground and surface mines;

(7) Mine pool (or other) surface water discharge points;

(8) Mining spoil piles and mine dumps;

(9) Quarries;

(10) Sand and gravel pits;

(11) Gas and oil wells;

(12) Diversion ditches;

(13) Occupied dwellings, including industrial and commercial establishments;

(14) Landfills and dumps;

(15) Other unlined impoundments;

(16) Septic tanks and drainfields; and

(17) Injection wells;

d. Topographic map (10-foot contour preferred) of sufficient detail to clearly show the following information:

(1) Maximum and minimum percent slopes;

(2) Depressions on the site that may collect water;

(3) Drainage ways that may attribute to rainfall run-on to or run-off from this site; and

(4) Portions of the site, if any, that are located within the 100-year floodplain;

e. Data and specifications for the liner proposed for seepage control;

f. Scaled plan view and cross-sectional view of the facilities showing inside and outside slopes of all embankments and details of all appurtenances;

g. Calculations justifying impoundment capacity; and

h.Ground water Groundwater ] monitoring plans for the facilitiesincluding if required by the department. The groundwater monitoring plan shall include ] pertinent geohydrological data to justify upgradient and downgradient well location and depth.

11. Staging. Generic plans are required for staging of biosolids.

12. A biosolidsoperations ] management plan shall be provided that includes the following minimum site specific information at the time of permit application:

a. A comprehensive, general description of the operation shall be provided, including biosolids source or sources, quantities, flow diagram illustrating treatment works biosolids flows and solids handling units, site description, methodology of biosolids handling for application periods, including storage and nonapplication period storage, and alternative management methods when storage is not provided.

b. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreationshall be as ] required for application sites prior to board authorization under the following conditions:

(1) Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

(2) Sites where land application is proposed more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate;and ]

(3) Minedor disturbed ] land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates.; or

(4) Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters. ]

13. Biosolids transport.

a.Description and specifications on the bed or the tank vehicle General description of transport vehicles to be used ];

b.Haul routes to be used from the biosolids generator to the storage unit and land application sites;

c. ] Procedures for biosolids offloading at the biosolids facilities and the land application site together with spill prevention, cleanup (including vehicle cleaning), field reclamation, and emergency spill notification and cleanup measures; and

d. c. ] Voucher system used for documentation and recordkeeping.

14. Field operations.

a. Storage.

(1) Routine storageat facilities not located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant ] – supernatant handling and disposal, biosolids handling, and loading of transport vehicles, equipment cleaning, freeboard maintenance, and inspections for structural integrity;

(2) On-site storage – procedures for department/board approval and implementation;

(3) Staging – procedures to be followed including either designated site locations provided in the "Design Information" or the specific site criteria for such locations including the liner/cover requirements and the time limit assigned to such use; and

(4) Fieldreclamation reestablishment ] of offloading (staging) areas.

b. Application methodology.

(1) Description and specifications on spreader vehicles;

(2) Procedures for calibrating equipment for various biosolids contents to ensure uniform distribution and appropriate loading rates on a day-to-day basis; and

(3) Procedures used to ensure that operations address the following constraints: application of biosolids to frozen ground, pasture/hay fields, crops for direct human consumption andsaturate saturated ] or ice-covered or snow-covered ground;maintenance buffer zones establishment of setback distances ], slopes, prohibited access for beef and dairy animals, and soil pH requirements; and proper site specific biosolids loading rates on a field-by-field basis.

9. 15. An applicant for a permit authorizing the land application of sewage sludge biosolids shall provide to the department, and to each locality in which the applicant proposes to land apply sewage sludge, biosolids, written evidence of financial responsibility, including both current liability and pollution insurance, or such other evidence of financial responsibility as the board may establish by regulation in an amount not less than $1 million per occurrence, which shall be available to pay claims for cleanup costs, personal injury, bodily injury and property damage resulting from the transport, storage and land application of sewage sludge in Virginia. The aggregate amount of financial liability to be maintained by the applicant shall be $1 million for companies with less than $5 million in annual gross revenue and shall be $2 million for companies with $5 million or more in annual gross revenue. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with requirements specified in Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX(9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) ] of the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation. ]

10. 16. If sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is placed on a surface disposal site, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. The total dry metric tons of sewage sludge from the applicant's facility that is placed on surface disposal sites per 365-day period.

b. The following information for each surface disposal site receiving sewage sludge from the applicant's facility that the applicant does not own or operate:

(1) The site name or number, contact person, mailing address, and telephone number for the surface disposal site; and

(2) The total dry metric tons from the applicant's facility per 365-day period placed on the surface disposal site.

c. The following information for each active sewage sludge unit at each surface disposal site that the applicant owns or operates:

(1) The name or number and the location of the active sewage sludge unit;

(2) The unit's latitude and longitude to the nearest second, and method of determination;

(3) If not already provided, a topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) that shows the unit's location;

(4) The total dry metric tons placed on the active sewage sludge unit per 365-day period;

(5) The total dry metric tons placed on the active sewage sludge unit over the life of the unit;

(6) A description of any liner for the active sewage sludge unit, including whether it has a maximum permeability of 1 X 10-7cm/sec;

(7) A description of any leachate collection system for the active sewage sludge unit, including the method used for leachate disposal, and any federal, state, and local permit number(s) for leachate disposal;

(8) If the active sewage sludge unit is less than 150 meters from the property line of the surface disposal site, the actual distance from the unit boundary to the site property line;

(9) The remaining capacity (dry metric tons) for the active sewage sludge unit;

(10) The date on which the active sewage sludge unit is expected to close, if such a date has been identified;

(11) The following information for any other facility that sends sewage sludge to the active sewage sludge unit:

(a) The name, contact person, and mailing address of the facility; and

(b) Available information regarding the quality of the sewage sludge received from the facility, including any treatment at the facility to reduce pathogens or vector attraction characteristics;

(12) Whether any of the vector attraction reduction options of 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 through 11 is met at the active sewage sludge unit, and a description of any procedures employed at the time of disposal to reduce vector attraction properties in sewage sludge;

(13) The following information, as applicable to any [ groundwater ground water ] monitoring occurring at the active sewage sludge unit:

(a) A description of any [ groundwater ground water ] monitoring occurring at the active sewage sludge unit;

(b) Any available [ groundwater ground water ] monitoring data, with a description of the well locations and approximate depth to [ groundwater ground water ];

(c) A copy of any [ groundwater ground water ] monitoring plan that has been prepared for the active sewage sludge unit;

(d) A copy of any certification that has been obtained from a qualified [ groundwater ground water ] scientist that the aquifer has not been contaminated; and

(14) If site-specific pollutant limits are being sought for the sewage sludge placed on this active sewage sludge unit, information to support such a request.

11. 17. If sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is fired in a sewage sludge incinerator, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. The total dry metric tons of sewage sludge from the applicant's facility that is fired in sewage sludge incinerators per 365-day period.

b. The following information for each sewage sludge incinerator firing the applicant's sewage sludge that the applicant does not own or operate:

(1) The name and/or number, contact person, mailing address, and telephone number of the sewage sludge incinerator; and

(2) The total dry metric tons from the applicant's facility per 365-day period fired in the sewage sludge incinerator.

12. 18. If sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is sent to a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF), the applicant must provide the following information for each MSWLF to which sewage sludge is sent:

a. The name, contact person, mailing address, location, and all applicable permit numbers of the MSWLF;

b. The total dry metric tons per 365-day period sent from this facility to the MSWLF;

c. A determination of whether the sewage sludge meets applicable requirements for disposal of sewage sludge in a MSWLF, including the results of the paint filter liquids test and any additional requirements that apply on a site-specific basis; and

d. Information, if known, indicating whether the MSWLF complies with criteria set forth in the Solid Waste Management Regulations, 9VAC20-81.

13. 19. All applicants must provide the name, mailing address, telephone number, and responsibilities of all contractors responsible for any operational or maintenance aspects of the facility related to biosolids or sewage sludge generation, treatment, use, or disposal.

14. 20. At the request of the board, the applicant must provide any other information necessary to determine the appropriate standards for permitting under Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter, and must provide any other information necessary to assess the sewage sludge biosolids use and sewage sludge disposal practices, determine whether to issue a permit, or identify appropriate permit requirements; and pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board.

15. 21. All applications must be signed by a certifying official in compliance with 9VAC25-31-110.

Q. R. Applications for facilities with cooling water intake structures.

1. Application requirements. New facilities with new or modified cooling water intake structures. New facilities with cooling water intake structures as defined in 9VAC25-31-165 must report the information required under subdivisions 2, 3, and 4 of this subsection and under 9VAC25-31-165. Requests for alternative requirements under 9VAC25-31-165 must be submitted with the permit application.

2. Source water physical data. These include:

a. A narrative description and scaled drawings showing the physical configuration of all source water bodies used by the facility, including area dimensions, depths, salinity and temperature regimes, and other documentation that supports the determination of the water body type where each cooling water intake structure is located;

b. Identification and characterization of the source water body's hydrological and geomorphologic features, as well as the methods used to conduct any physical studies to determine the intake's area of influence within the water body and the results of such studies; and

c. Location maps.

3. Cooling water intake structure data. These include:

a. A narrative description of the configuration of each cooling water intake structure and where it is located in the water body and in the water column;

b. Latitude and longitude in degrees, minutes, and seconds for each cooling water intake structure;

c. A narrative description of the operation of each cooling water intake structure, including design intake flow, daily hours of operation, number of days of the year in operation and seasonal changes, if applicable;

d. A flow distribution and water balance diagram that includes all sources of water to the facility, recirculation flows and discharges; and

e. Engineering drawings of the cooling water intake structure.

4. Source water baseline biological characterization data. This information is required to characterize the biological community in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure and to characterize the operation of the cooling water intake structures. The department may also use this information in subsequent permit renewal proceedings to determine if the design and construction technology plan as required in 9VAC25-31-165 should be revised. This supporting information must include existing data if available. Existing data may be supplemented with data from newly conducted field studies. The information must include:

a. A list of the data in subdivisions 4 b through 4 f of this subsection that is not available and efforts made to identify sources of the data;

b. A list of species (or relevant taxa) for all life stages and their relative abundance in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure;

c. Identification of the species and life stages that would be most susceptible to impingement and entrainment. Species evaluated should include the forage base as well as those most important in terms of significance to commercial and recreational fisheries;

d. Identification and evaluation of the primary period of reproduction, larval recruitment, and period of peak abundance for relevant taxa;

e. Data representative of the seasonal and daily activities (e.g., feeding and water column migration) of biological organisms in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure;

f. Identification of all threatened, endangered, and other protected species that might be susceptible to impingement and entrainment at the cooling water intake structures;

g. Documentation of any public participation or consultation with federal or state agencies undertaken in development of the plan; and

h. If information requested in subdivision 4 of this subsection is supplemented with data collected using field studies, supporting documentation for the source water baseline biological characterization must include a description of all methods and quality assurance procedures for sampling, and data analysis including a description of the study area; taxonomic identification of sampled and evaluated biological assemblages (including all life stages of fish and shellfish); and sampling and data analysis methods. The sampling and/or data analysis methods used must be appropriate for a quantitative survey and based on consideration of methods used in other biological studies performed within the same source water body. The study area should include, at a minimum, the area of influence of the cooling water intake structure.

Note 1: Until further notice subdivision G 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of the VPDES application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to coal mines.

Note 2: Until further notice subdivision G 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of Item V-C of the VPDES application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to:

a. Testing and reporting for all four organic fractions in the Greige Mills Subcategory of the Textile Mills industry (subpart C-Low water use processing of 40 CFR Part 410), and testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

b. Testing and reporting for the volatile, base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the Base and Precious Metals Subcategory of the Ore Mining and Dressing industry (subpart B of 40 CFR Part 440), and testing and reporting for all four fractions in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

c. Testing and reporting for all four GC/MS fractions in the Porcelain Enameling industry.

Note 3: Until further notice subdivision G 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of Item V-C of the VPDES application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to:

a. Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin-Based Derivatives Subcategory (subpart F) of the Gum and Wood Chemicals industry (40 CFR Part 454), and testing and reporting for the pesticide and base-neutral fractions in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

b. Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the leather tanning and finishing, paint and ink formulation, and photographic supplies industrial categories.

c. Testing and reporting for the acid, base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the petroleum refining industrial category.

d. Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Papergrade Sulfite Subcategories (subparts J and U) of the Pulp and Paper industry (40 CFR Part 430); testing and reporting for the base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: Deink (subpart Q), Dissolving Kraft (subpart F), and Paperboard from Waste Paper (subpart E); testing and reporting for the volatile, base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: BCT Bleached Kraft (subpart H), Semi-Chemical (subparts B and C), and Nonintegrated-Fine Papers (subpart R); and testing and reporting for the acid, base/neutral, and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: Fine Bleached Kraft (subpart I), Dissolving Sulfite Pulp (subpart K), Groundwood-Fine Papers (subpart O), Market Bleached Kraft (subpart G), Tissue from Wastepaper (subpart T), and Nonintegrated-Tissue Papers (subpart S).

e. Testing and reporting for the base/neutral fraction in the Once-Through Cooling Water, Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Transport Water process wastestreams of the Steam Electric Power Plant industrial category.

9VAC25-31-260

Part IV
Public Involvement

9VAC25-31-260. Draft permits.

A. Once an application is complete, the board shall tentatively decide whether to prepare a draft permit or to deny the application.

B. If the board tentatively decides to deny the permit application, the owner shall be advised of that decision and of the changes necessary to obtain approval. The owner may withdraw the application prior to board action. If the application is not withdrawn or modified to obtain the tentative approval to issue, the board shall provide public notice and opportunity for a public hearing prior to board action on the application.

C. If the board tentatively decides to issue a VPDES general permit, a draft general permit shall be prepared under subsection D of this section.

D. If the board decides to prepare a draft permit, the draft permit shall contain the following information:

1. All conditions under 9VAC25-31-190 and 9VAC25-31-210;

2. All compliance schedules under 9VAC25-31-250;

3. All monitoring requirements under 9VAC25-31-220; and

4. Effluent limitations, standards, prohibitions, standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal, and conditions under 9VAC25-31-190, 9VAC25-31-200, 9VAC25-31-220, and Part VI (9VAC25-31-370 et seq.), and all variances that are to be included.

9VAC25-31-280

9VAC25-31-280. Fact sheet.

A. A fact sheet shall be prepared for every draft permit for a major VPDES facility or activity, for every Class I sludge management facility, for every VPDES general permit, for every VPDES draft permit that incorporates a variance or requires an explanation under subsection B 8 of this section, for every draft permit that includes a sewage sludge biosolids land application [ plan ] under [ 9VAC25-31-100 C 2 9VAC25-31-100 D 2 ], and for every draft permit which the board finds is the subject of wide-spread public interest or raises major issues. The fact sheet shall briefly set forth the principal facts and the significant factual, legal, methodological and policy questions considered in preparing the draft permit. The board shall send this fact sheet to the applicant and, on request, to any other person.

B. The fact sheet shall include, when applicable:

1. A brief description of the type of facility or activity which is the subject of the draft permit;

2. The type and quantity of wastes, fluids, or pollutants which are proposed to be or are being treated, stored, disposed of, injected, emitted, or discharged;

3. A brief summary of the basis for the draft permit conditions including references to applicable statutory or regulatory provisions;

4. Reasons why any requested variances or alternatives to required standards do or do not appear justified;

5. A description of the procedures for reaching a final decision on the draft permit including:

a. The beginning and ending dates of the comment period for the draft permit and the address where comments will be received;

b. Procedures for requesting a public hearing and the nature of that hearing; and

c. Any other procedures by which the public may participate in the final decision;

6. Name and telephone number of a person to contact for additional information;

7. Any calculations or other necessary explanation of the derivation of specific effluent limitations and conditions or standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal, including a citation to the applicable effluent limitation guideline, performance standard, or standard for biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal and reasons why they are applicable or an explanation of how the alternate effluent limitations were developed;

8. When the draft permit contains any of the following conditions, an explanation of the reasons why such conditions are applicable:

a. Limitations to control toxic pollutants;

b. Limitations on internal waste streams;

c. Limitations on indicator pollutants;

d. Technology-based or sewage sludge disposal limitations set on a case-by-case basis;

e. Limitations to meet the criteria for permit issuance under 9VAC25-31-50; or

f. Waivers from monitoring requirements granted under 9VAC25-31-220 A;

9. For every permit to be issued to a treatment works owned by a person other than a state or municipality, an explanation of the [ board"s board's ] decision on regulation of users;

10. When appropriate, a sketch or detailed description of the location of the discharge or regulated activity described in the application; [ and ]

11. For permits that include a sewage sludge biosolids land application plan under 9VAC25-31-100 P 8 e, a brief description of how each of the required elements of the land application plan are addressed in the permit; and 

12. 11. ] Justification of waiver of any application requirements under 9VAC25-31-100 J or P.

9VAC25-31-290

9VAC25-31-290. Public notice of permit actions and public comment period.

A. Scope.

1. The board department shall give public notice that the following actions have occurred:

a. A draft permit has been prepared under 9VAC25-31-260 D;

b. A public hearing has been scheduled under 9VAC25-31-310; or

c. A VPDES new source determination has been made under 9VAC25-31-180.

2. No public notice is required when a request for permit modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination is denied under 9VAC25-31-370 B. Written notice of that denial shall be given to the requester and to the permittee.

3. Public notice shall not be required for submission or approval of plans and specifications or conceptual engineering reports not required to be submitted as part of the application.

3. 4. Public notices may describe more than one permit or permit actions.

B. Timing.

1. Public notice of the preparation of a draft permit required under subsection A of this section shall allow at least 30 days for public comment.

2. Public notice of a public hearing shall be given at least 30 days before the hearing. (Public notice of the hearing may be given at the same time as public notice of the draft permit and the two notices may be combined.)

C. Methods. Public notice of activities described in subdivision A 1 of this section shall be given by the following methods:

1. By mailing a copy of a notice to the following persons (any person otherwise entitled to receive notice under this subdivision may waive his or her rights to receive notice for any classes and categories of permits):

a. The applicant (except for VPDES general permits when there is no applicant);

b. Any other agency which the board department knows has issued or is required to issue a VPDES, sludge biosolids management permit;

c. Federal and state agencies with jurisdiction over fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources and over coastal zone management plans, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, State Historic Preservation Officers, including any affected states (Indian Tribes);

d. Any state agency responsible for plan development under § 208(b)(2), [ § ] 208(b)(4) or § 303(e) of the CWA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service;

e. Any user identified in the permit application of a privately owned treatment works;

f. Persons on a mailing list developed by:

(1) Including those who request in writing to be on the list;

(2) Soliciting persons for area lists from participants in past permit proceedings in that area; and

(3) Notifying the public of the opportunity to be put on the mailing list through periodic publication in the public press and in such publications as EPA regional and state funded newsletters, environmental bulletins, or state law journals. (The board department may update the mailing list from time to time by requesting written indication of continued interest from those listed. The board department may delete from the list the name of any person who fails to respond to such a request.);

g. (1) Any unit of local government having jurisdiction over the area where the facility is proposed to be located; and

(2) h. Each state agency having any authority under state law with respect to the construction or operation of such facility;

2. Except for permits for concentrated animal feeding operations as defined in 9VAC25-31-10 or designated in accordance with 9VAC25-31-130 B, by publication once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the discharge. The cost of public notice shall be paid by the owner; and

3. Any other method reasonably calculated to give actual notice of the action in question to the persons potentially affected by it, including press releases or any other forum or medium to elicit public participation.

D. Contents.

1. All public notices issued under this part shall contain the following minimum information:

a. Name and address of the office processing the permit action for which notice is being given;

b. Name and address of the permittee or permit applicant and, if different, of the facility or activity regulated by the permit, except in the case of VPDES draft general permits;

c. A brief description of the business conducted at the facility or activity described in the permit application or the draft permit, for VPDES general permits when there is no application;

d. Name, address and telephone number of a person from whom interested persons may obtain further information, including copies of the draft permit or draft general permit, as the case may be, statement of basis or fact sheet, and the application;

e. A brief description of the procedures for submitting comments and the time and place of any public hearing that will be held, including a statement of procedures to request a public hearing (unless a hearing has already been scheduled) and other procedures by which the public may participate in the final permit decision;

f. A general description of the location of each existing or proposed discharge point and the name of the receiving water and the [ sludge biosolids ] use and [ sewage sludge ] disposal practice or practices and the location of each sludge treatment works treating domestic sewage and use or disposal sites known at the time of permit application. For draft general permits, this requirement will be satisfied by a map or description of the permit area;

g. Requirements applicable to cooling water intake structures under § 316 of the CWA, in accordance with 9VAC25-31-165; and

h. Any additional information considered necessary or proper.

2. In addition to the general public notice described in subdivision 1 of this subsection, the public notice of a public hearing under 9VAC25-31-310 shall contain the following information:

a. Reference to the date of previous public notices relating to the permit;

b. Date, time, and place of the public hearing;

c. A brief description of the nature and purpose of the public hearing, including the applicable rules and procedures; and

d. A concise statement of the issues raised by the persons requesting the public hearing.

3. Public notice of a VPDES draft permit for a discharge where a request for alternate thermal effluent limitations has been filed shall include:

a. A statement that the thermal component of the discharge is subject to effluent limitations incorporated in 9VAC25-31-30 and a brief description, including a quantitative statement, of the thermal effluent limitations proposed under § 301 or § 306 of the CWA;

b. A statement that an alternate thermal effluent limitation request has been filed and that alternative less stringent effluent limitations may be imposed on the thermal component of the discharge under the law and § 316(a) of the CWA and a brief description, including a quantitative statement, of the alternative effluent limitations, if any, included in the request; and

c. If the applicant has filed an early screening request for a CWA § 316(a) variance, a statement that the applicant has submitted such a plan.

E. In addition to the general public notice described in subdivision D 1 of this section, all persons identified in subdivisions C 1 a, b, c, and d of this section shall be mailed a copy of the fact sheet or statement of basis, the permit application (if any) and the draft permit (if any).

F. Upon receipt of an application for the issuance of a new or modified permit other than those for agricultural production or aquacultural production activities, the board department shall:

1. Notify, in writing, the locality wherein the discharge or, as applicable, the associated land application of sewage sludge biosolids, or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge or stabilized septage does or is proposed to take place of, at a minimum:

a. The name of the applicant;

b. The nature of the application and proposed discharge;

c. The availability and timing of any comment period; and

d. Upon request, any other information known to, or in the possession of, the board or the department regarding the applicant not required to be held confidential by this chapter.

2. Establish a date for a public meeting to discuss technical issues relating to proposals for land application of sewage sludge, or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge or stabilized septage. The department shall give notice of the date, time, and place of the public meeting and a description of the proposal by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the proposal is to take place. Public notice of the scheduled meeting shall occur no fewer than seven or more than 14 days prior to the meeting. The board shall not issue the permit until the public meeting has been held and comment has been received from the local governing body, or until 30 days have lapsed from the date of the public meeting.

3. 2. Except for land application of sewage sludge biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge or stabilized septage, make a good faith effort to provide this same notice and information to (i) each locality and riparian property owner to a distance one-quarter mile downstream and one-quarter mile upstream or to the fall line whichever is closer on tidal waters and (ii) each locality and riparian property owner to a distance one-half mile downstream on nontidal waters. Distances shall be measured from the point, or proposed point, of discharge. If the receiving river at the point or proposed point of discharge is two miles wide or greater, the riparian property owners on the opposite shore need not be notified. Notice to property owners shall be based on names and addresses taken from local tax rolls. Such names and addresses shall be provided by the commissioners of the revenue or the tax assessor's office of the affected jurisdictions upon request by the board.

4. For a site that is to be added to an existing permit authorizing land application of sewage sludge, notify persons residing on property bordering such site and receive written comments from those persons for a period not to exceed 30 days. Based upon the written comments, the department shall determine whether additional site-specific requirements should be included in the authorization for land application at the site.

G. Whenever the department receives an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage, or an application to reissue with the addition of sites increasing acreage by 50% or more of that authorized by the initial permit, the department shall establish a date for a public meeting to discuss technical issues relating to proposals for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage. The department shall give notice of the date, time, and place of the public meeting and a description of the proposal by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the proposal is to take place. Public notice of the scheduled meeting shall occur no fewer than seven or more than 14 days prior to the meeting. The department shall not issue the permit until the public meeting has been held and comment has been received from the local governing body or until 30 days have lapsed from the date of the public meeting.

H. Following the submission of an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage,DEQ the department ] shallmake a good faith effort to ] notify or cause to be notified persons residing on property bordering the sites that contain the proposed land application fields. This notification shall be in a manner selected by the department. For the purposes of this subsection, "site" means all contiguous land under common ownership, but which may contain more than one tax parcel.

I. Following the submission of an application to add a site that is not contiguous to sites included in an existing permit authorizing the land application of biosolids:

1. The department shall notify persons residing on property bordering such site and shall receive written comments from those persons for a period of 30 days. Based upon written comments, the department shall determine whether additional site-specific requirements should be included in the authorization for land application at the site.

2. An application for any permit amendment to increase the acreage authorized by the initial permit by 50% or more shall be considered a major modification and shall be treated as a new application for purposes of public notice and public hearings. The increase in acreage for the purpose of determining the need for the public meeting is the sum of all acreage that has been added to the permit since the last public meeting, plus that proposed to be added.

G. J. Before issuing any permit, if the [ board department ] finds that there are localities particularly affected by the permit, the [ board department ] shall:

1. Publish, or require the applicant to publish, a notice in a local paper of general circulation in the localities affected at least 30 days prior to the close of any public comment period. Such notice shall contain a statement of the estimated local impact of the proposed permit, which at a minimum shall include information on the specific pollutants involved and the total quantity of each which may be discharged; and.

2. Mail the notice to the chief elected official and chief administrative officer and planning district commission for those localities.

Written 3. Accept written comments shall be accepted by the board for [ at least up to ] 15 days after any public hearing on the permit, unless the [ board votes department decides ] to shorten the period. For the purposes of this section, the term "locality particularly affected" means any locality which bears any identified disproportionate material water quality impact which would not be experienced by other localities.

4. For the purposes of this section, consider the term "locality particularly affected" to mean any locality that bears any identified disproportionate material water quality impact that would not be experienced by other localities.

9VAC25-31-390

9VAC25-31-390. Modification or revocation and reissuance of permits.

A. Causes for modification. The following are causes for modification but not revocation and reissuance of permits except when the permittee requests or agrees.

1. There are material and substantial alterations or additions to the permitted facility or activity (including a change or changes in the permittee's sludge use or disposal practice) which occurred after permit issuance which justify the application of permit conditions that are different or absent in the existing permit.

2. The department has received new information. Permits may be modified during their terms for this cause only if the information was not available at the time of permit issuance (other than revised regulations, guidance, or test methods) and would have justified the application of different permit conditions at the time of issuance. For VPDES general permits this cause includes any information indicating that cumulative effects on the environment are unacceptable. For new source or new discharger VPDES permits this cause shall include any significant information derived from effluent testing required on the permit application after issuance of the permit.

3. The standards or regulations on which the permit was based have been changed by promulgation of amended standards or regulations or by judicial decision after the permit was issued. Permits may be modified during their terms for this cause only as follows:

a. For promulgation of amended standards or regulations, when:

(1) The permit condition requested to be modified was based on a promulgated effluent limitation guideline, EPA approved or promulgated water quality standards, or the Secondary Treatment Regulations incorporated by reference in 9VAC25-31-30; and

(2) EPA has revised, withdrawn, or modified that portion of the regulation or effluent limitation guideline on which the permit condition was based, or has approved a state action with regard to a water quality standard on which the permit condition was based; and

(3) A permittee requests modification in accordance with this chapter within 90 days after Federal Register notice of the action on which the request is based;

b. For judicial decisions, a court of competent jurisdiction has remanded and stayed EPA promulgated regulations or effluent limitation guidelines, if the remand and stay concern that portion of the regulations or guidelines on which the permit condition was based and a request is filed by the permittee in accordance with this chapter within 90 days of judicial remand; or

c. For changes based upon modified state certifications of VPDES permits.

4. The board determines good cause exists for modification of a compliance schedule, such as an act of God, strike, flood, or materials shortage or other events over which the permittee has little or no control and for which there is no reasonably available remedy. However, in no case may a VPDES compliance schedule be modified to extend beyond an applicable CWA statutory deadline.

5. When the permittee has filed a request for a variance pursuant to 9VAC25-31-100 L or M within the time specified in this chapter.

6. When required to incorporate an applicable CWA § 307(a) toxic effluent standard or prohibition.

7. When required by the reopener conditions in a permit which are established under 9VAC25-31-220 B or C or 9VAC25-31-800 E.

8. a. Upon request of a permittee who qualifies for effluent limitations on a net basis under 9VAC25-31-230 G.

b. When a discharger is no longer eligible for net limitations as provided in 9VAC25-31-230 G 1 b.

9. As necessary under 9VAC25-31-800 E for a pretreatment program.

10. Upon failure to notify another state whose waters may be affected by a discharge.

11. When the level of discharge of any pollutant which is not limited in the permit exceeds the level which can be achieved by the technology-based treatment requirements appropriate to the permittee.

12. To establish a notification level as provided in 9VAC25-31-220 F.

13. To modify a schedule of compliance to reflect the time lost during construction of an innovative or alternative facility, in the case of a POTW which has received a grant under § 202(a)(3) of the CWA for 100% of the costs to modify or replace facilities constructed with a grant for innovative and alternative wastewater technology under § 202(a)(2) of the CWA. In no case shall the compliance schedule be modified to extend beyond an applicable CWA statutory deadline for compliance.

14. To correct technical mistakes, such as errors in calculation, or mistaken interpretations of law made in determining permit conditions.

15. When the discharger has installed the treatment technology considered by the permit writer in setting effluent limitations imposed under the law and § 402(a)(1) of the CWA and has properly operated and maintained the facilities but nevertheless has been unable to achieve those effluent limitations. In this case, the limitations in the modified permit may reflect the level of pollutant control actually achieved (but shall not be less stringent than required by a subsequently promulgated effluent limitations guideline).

16. When required by a permit condition to incorporate a land application plan for beneficial reuse of sewage sludge biosolids, to revise an existing land application plan, or to add a land application plan. ]

B. Causes for modification or revocation and reissuance. The following are causes to modify or, alternatively, revoke and reissue a permit:

1. Cause exists for termination under 9VAC25-31-410, and the board determines that modification or revocation and reissuance is appropriate; or

2. The department has received notification of a proposed transfer of the permit. A permit also may be modified to reflect a transfer after the effective date of an automatic transfer but will not be revoked and reissued after the effective date of the transfer except upon the request of the new permittee.

9VAC25-31-420

Part VI
Standards for the Use of Biosolids or Disposal of Sewage Sludge

Article 1
General Requirements

9VAC25-31-420. Purpose and applicability.

A. This part establishes standards, which consist of general requirements, pollutant limits, management practices, and operational standards, for the final use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Standards are included in this part for sewage sludge biosolids applied to the land or sewage sludge placed on a surface disposal site. Also included in this part are pathogen and alternative vector attraction reduction requirements for sewage sludge biosolids applied to the land or sewage sludge placed on a surface disposal site.

B. In addition, the standards in this part include the frequency of monitoring and recordkeeping requirements when sewage sludge biosolids is applied to the land or sewage sludge is placed on a surface disposal site. Also included in this part are reporting requirements for Class I sludge management facilities, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, and POTWs that serve 10,000 people or more.

B. C. Applicability.

1. This part applies to any person who prepares sewage sludge or biosolids, or applies sewage sludge biosolids to the land and to the owner/operator of a surface disposal site.

2. This part applies to sewage sludge biosolids applied to the land or sewage sludge placed on a surface disposal site.

3. This part applies to land where sewage sludge biosolids is applied and to a surface disposal site.

9VAC25-31-440

9VAC25-31-440. Permits and direct enforceability.

A. The requirements in this part may be implemented through a permit issued to a treatment works treating domestic sewage, in accordance with this chapter. Treatment works treating domestic sewage shall submit a permit application in accordance with this chapter.

B. No person shall use biosolids or dispose of sewage sludge through any practice for which requirements are established in this part except in accordance with such requirements.

C. No person shall land apply Class B biosolids on any land in Virginia unless that land has been identified in an application to issue, reissue, or modify a permit and approved by the board.

D. No person shall land apply, market, or distribute biosolids in Virginia unless the biosolids source has been approved by the board. ]

9VAC25-31-460

9VAC25-31-460. Additional or more stringent requirements.

A. On a case-by-case basis, the board may impose requirements for the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge in addition to or more stringent than the requirements in this part when necessary to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effect of a pollutant in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

B. Nothing in this part precludes [ the authority of ] another state agency [ with responsibility for regulating biosolids or sewage sludge or, ] any political subdivision of Virginia [ , ] or an interstate agency [ from imposing requirements for the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge more stringent than the requirements in this part or from imposing additional requirements for with respect to ] the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge.

C. For sewage sludge biosolids land application where, because of site-specific conditions, including soil type, identified during the permit application review process, the department determines that special requirements are necessary to protect the environment or the health, safety or welfare of persons residing in the vicinity of a proposed land application site, the department may incorporate in the permit at the time it is issued reasonable special conditions regarding [ buffering setback distances ], transportation routes, slope, material source, methods of handling and application, and time of day restrictions exceeding those required by this regulation. The permit applicant shall have at least 14 days in which to review and respond to the proposed conditions.

9VAC25-31-475

9VAC25-31-475. Local enforcement of [ sewage sludge biosolids ] regulations.

A. In the event of a dispute concerning the existence of a violation between a permittee and a locality that has adopted a local ordinance for testing and monitoring of the land application of sewage sludge and a permittee concerning the existence of a violation biosolids, the activity alleged to be in violation shall be halted pending a determination by the director. The decision of the director shall be final and binding unless reversed on judicial appeal pursuant to § 2.2-4026 of the Code of Virginia. If the activity is not halted, the director may seek an injunction compelling the halting of the activity from a court having jurisdiction.

B. Upon determination by the director that there has been a violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1 or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia, or of any regulation promulgated under those sections, and that such violation poses an imminent threat to public health, safety or welfare, the department shall commence appropriate action to abate the violation and immediately notify the chief administrative officer of any locality potentially affected by the violation.

C. Local governments shall promptly notify the department of all results from the testing and monitoring of the land application of sewage sludge biosolids performed by persons employed by local governments and any violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1, or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia.

D. Localities Local governments receiving complaints concerning land application of sewage sludge biosolids shall notify the department and the permit holder within 24 hours of receiving the complaint.

9VAC25-31-480

9VAC25-31-480. Requirement Requirements for a person who prepares biosolids or sewage sludge.

A. Any person who prepares biosolids shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when biosolids is applied to the land.

B. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is applied to the land, or placed on a surface disposal site.

9VAC25-31-485

9VAC25-31-485. Requirements for [ permittees a person ] who land [ apply applies ] sewage sludge biosolids.

A. [ Any person who land applies sewage sludge biosolids authorized by a VPDES permit shall be certified in accordance with requirements No person shall land apply biosolids pursuant to a permit issued in accordance with this regulation unless an individual holding a valid certificate of competence as ] specified in the Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation (9VAC25-32), Article 5, Certification of Land Applicators, as set forth in 9VAC25-32-690 through 9VAC25-32-760, is onsite at all times during such land application ].

B. Persons authorized to land apply sewage sludge under a VPDES permit shall report all complaints received by them to the department and the local governing body of the jurisdiction in which the complaint originates.

B. When an application for a permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids is submitted to the department:

1. Permit holders shall use aunique control number assigned by the department as an identifier for fields permitted for land application. DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying each land application field. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the site identification code used by the permit applicant to report activities and the site's location. ]

2. A written agreement shall be established between the landowner and permit applicant or permit holder to be submitted with the permit application, whereby the landowner shall consent to the application of biosolids on his propertyand certify that no concurrent agreements are in effect for the fields to be permitted for biosolids application ]. The landowner agreement shall includean acknowledgment by the landowner of any site restrictions identified in the permit. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the permit holder.:

(a) A statement certifying that the landowner is the sole owner or one of multiple owners of the property or properties identified on the landowner agreements;

(b) A statement certifying that no concurrent agreements are in effect for the fields to be permitted for biosolids application;

(c) An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee when land is sold or ownership transferred;

(d) An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee if any conditions change such that any component of the landowner agreement becomes invalid;

(e) Permission to allow department staff on the landowner's property to conduct inspections;

(f) An acknowledgement by the landowner of any site restrictions identified in the regulation;

(g) An acknowledgement that the landowner has received a biosolids fact sheet approved by the department; and

(h) An acknowledgement that the landowner shall not remove notification signs placed by the permit holder. ]

3. Newor revised ] landowner agreements, using the most current form provided by the board, ] shall be submitted to the departmentif new land is being added to the permit or if there have been changes in ownership of land included in a permit reissuance request for proposed land application sites identified in each application for issuance or reissuance of a permit or the modification to add land to an existing permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids ].

4. For permits modified in order to incorporate changes to this chapter, the permit holder shall, within 60 days of the effective date of the permit modification, advise the landowner by certified letter of the requirement to provide a new landowner agreement. The letter shall include instructions to the landowner for signing and returning the new landowner agreement and shall advise the landowner that the permit holder's receipt of such new landowner agreement is required prior to application of biosolids to the landowner's property.

5. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the permit holder. ]

C. The permit holder shall ensure that the landowner agreement is still valid at the time of land application.

D. Notification requirements.

C. 1. At least 100 days prior to commencing [ the first ] land application of sewage sludge biosolids at a permitted site the permittee shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the chief executive officer or his designee for the local government where the site is located. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the sewage sludge biosolids to be applied to the site. This requirement may be satisfied by [ the department's notice to the local government at the time of receiving the permit application if all necessary information is included in the notice or by ] providing a list of all available permitted sites in the locality at least 100 days prior to commencing the application at any site on the list. If the site is located in more than one county, the notice shall be provided to all jurisdictions where the site is located.

2. At least 14 days prior to commencing land application of biosolids at a permitted site, the permit holder shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located. The notice shall include the following: unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the sewage sludge to be applied to the site. ]

a. The name, address, and telephone number of the permit holder, including the name of a representative knowledgeable of the permit;

b. Identification by tax map number and the DEQ control number for sites on which land application is to take place;

c. A map indicating haul routes on each site where land application is to take place;

d. The name or title and phone number of at least one individual designated by the permit holder to respond to questions and complaints related to the land application project;

e. The approximate dates on which land application is to begin and end at the site;

f. The name and telephone number of the person or persons at the department to be contacted in connection with the permit; and

g. The name, address, and telephone number of the wastewater treatment facility, or facilities, from which the biosolids will originate, including the name or title of a representative of the treatment facility that is knowledgeable about the land application operation.

If multiple sites are included in the notification, the permit holder shall make a good faith effort to identify the most probable order that land application will commence. ]

D. 3.The Not more than 24 hours prior to commencing land application activities, including delivery of biosolids at a permitted site, the ] permittee shall [ deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to notify in writing ] the department as least 14 days prior to commencing land application of sewage sludge at a permitted site. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the sewage sludge to be applied to the site andto ] the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located, daily notification prior to commencing planned land application activities. unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. This notification shall include identification of the biosolids source and shall include only sites where land application activities will commence within 24 hours or where the biosolids will be staged within 24 hours. ]

E. The permittee shall provide to the department, and to each locality in which it is permitted to land apply sewage sludge, written evidence of financial responsibility, including both current liability and pollution insurance, or such other evidence of financial responsibility as the board may establish by regulation in an amount not less than $1 million per occurrence, which shall be available to pay claims for cleanup costs, personal injury, bodily injury and property damage resulting from the transport, storage and land application of sewage sludge in Virginia. The aggregate amount of financial liability maintained by the permittee shall be $1 million for companies with less than $5 million in annual gross revenue and shall be $2 million for companies with $5 million or more in annual gross revenue. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with requirements specified in Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX(9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) ] of the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation.

F. Posting signs.

1. At least five business days prior to delivery of biosolids for land application on any site permitted under this regulation, the permit holder shall post signs at the site that comply with this section, are visible and legible from the public right-of-way in both directions of travel, and conform to the specificationsherein in this subsection ]. The sign shall remain in place for at least five business days after land application has been completed at the site.The permit holder shall not remove the signs until at least 30 days after land application has been completed at the site. ]

a.A sign shall be posted at or near the intersection of the public right-of-way and the main site access road or driveway to the site used by the biosolids transport vehicles.

b. ] If thesite field ] is located adjacent to a public right-of-way,signs at least one sign ] shall be posted along eachpublic ] road frontage beside the field to be land applied.

b. If the site is not located adjacent to a public right-of-way, the sign shall be posted at or near the intersection of the public right-of-way and the main site access road or driveway to the site. ]

c. The department may grant a waiver to the requirements in this section, or require alternative posting options due to extenuating circumstances orto be consistent where requirements conflict ] with local government ordinances and other requirements regulating the use of signs.

2.Upon the posting of signs at a land application site prior to commencing land application, the permittee shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. Notification shall be delivered to the department within 24 hours of the posting of the signs. The notice shall include the following:

a. The name and telephone number of the permit holder, including the name of a representative knowledgeable of the permit;

b. Identification by tax map number and the DEQ control number for sites on which land application is to take place;

c. The name or title and telephone number of at least one individual designated by the permit holder to respond to questions and complaints related to the land application project if not the permit holder identified in subdivision a of this subdivision; and

d. The approximate dates on which land application is to begin and end at the site.

3. ] The sign shall be made of weather-resistant materials and shall be sturdily mounted so as to be capable of remaining in place and legible throughout the period that the sign is required at the site. Signs required by this section shall be temporary, nonilluminated, and four square feet or more in area, and only contain the following information:

a. A statement that biosolids are being land applied at the site;

b. The nameand telephone number ] of the permit holderand the name (or title) and telephone number of an individual designated by the permit holder to respond to complaints and inquiries; and;

c. The telephone number of an individual designated by the permit holder to respond to complaints and inquiries; and ]

c. d. ] Contact information for the department, including a telephone number for complaints and inquiries.

3. 4. ] The permit holder shall make a good faith effort to replace or repair any sign that has been removed from a land application site or that has been damaged so as to render any of its required information illegible prior to five business days after completion of land application.

G.Operations Biosolids ] management plan.

1. The permit holder shall maintainan operations and implement a biosolids ] management plan, which shall consist of three components:

a. The materials, including site booklets, developed and submitted at the time of permit application or permit modification adding a site to the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-31-100 Q;

b. Nutrient management plan for each site, in accordance with 9VAC25-31-505; and

c. Operation and maintenance (O&M) manual, developed and submitted to the department within 90 days of the effective date of the permit.

2. The biosolids management plan and all of its components shall be incorporated as an enforceable part of the permit. ]

2. 3. ] The O&M manual shall include at a minimum:

a. Equipment maintenance and calibration procedures and schedules;

b. Storage facility maintenance procedures and schedules;

c. Sampling schedules for:

(1) Required monitoring; and

(2) Operational control testing;

d. Sample collection, preservation and analysis procedures, including laboratories and methods used; and

e. Instructions for recording and reporting all monitoring activities.

3. 4. ] Current VPDES permit holders who land apply biosolids may use their existing VPDES O&M plan addressing land application to satisfy the requirements of this section if the existing plan addresses all of the required minimum components identified in this section.

H. Handling of complaints.

1. Within 24 hours of receiving notification of a complaint, the permit holder shall commence investigation of the complaint and shall determine whether the complaint is substantive. The permit holder shall confirm receipt of all substantive complaints by phone, email, or facsimile to the department, the chief executive officer or designee for the local government of the jurisdiction in which the complaint originates, and the owner of the treatment facility from which the biosolids originated within 24 hours after receiving the complaint.

2. For the purposes of this section, a substantive complaint shall be deemed to be any complaint alleging a violation of these regulations, state law, or local ordinance; a release of biosolids to state waters or to a public right-of-way or to any location not authorized in the permit; or failure to comply with the nutrient management plan for the land application site.

9VAC25-31-490

9VAC25-31-490. Sampling and analysis.

A. Representative samples of sewage sludge biosolids that is applied to the land, or placed on a surface disposal site shall be collected and analyzed.

B. Methods in the materials listed below [ or in 40 CFR Part 136 ] shall be used to analyze samples of sewage sludge biosolids and calculation procedures in the materials shall be used to calculate the percent volatile solids reduction for sewage sludge biosolids.

1. Enteric viruses.

ASTM Designation: D 4994-89, "Standard Practice for Recovery of Viruses From Wastewater Sludges," Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Section 11 - Water and Environmental Technology, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA., 1992.

2. Fecal coliform.

Part 9221 E. or Part 9222 D., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992.

3. Helminth ova.

Yanko, W.A., "Occurrence of Pathogens in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges," EPA 600/1-87-014, 1987. PB 88-154273/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.

4. Inorganic pollutants.

"Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods," EPA Publication SW-846, Third Edition as amended by Final Updates I, II, IIA, IIB, III, IIIA, IIIB, IVA and IVB. PB88-239223, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.

5. Salmonella sp. bacteria.

Part 9260 D., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992; or

Kenner, B.A. and H.P. Clark, "Detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa," J. Water Pollution Control Federation, 46(9):2163-2171, 1974.

6. Specific oxygen uptake rate.

Part 2710 B., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992.

7. Total, fixed, and volatile solids.

Part 2540 G., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992.

8. Percent volatile solids reduction calculation.

"Environmental Regulations and Technology - Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage Sludge," EPA-625/R-92/013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, Revised July 2003.

9VAC25-31-500

9VAC25-31-500. Definitions.

In addition to the definitions given in Part I (9VAC25-31-10 et seq.) of this chapter, the following definitions apply to Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter. Where the same term is defined in both parts, the definition of Part VI of this chapter applies to the use of the term in Part VI of this chapter.

"Active sewage sludge unit" means a sewage sludge unit that has not closed.

"Aerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.

"Agricultural land" means land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land and land used as pasture.

"Agronomic rate" means the whole sludge application rate (dry weight basis) designed: (i) to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, cover crop, or vegetation grown on the land and (ii) to minimize the amount of nitrogen in the sewage sludge biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the [ groundwater ground water ].

"Anaerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.

"Annual pollutant loading rate (APLR)" ] or "APLR" means the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Annual whole sludge application rate (AWSAR)" or "AWSAR" means the maximum amount of sewage sludge biosolids (dry weight basis) that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Apply sewage sludge biosolids" or sewage sludge "biosolids applied to the land" means land application of sewage sludge biosolids.

"Aquifer" means a geologic formation, group of geologic formations, or a portion of a geologic formation capable of yielding [ groundwater ground water ] to wells or springs.

"Base flood" means a flood that has a one percent chance of occurring in any given year (i.e., a flood with a magnitude equaled once in 100 years).

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-31-540, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this regulation. ]

"Bulk sewage sludge" "Bulk biosolids" means sewage sludge biosolids that is are not sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

"Class I sludge management facility" means any publicly owned treatment works (POTW) required to have an approved pretreatment program under this chapter and any treatment works treating domestic sewage classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the board because of the potential for its biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal practice to affect public health and the environment adversely.

"Contaminate an aquifer" means to introduce a substance that causes the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in the Virginia Water Quality Standards or in 40 CFR 141.62(b) to be exceeded in [ groundwater ground water ] or that causes the existing concentration of nitrate in [ groundwater ground water ] to increase when the existing concentration of nitrate in the [ groundwater ground water ] exceeds the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in the Virginia Water Quality Standards or 40 CFR 141.62(b).

"Cover" means soil or other material used to cover sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

"Cover crop" means a small grain crop, such as oats, wheat, or barley, not grown for harvest. ]

"Cumulative pollutant loading rate" means the maximum amount of an inorganic pollutant that can be applied to an area of land.

"Density of microorganisms" means the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Displacement" means the relative movement of any two sides of a fault measured in any direction.

"Domestic septage" means either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.

"Domestic sewage" means waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids and expressed in units of English tons.

"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge or biosolids after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as percent solids.

"Dry weight basis" means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105°C until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100% solids content).

"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.

"Fault" means a fracture or zone of fractures in any materials along which strata on one side are displaced with respect to strata on the other side.

"Feed crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.

"Fiber crops" means crops such as flax and cotton.

"Field" means an area of land within a site where land application is proposed or permitted.

"Final cover" means the last layer of soil or other material placed on a sewage sludge unit at closure.

"Food crops" means crops [ consumed produced primarily for consumption ] by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.

"Forest" means a tract of land thick with trees and underbrush.

[ "Groundwater" "Ground water" ] means water below the land surface in the saturated zone.

"Holocene time" means the most recent epoch of the Quaternary period, extending from the end of the Pleistocene epoch to the present.

"Industrial wastewater" means wastewater generated in a commercial or industrial process.

[ "Land application" means the spraying or spreading of sewage sludge biosolids onto the land surface; the injection of sewage sludge biosolids below the land surface; or the incorporation of sewage sludge biosolids into the soil so that the sewage sludge biosolids can either condition the soil or fertilize crops or vegetation grown in the soil. in regard to biosolids, the distribution of biosolids by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing the crops and vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this chapter are not to be considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this chapter, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback distances, where the biosolids may be applied.

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this chapter and 9VAC25-32-690 through 9VAC25-32-760. ]

"Land with a high potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g., a construction site located in a city).

"Land with a low potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).

"Leachate collection system" means a system or device installed immediately above a liner that is designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to collect and remove leachate from a sewage sludge unit.

"Liner" means soil or synthetic material that has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 X 10%687 1 X 10-7 centimeters per second or less.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by a local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Lower explosive limit for methane gas" means the lowest percentage of methane gas in air, by volume, that propagates a flame at 25°C and atmospheric pressure.

"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors normally associated with biosolids or sewage sludge. ]

"Monthly average" means the arithmetic mean of all measurements taken during the month.

"Municipality" means a city, town, county, district, association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal Agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under state law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge management; or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under state law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity, or an integrated waste management facility as defined in § 201(e) of the CWA, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Odor sensitive receptor" means, in the context of land application of biosolids,any health care facility, such as hospitals, convalescent homes, etc. or ] a building or outdoor facility regularly used to host or serve large groups of people such as schools, dormitories,or ] athletic and other recreational facilities, hospitals, and convalescent homes ].

"Other container" means either an open or closed receptacle. This includes, but is not limited to, a bucket, a box, a carton, and a vehicle or trailer with a load capacity of one metric ton or less.

"Pasture" means land on which animals feed directly on feed crops such as legumes, grasses, grain stubble, or stover.

"Pathogenic organisms" means disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.

"Person who prepares [ sewage sludge biosolids ]" means either the person who generates [ sewage sludge biosolids ] during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person who derives a material from sewage sludge.

"pH" means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25° Celsius or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25° Celsius.

"Place sewage sludge or sewage sludge placed" means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.

"Pollutant" means an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the board, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.

"Pollutant limit" means a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of sewage sludge biosolids (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids); the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare); or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).

"Public contact site" means land with a high potential for contact by the public. This includes, but is not limited to, public parks, ball fields, cemeteries, plant nurseries, turf farms, and golf courses.

"Qualified [ groundwater ground water ] scientist" means an individual with a baccalaureate or post-graduate degree in the natural sciences or engineering who has sufficient training and experience in [ groundwater ground water ] hydrology and related fields, as may be demonstrated by state registration, professional certification, or completion of accredited university programs, to make sound professional judgments regarding [ groundwater ground water ] monitoring, pollutant fate and transport, and corrective action.

"Range land" means open land with indigenous vegetation.

"Reclamation site" means drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using sewage sludge biosolids. This includes, but is not limited to, strip mines and construction sites.

"Run-off" means rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.

"Seismic impact zone" means an area that has a 10% or greater probability that the horizontal ground level acceleration of the rock in the area exceeds 0.10 gravity once in 250 years.

"Sewage sludge" means solid, semi-solid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

"Sewage sludge unit" means land on which only sewage sludge is placed for final disposal. This does not include land on which sewage sludge is either stored or treated. Land does not include surface waters.

"Sewage sludge unit boundary" means the outermost perimeter of an active sewage sludge unit.

"Site" means the area of land within a defined boundary where an activity is proposed or permitted.

"Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR)" means the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per unit mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.

"Store or storage of sewage sludge" means the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.

"Surface disposal site" means an area of land that contains one or more active sewage sludge units.

"Total solids" means the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried at 103°C to 105°C.

"Treat or treatment of sewage sludge" means the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.

"Treatment works" means either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature.

"Unstable area" means land subject to natural or human-induced forces that may damage the structural components of an active sewage sludge unit. This includes, but is not limited to, land on which the soils are subject to mass movement.

"Unstabilized solids" means organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.

"Use" means to manage or recycle a processed waste product in a manner so as to derive a measurable benefit as a result of such management. ]

"Vector attraction" means the characteristic of biosolids or sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.

"Volatile solids" means the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550°C in the presence of excess air.

9VAC25-31-505

Article 2
Sewage Sludge Biosolids Applied to the Land

9VAC25-31-505. Universal requirements for land application operations.

A. A nutrient management plan prepared by a person who is certified as a nutrient management planner by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be developed for all application sites prior to sewage sludge biosolids land application.

1. ] A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be required for application sites prior to board authorization under specific conditions, including but not limited to [ sites:

a. Sites  ] operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

[ sites b. Sites ] where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed; [ and other

c. Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; and

d. Other ] sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

e. Where conditions at the land application site change so that it meets one or more of the specific conditions identified in this section, an approved nutrient management plan shall be submitted prior to any future land application at the site.

2. The nutrient management plan shall be available for review by the department at the land application site during biosolids land application.

3. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the nutrient management plan to the farm operator of the site, the Department of Conservation and Recreation, and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government unless they request in writing not to receive the nutrient management plan.

4. The nutrient management plan must be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to land application for land application sites where the soil test phosphorus levels exceed the values in Table 1 of this section. For purposes of approval, permittees should submit the nutrient management plan to the Department of Conservation and Recreation at least 30 days prior to the anticipated date of land application to ensure adequate time for the approval process.

 

TABLE 1

SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS REQUIRING NMP APPROVAL

 

Region

Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Test (Mehlich I)*

 

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain

135

 

Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont

136

 

Ridge and Valley

162

 

*If results are from another laboratory, the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used. ]

B. Sewage sludge shall be treated to meet standards for land application of biosolids as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter prior to delivery at the land application site. No person shall alter the composition of sewage sludge biosolids at a site approved for land application of sewage sludge biosolids under a [ Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit VPDES permit ]. Any person who engages in the alteration of such sewage sludge biosolids shall be subject to the penalties provided in Article 6 (§ 62.1-44.31 et seq.) of Chapter 3.1 of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. The addition of lime or deodorants to sewage sludge biosolids that have been treated to meet standards for land application as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter, shall not constitute alteration of the composition of sewage sludge biosolids. The board may authorize public institutions of higher education to conduct scientific research on the composition of sewage sludge biosolids that may be applied to land.

C. Bulk biosolidsmeeting Class B pathogen reduction standards ] shall be land applied in accordance with the Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation, Article 3, Biosolids Use Standards and Practices, set forth in 9VAC25-32-490 through9VAC25-32-660 9VAC25-32-580 ].

C. D. Surface incorporation may be required on cropland by the department, or the local monitor with approval of the department, to mitigate [ excessive odors malodors ], when incorporation is practicable and compatible with a soil conservation plan [ or contract ] meeting the standards and specifications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.

D. E. For applications where surface applied sewage sludge biosolids are not incorporated, the department (or the local monitor with approval of the department) may require as a site-specific permit condition, extended [ buffer zone ] setback distances when necessary to protect odor sensitive receptors. When necessary, buffer zone setback distances from odor sensitive receptors may be extended to 400 feet or more and no sewage sludge shall be applied within such extended buffer zones. The board, in accordance with 9VAC25-31-460, may impose standards and requirements that are more stringent when required to protect public health and the environment, or prevent nuisance conditions from developing, either prior to or during sewage sludge use operations.

E. F. No person shall apply to the Department of Environmental Quality for a permit, a variance, or a permit modification authorizing storage of sewage sludge or biosolids without first complying with all requirements adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 R of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC25-31-510

9VAC25-31-510. Applicability; bulk sewage sludge biosolids; sewage sludge biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

A. This [ subpart article ] applies to any person who prepares sewage sludge biosolids that is applied to the land, to any person who applies sewage sludge biosolids to the land, to sewage sludge biosolids applied to the land, and to the land on which sewage sludge biosolids is applied.

B. General requirements for bulk biosolids.

B. 1. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 [ B through F ] do not apply when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to the land if the bulk sewage sludge biosolids meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

2. The board may apply any or all of the general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 to the bulk sewage sludge biosolids in subdivision 1 of this subsection on a case-by-case basis after determining that the general requirements or management practices are needed to protect public health and the environment from any reasonably anticipated adverse effect that may occur from any pollutant in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids.

C. General requirements for bulk material derived from biosolids.

C. 1. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 [ B through F ] do not apply when a bulk material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is applied to the land if the derived bulk material meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

2. The board may apply any or all of the general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 or the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 to the bulk material in subdivision 1 of this subsection on a case-by-case basis after determining that the general requirements or management practices are needed to protect public health and the environment from any reasonably anticipated adverse effect that may occur from any pollutant in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids.

D. The requirements in this article do not apply when a bulk material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is applied to the land if the sewage sludge biosolids from which the bulk material is derived meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

E. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 [ B through F ] do not apply when sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the sewage sludge biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

F. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 [ B through F ] do not apply when a material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the derived material meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

G. The requirements in this [ subpart article ] do not apply when a material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the sewage sludge biosolids from which the material is derived meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

9VAC25-31-530

9VAC25-31-530. General requirements.

A. No person shall apply sewage sludge biosolids to the land except in accordance with the requirements in this article.

B. No person shall apply bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site if any of the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been reached.

C. No person shall apply domestic septage to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site during a 365-day period if the annual application rate in 9VAC25-31-540 C has been reached during that period.

D. The person who prepares bulk sewage sludge biosolids that is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site shall provide the person who applies the bulk sewage sludge biosolids written notification of the concentration of total nitrogen (as N on a dry weight basis) in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids.

E. Application of biosolids to the land.

E. 1. The person who applies sewage sludge biosolids to the land shall obtain information needed to comply with the requirements in this subpart.

2. a. Before bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 is applied to the land,;

the a. The person who proposes to apply the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall contact the department to determine whether bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993.

b. If bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has not been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, the cumulative amount for each pollutant listed in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-540 may be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a.

c. If bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, and the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids since that date is known, the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site shall be used to determine the additional amount of each pollutant that can be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a.

d. If bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, and the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids since that date is not known, an additional amount of each pollutant shall not be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a.

F. When a person who prepares bulk sewage sludge biosolids provides the bulk sewage sludge biosolids to a person who applies the bulk sewage sludge biosolids to the land, the person who prepares the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall provide the person who applies the sewage sludge biosolids notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

G. When a person who prepares sewage sludge biosolids provides the sewage sludge biosolids to another person who prepares the sewage sludge biosolids, the person who provides the sewage sludge biosolids shall provide the person who receives the sewage sludge biosolids notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

H. The person who applies bulk sewage sludge biosolids to the land shall provide the owner or lease holder of the land on which the bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

I. Any person who prepares bulk sewage sludge biosolids in another state that is applied to land in Virginia shall provide written notice to the department prior to the initial application of bulk sewage sludge biosolids to the land application site by the applier. The notice shall include:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each land application site;

2. The approximate time period bulk sewage sludge biosolids will be applied to the site;

3. The name, address, telephone number, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) for the person who prepares the bulk sewage sludge biosolids; and

4. The name, address, telephone number, and National (or Virginia) Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) for the person who will apply the bulk sewage sludge biosolids.

J. Any person who applies bulk sewage sludge biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 to the land shall provide written notice, prior to the initial application of bulk sewage sludge biosolids to a land application site by the applier, to the department and the department shall retain and provide access to the notice. The notice shall include:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of the land application site; and

2. The name, address, telephone number, and Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) of the person who will apply the bulk sewage sludge biosolids.

9VAC25-31-540

9VAC25-31-540. Pollutant limits.

A. Sewage sludge Biosolids.

1. Bulk sewage sludge biosolids or sewage sludge biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall not be applied to the land if the concentration of any pollutant in the sewage sludge biosolids exceeds the ceiling concentration for the pollutant in Table 1 of this section.

2. If bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, either:

a. The cumulative loading rate for each pollutant shall not exceed the cumulative pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 2 of this section; or

b. The concentration of each pollutant in the sewage sludge biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 this section.

3. If bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden, the concentration of each pollutant in the sewage sludge biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 3 of this section.

4. If sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, either:

a. The concentration of each pollutant in the sewage sludge biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 3 of this section; or

b. The product of the concentration of each pollutant in the sewage sludge biosolids and the annual whole sludge application rate for the sewage sludge biosolids shall not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section to be exceeded. The procedure used to determine the annual whole sludge application rate is presented in subsection D of this section.

B. Pollutant concentrations and loading rates - sewage sludge biosolids.

TABLE 1
CEILING CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Ceiling Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

75

Cadmium

85

Copper

4300 4,300

Lead

840

Mercury

57

Molybdenum [ (1) ]

75

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

7500 7,500

*Dry weight basis

(1) Biosolids with a molybdenum concentration greater than 40 mg/kg shall not be applied to land used for livestock grazing. ]

 

TABLE 2
CUMULATIVE POLLUTANT LOADING RATES(1)

Pollutant

Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate

Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate
(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic(2)

41

36

Cadmium

39

35

Copper

1500 1,500

1,340

Lead

300

270

Mercury

17

16

Molybdenum(2)

 

 

Nickel

420

375

Selenium

100

89

Zinc

2800 2,800

2,500

Notes:

(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application rate is currently under study by the USEPA.Research suggests that for Molybdenum a cumulative pollutant loading rate below 40 kg/hectare may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals. ]

 

TABLE 3
POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Monthly Average Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

41

Cadmium

39

Copper

1500 1,500

Lead

300

Mercury

17

Molybdenum(1)

 

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

2800 2,800

*Dry weight basis

Note:

(1)The monthly average concentration is currently under study by the USEPA.Research suggests that a monthly average Molybdenum concentration below 40 mg/kg may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals. ]

 

TABLE 4
ANNUAL POLLUTANT LOADING RATES

Pollutant

Annual Pollutant Loading Rate(1)

(per 365-day period)

Annual Pollutant Loading Rate
(kilograms per hectare per 365-day period) (kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic

2.0

1.8

Cadmium

1.9

1.7

Copper

75

67

Lead

15

13

Mercury

0.85

0.76

Molybdenum(2)

 

 

Nickel

21

19

Selenium

5.0

4.6

Zinc

140

125

Notes:

(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soils mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application rate is currently under study by the USEPA.

C. Domestic septage. The annual application rate for domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site shall not exceed the annual application rate calculated using equation (1).

 

AAR =

N

(1)

 

0.0026

 

Where:

AAR=Annual application rate in gallons per acre per 365-day period.

N=Amount of nitrogen in pounds per acre per 365-day period needed by the crop or vegetation grown on the land.

EQUATION (1)

AAR = N/0.0026

AAR = Annual application rate in gallons per acre per 365-day period.

N = Amount of nitrogen in pounds per acre per 365-day period needed by the crop or vegetation grown on the land.

D. Procedures to determine the annual whole sludge application rate for sewage sludge biosolids. 9VAC25-31-540 A 4 b requires that the product of the concentration for each pollutant listed in Table 4 of this section in sewage sludge biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land and the AWSAR for the sewage sludge biosolids not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 4 to be exceeded. This section contains the procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a sewage sludge biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 4 of this section to be exceeded.

1. The relationship between the APLR for a pollutant and the AWSAR for a sewage sludge biosolids is shown in equation (1) (2).

 

APLR=CxAWSARx0.001

(1)

Where:

APLR=Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period.

C=Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis).

AWSAR=Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis).

0.001=A conversion factor.

EQUATION (2)

APLR = CX x ] AWSARX x ] 0.001

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

0.001 = A conversion factor

2. To determine the AWSAR, equation (1) (2) is rearranged into equation (2) (3):

 

AWSAR =

APLR

(2)

 

C x 0.001

 

EQUATION (3)

 

AWSAR = APLR/(CX x ] 0.001)

 

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

 

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

 

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

 

0.001 = A conversion factor

 

3. The procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a sewage sludge biosolids is presented below.

1. a. Analyze a sample of the sewage sludge biosolids to determine the concentration for each of the pollutants listed in Table 4 of this section in the sewage sludge biosolids.

2. b. Using the pollutant concentrations from Step 1 and the APLRs from Table 4 of this section, calculate an AWSAR for each pollutant using equation (2) (3) above.

3. c. The AWSAR for the sewage sludge biosolids is the lowest AWSAR calculated in Step 2.

9VAC25-31-543

9VAC25-31-543. Soils monitoring.

A. Soil shall be sampled and analyzed prior to biosolids application to determine site suitability and to provide background data.No sample analysis used to determine application rates shall be more than three years old at the time of biosolids land application. ] Soil shall be sampled and analyzed in accordance with Table 1 of this section.Reduced monitoring may apply for typical agricultural utilization projects where biosolids are applied to farmland at or below agronomic rates or on an infrequent basis (Table 1 of this section). ] Reduced monitoring may also apply to one-time biosolids applications to forest or reclaimed lands. For background analysis, random composite soil samples from the zone of incorporation are required for infrequent applications and frequent applications at less than agronomic rates (total less than 15 dry tons per acre).

TABLE 1
SOIL TEST PARAMETERS FOR LAND APPLICATION SITES1

 

Biosolids Application

Storage

Parameter

Infrequent2

Frequent Below Agronomic Rates2

Frequent at Agronomic Rates2

Supernatant4

Soil pH (Std. Units)

*

*

*

*

Nitrate nitrogen (ppm)3

 

 

*

 

Available phosphorus (ppm)5

*

*

*

*

Extractable potassium (ppm)

*

*

*

*

Extractable sodium (mg/100g)

6

6

6

6*

Extractable calcium (mg/100g)

 

 

*

*

Extractable magnesium (mg/100g)

*

 

*

*

Zinc (ppm)

*

*

*

*

Manganese (ppm)

*

*

*

 

Hydraulic conductivity (cm/sec)

 

 

 

*

1Note: Unless otherwise stated, analyses shall be reported on a dry weight basis (*).

2See 9VAC25-32-560 B 3.

3Only used as a supplemental fertilizer for side-dressing corn.

4Liquid biosolids derived from biosolids use facilities.

5Available P shall be analyzed using one of the following methods: Mehlich I, Mehlich III, or Bray.

6Extractable sodium shall be analyzed only where biosolids known to be high in sodium will be land applied.

Parameter

Soil pH (Std. Units)

Available phosphorus (ppm)2

Extractable potassium (ppm)

Extractable sodium (mg/100g)3

Extractable calcium (mg/100g)

Extractable magnesium (mg/100g)

Zinc (ppm)

Manganese (ppm)

1Note: Unless otherwise stated, analyses shall be reported on a dry weight basis.

2Available P shall be analyzed using one of the following methods: Mehlich I or Mehlich III.

3Extractable sodium shall be analyzed only where biosolids known to be high in sodium will be land applied. ]

B. The department reserves the right to require the permit holder to conduct additional soil monitoring including, but not limited to, additional parameters, based on site-specific history or conditions.

C. Samples shall be collected in accordance with § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC25-31-545

9VAC25-31-545. Crop monitoring.

A. Vegetation monitoring may be required by the board upon recommendation of the department once every three years on sites with frequent applications of biosolids applied at or greater than agronomic rates and when 400 pounds per acre or more of available phosphorus had been applied to the soil. Analyses of plant tissue should be conducted at the proper growth stage as recommended by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, or the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service.

B. Routine analyses include:

1. Nitrate-nitrogen;

2. Phosphorus;

3. Potassium;

4. Calcium;

5. Manganese;

6. Magnesium;

7. Iron;

8. Copper; and

9. Zinc.

C. Analysis for additional parameters may be necessary as determined on a case-by-case basis.

D. Results shall be reported annually to the department. ]

9VAC25-31-547

9VAC25-31-547.Ground water Groundwater ] monitoring.

A. Monitoring wells may be required by the department for land treatment sites, sludge lagoons, biosolids land application sites, or biosolids storage facilities to monitorground water groundwater ] quality.

B. Ifground water groundwater ] monitoring is required, aground water groundwater ] monitoring plan shall be submitted to the department for approval that includes at a minimum:

1. Geologic and hydrologic conditions at the site;

2. Monitoring well design, placement, and construction;

3. Sampling frequency;

4. Sampling procedures, including quality assurance and quality control; and

5. Collection of background samples.

9VAC25-31-550

9VAC25-31-550. Management practices.

A. All biosolids land application activities shall comply with the operational requirements of Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of 9VAC25-32 (Biosolids Program of the VPA Permit Regulation).

A. B. Bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall not be applied to the land if it is likely to adversely affect a threatened or endangered species listed in 9VAC25-260-320 or § 4 of the Endangered Species Act (16 USC § 1533) or if the land application is likely to adversely affect its designated critical habitat.

B. C. Bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall not be applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site that is flooded, frozen, or snow-covered so that the bulk sewage sludge biosolids enters a wetland or other surface waters except as provided in a VPDES permit or a permit issued pursuant to § 404 of the CWA.

C. D. Bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall not be applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site that is 10 meters or less from surface waters, unless otherwise specified by the board.

D. E. Bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall be applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site at a whole sludge application rate that is equal to or less than the agronomic rate for the bulk sewage sludge biosolids, unless, in the case of a reclamation site, otherwise specified by the board.

E. F. Either a label shall be affixed to the bag or other container in which sewage sludge biosolids that is sold or given away for application to the land, or an information sheet shall be provided to the person who receives sewage sludge biosolids sold or given away in [ an a bag or ] other container for application to the land. The label or information sheet shall contain the following information:

1. The name and address of the person who prepared the sewage sludge biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land;

2. A statement that application of the sewage sludge biosolids to the land is prohibited except in accordance with the instructions on the label or information sheet; and

3. The annual whole sludge application rate for the sewage sludge biosolids that does not cause any of the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 4 of 9VAC25-31-540 to be exceeded.

9VAC25-31-560

9VAC25-31-560. Operational standards, pathogens, and vector attraction reduction.

A. Pathogens - sewage sludge biosolids.

1. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A or the Class B pathogen requirements and site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-720 B shall be met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A shall be met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A shall be met when sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

B. Pathogens - domestic septage. The requirements in [ either ] 9VAC25-31-710 C [ 1 or C 2 ] shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

C. Vector attraction reduction - sewage sludge biosolids.

1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 10 shall be met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

D. Vector attraction reduction - domestic septage. The vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9, B 10, or B 12 shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

9VAC25-31-570

9VAC25-31-570. Frequency of monitoring.

A. Sewage sludge Biosolids.

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants listed in Tables 1 through 4 of 9VAC25-31-540; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and B 2 through B 4; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 4, B 7 and B 8 shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1
FREQUENCY OF MONITORING--LAND APPLICATION

Amount of sewage sludge* biosolids*

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency

Greater than zero but less than 290

once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

once per quarter (four times a year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

once per month (12 times per year)

*Either the amount of bulk sewage sludge biosolids applied to the land or the amount of sewage sludge biosolids prepared for sale or give-away in a bag or other container for application to the land (dry weight basis).

2. After the sewage sludge biosolids has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the board may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A 5 b and c.

B. Domestic septage. If either the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 C 2 or the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 are met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, each container of domestic septage applied to the land shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

9VAC25-31-580

9VAC25-31-580. Recordkeeping.

A. Sewage sludge Biosolids.

1. The person who prepares the sewage sludge biosolids in 9VAC25-31-510 B 1 or E shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the sewage sludge biosolids;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met.

2. The person who derives the material in 9VAC25-31-510 C 1 or in 9VAC25-31-510 F shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the material;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met.

3. If the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 are met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met.

b. The person who applies the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 are met for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied; and

(3) A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 are met for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied.

4. If the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3 and the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B are met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify under, penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(3) A description of how the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B are met; and

(4) When one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550, the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 are met for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied;

(3) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5 are met for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied;

(4) When the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met; and

(5) The date bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to each site.

5. If the requirements in 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a are met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-31-710 A or B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-31-710 A or B are met; and

(4) When one of the vector attraction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk sewage sludge biosolids shall develop the following information, retain the information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 5 b (1) through b (7) indefinitely, and retain the information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 5 b (8) through b (13) for five years:

(1) The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied;

(2) The number of hectares in each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied;

(3) The date bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to each site;

(4) The cumulative amount of each pollutant (i.e., kilograms) listed in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk sewage sludge biosolids applied to each site, including the amount in 9VAC25-31-530 E 2 c;

(5) The amount of sewage sludge biosolids (i.e., metric tons) applied to each site;

(6) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-31-530 E 2 was prepared for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(7) A description of how the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-31-530 E 2 are met;

(8) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 was prepared for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(9) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 are met for each site on which bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied;

(10) The following certification statement when the bulk sewage sludge biosolids meets the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5 was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(11) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5 are met for each site on which Class B bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied;

(12) The following certification statement when the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 is met:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(13) If the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 are met, a description of how the requirements are met.

6. If the requirements in 9VAC25-31-540 A 4 b are met when sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, the person who prepares the sewage sludge biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The annual whole sludge application rate for the sewage sludge biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 4 of 9VAC25-31-540 to be exceeded;

b. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 4 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the sewage sludge biosolids;

c. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practice in 9VAC25-31-550 E, the Class A pathogen requirement in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

d. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met; and

e. A description of how one of the vector attraction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met.

B. Domestic septage. When domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, the person who applies the domestic septage shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which domestic septage is applied;

2. The number of acres in each site on which domestic septage is applied;

3. The date domestic septage is applied to each site;

4. The nitrogen [ and phosphorus ] requirement for the crop or vegetation grown on each site during a 365-day period;

5. The rate, in gallons per acre per 365-day period, at which domestic septage is applied to each site;

6. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-31-710 C 1 or 2) and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert 9VAC25-31-720 B 9, 10, or 12) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

7. A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-31-710 C 1 or 2 are met; and

8. A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9, 10, or 12 are met.

9VAC25-31-590

9VAC25-31-590. Reporting.

A. Class I sludge management facilities, POTWs with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, and POTWs that serve 10,000 people or more shall submit the following information to the department:

1. The information in 9VAC25-31-580 A, except the information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 3 b, 4 b and 5 b, for the appropriate requirements on February 19 of each year for the previous calendar year's activity; and

2. The information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 5 b (1) through (7) on February 19 of each year for the previous calendar year's activity when 90% or more of any of the cumulative pollutant loading rates in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-540 is reached at a land application site.

B. An activity report shall be submitted (electronically or postmarked) to the department by the 15th ofthe each ] monthfor land application activity that occurred in the previous calendar month, ] unless another date is specified in the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-80 I 4, following any month in which land application occurs ]. The report shall indicate those sites where land application activities took place during the previous month.If no land application occurs under a permit during the calendar month, a report shall be submitted stating that no land application occurred. ]

C.Biosolids application rates shall be calculated using results from sampling and analysis completed during the most recent 12 months of monitoring. For proposed treatment works, rates may be initially based on the biosolids characteristic produced by similar generating facilities.

D. ] Records shall be maintained documenting the required treatment and quality characteristics and the maximum allowable land application loading rates established for biosolids use. In addition, operational monitoring results shall verify that required sludge treatment has achieved the specified levels of pathogen control and vector attraction reductions (9VAC25-31-710 and 9VAC25-31-720). Adequate records of biosolids composition, treatment classification, and biosolids application rates and methods of application for each site shall be maintained by the generator and owner.

E. D. ] The generator and owner shall maintain the records for a minimum period of five years. Sites receiving frequent applications of biosolids that meet or exceed maximum cumulative constituent loadings and dedicated disposal sites should be properly referenced for future land transactions (Sludge Disposal Site Dedication Form).

9VAC25-31-690

Article 4
Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction

9VAC25-31-690. Scope.

A. This article contains the requirements for a sewage sludge biosolids to be classified either Class A or Class B with respect to pathogens.

B. This article contains the site restrictions for land on which a Class B sewage sludge biosolids is applied.

C. This article contains the pathogen requirements for domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

D. This article contains alternative vector attraction reduction requirements for sewage sludge biosolids that is applied to the land or sewage sludge that is placed on a surface disposal site.

9VAC25-31-710

9VAC25-31-710. Pathogens.

A. Sewage sludge Biosolids - Class A.

1. The requirement in subdivision 2 of this subsection and the requirements in either subdivisions 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of this subsection shall be met for a sewage sludge biosolids to be classified Class A with respect to pathogens.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in subdivisions 3 through 8 of this subsection shall be met either prior to meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720, except the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 6 through B 8, are met.

3. Class A - Alternative 1.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. The temperature of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be maintained at a specific value for a period of time.

(1) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 20 minutes or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (3) equation (1), except when small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid.

 

D =

131,700,000

(3)

 

100.1400t

 

Where,

D = time in days.

t = temperature in degrees Celsius.

 

EQUATION (1)

 

D = 131,700,000/100.1400t

 

D = time in days

 

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

(2) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher and small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 15 seconds or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (3) equation (1).

(3) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0% and the time period is at least 15 seconds, but less than 30 minutes, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (3) equation (1).

(4) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0%; the temperature of the sewage sludge is 50°C or higher; and the time period is 30 minutes or longer, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (4) equation (2).

 

D =

50,070,000

(4)

 

100.1400t

 

Where,

D = time in days.

t = temperature in degrees Celsius.

 

EQUATION (2)

 

D = 50,070,000/100.1400t

 

D = time in days

 

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

4. Class A - Alternative 2.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. (1) The pH of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be raised to above 12 and shall remain above 12 for 72 hours.

(2) The temperature of the sewage sludge shall be above 52°C for 12 hours or longer during the period that the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12.

(3) At the end of the 72-hour period during which the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12, the sewage sludge shall be air dried to achieve a percent solids in the sewage sludge greater than 50%.

5. Class A - Alternative 3.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. (1) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains enteric viruses.

(2) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(3) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the [ sewage sludge biosolids ] that meets the enteric virus density requirement are documented.

(4) After the enteric virus reduction in subdivision 5 b (3) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the [ sewage sludge biosolids ] continues to be Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 b (3) of this subsection.

c. (1) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains viable helminth ova.

(2) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(3) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the viable helminth ova density requirement are documented.

(4) After the viable helminth ova reduction in subdivision 5 c (3) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 c (3) of this subsection.

6. Class A - Alternative 4.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. The density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F, unless otherwise specified by the board.

c. The density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F unless otherwise specified by the board.

7. Class A - Alternative 5.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. Sewage sludge Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to further reduce pathogens described in 9VAC25-31-710 E subsection E of this section.

8. Class A - Alternative 6.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the sewage sludge biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is used [ or disposed ]; at the time the sewage sludge biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the sewage sludge biosolids or material derived from sewage sludge biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. Sewage sludge Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to further reduce pathogens, as determined by the board.

B. Sewage sludge Biosolids - Class B.

1. a. The requirements in either 9VAC25-31-710 B 2, B 3, or B 4 subdivision 3, 4, or 5 of this subsection shall be met for a sewage sludge biosolids to be classified Class B with respect to pathogens.

b. 2. The site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5 subdivision 6 of this subsection shall be met when sewage sludge biosolids that meets the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B 2, B 3, or B 4 subdivision 3, 4, or 5 of this subsection is applied to the land.

2. 3. Class B - Alternative 1.

a. Seven representative samples of the sewage sludge biosolids that is used or disposed shall be collected.

b. The geometric mean of the density of fecal coliform in the samples collected in subdivision 2 3 a of this subsection shall be less than either 2,000,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) or 2,000,000 Colony Forming Units per gram of total solids (dry weight basis).

3. 4. Class B - Alternative 2. Sewage sludge Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to significantly reduce pathogens described in 9VAC25-31-710 D subsection D of this section.

4. 5. Class B - Alternative 3. Sewage sludge Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to significantly reduce pathogens, as determined by the board.

5. 6. Site restrictions.

a. Food crops with harvested parts that touch the sewage sludge/soil mixture biosolids/soil mixture and are totally above the land surface shall not be harvested for 14 months after application of sewage sludge biosolids.

b. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 20 months after application of sewage sludge biosolids when the sewage sludge biosolids remains on the land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil.

c. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 38 months after application of sewage sludge biosolids when the sewage sludge biosolids remains on the land surface for less than four months prior to incorporation into the soil.

d. Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops shall not be harvested for 30 days after application of sewage sludge biosolids.

e. Animals shall not be grazed on the land for 30 days after application of sewage sludge biosolids.

f. Turf grown on land where sewage sludge biosolids is applied shall not be harvested for one year after application of the sewage sludge biosolids when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn, unless otherwise specified by the board.

g. Public access to land with a high potential for public exposure shall be restricted for one year after application of sewage sludge biosolids.

h. Public access to land with a low potential for public exposure shall be restricted for 30 days after application of sewage sludge biosolids.

C. Domestic septage [ . 1.: ] The site restrictions in subdivision B 5 6 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site [ ; or. ]

2. The pH of domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes and the site restrictions in subdivisions B 5 6 a through B 5 6 d of this section shall be met. ]

D. Processes to significantly reduce pathogens (PSRP).

1. Aerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 40 days at 20°C and 60 days at 15°C.

2. Air drying. Sewage sludge is dried on sand beds or on paved or unpaved basins. The sewage sludge dries for a minimum of three months. During two of the three months, the ambient average daily temperature is above 0°C.

3. Anaerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is treated in the absence of air for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 15 days at 35°C to 55°C and 60 days at 20°C.

4. Composting. Using either the within-vessel, static aerated pile, or windrow composting methods, the temperature of the sewage sludge is raised to 40°C or higher and remains at 40°C or higher for five days. For four hours during the five days, the temperature in the compost pile exceeds 55°C.

5. Lime stabilization. Sufficient lime is added to the sewage sludge to raise the pH of the sewage sludge to 12 after two hours of contact.

E. Processes to further reduce pathogens (PFRP).

1. Composting. Using either the within-vessel composting method or the static aerated pile composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for three days. Using the windrow composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for 15 days or longer. During the period when the compost is maintained at 55°C or higher, there shall be a minimum of five turnings of the windrow.

2. Heat drying. Sewage sludge is dried by direct or indirect contact with hot gases to reduce the moisture content of the sewage sludge to 10.0% or lower. Either the temperature of the sewage sludge particles exceeds 80°C or the wet bulb temperature of the gas in contact with the sewage sludge as the sewage sludge leaves the dryer exceeds 80°C.

3. Heat treatment. Liquid sewage sludge is heated to a temperature of 180°C or higher for 30 minutes.

4. Thermophilic aerobic digestion. Liquid sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions and the mean cell residence time of the sewage sludge is 10 days at 55°C to 60°C.

5. Beta ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with beta rays from an accelerator at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

6. Gamma ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with gamma rays from certain isotopes, such as Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137, at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

7. Pasteurization. The temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 70°C or higher for 30 minutes or longer.

9VAC25-31-720

9VAC25-31-720. Vector attraction reduction.

A. Vector attraction reduction requirements:

A. 1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 10 of this section shall be met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when bulk sewage sludge biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when sewage sludge biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

4. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 11 of this section shall be met when sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

5. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivision B 9, B 10, or B 12 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 9 through B 12 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

B. Vector attraction reduction options:

B. 1. The mass of volatile solids in the sewage sludge shall be reduced by a minimum of 38%, calculated according to the method in 9VAC25-31-490 B 8.

2. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this subsection cannot be met for an anaerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge anaerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 40 additional days at a temperature between 30°C and 37°C. When at the end of the 40 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 17%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

3. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this section cannot be met for an aerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge that has a percent solids of 2.0% or less aerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 30 additional days at 20°C. When at the end of the 30 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 15%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

4. The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for sewage sludge treated in an aerobic process shall be equal to or less than 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) at a temperature of 20°C.

5. Sewage sludge shall be treated in an aerobic process for 14 days or longer. During that time, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 40°C and the average temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 45°C.

6. The pH of sewage sludge shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for two hours and then at 11.5 or higher for an additional 22 hours.

7. The percent solids of sewage sludge that does not contain unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 75% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

8. The percent solids of sewage sludge that contains unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 90% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

9. Sewage sludge injection requirements:

9. a. Sewage sludge shall be injected below the surface of the land.

b. No significant amount of the sewage sludge shall be present on the land surface within one hour after the sewage sludge is injected.

c. When the sewage sludge that is injected below the surface of the land is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be injected below the land surface within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

10. Sewage sludge incorporation requirements:

10. a. Sewage sludge applied to the land surface or placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be incorporated into the soil within six hours after application to or placement on the land, unless otherwise specified by the board.

b. When sewage sludge that is incorporated into the soil is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be applied to or placed on the land within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

11. Sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be covered with soil or other material at the end of each operating day.

12. The pH of domestic septage shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes.

9VAC25-31-9999

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (9VAC25-31)

Method 1668B Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Water, Soil, Sediment, Biosolids, and Tissue by HRGC/HRMS, EPA-821-R-08-020, November 2008, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Officer of Water and Office of Science and Technology Engineering and Analysis Division (4303T), 1200 Pennsylviania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460.  ]

9VAC25-32-10

Part I
General

9VAC25-32-10. Definitions.

A. The following words and terms, when used in this chapter and in VPA permits issued under this chapter shall have the meanings defined in the State Water Control Law, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise and as follows:

"Active sewage sludge unit" means a sewage sludge unit that has not closed.

"Aerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.

"Agricultural land" means land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land and land used as pasture.

"Agronomic rate" means, in regard to biosolids, ] the whole sludge application rate (dry weight basis) designed: (i) to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, cover crop, or vegetation grown on the land and (ii) to minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to theground water groundwater ].

"Anaerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge or biosolids into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.

"Annual pollutant loading rate" or "APLR" means the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Annual whole sludge application rate" or "AWSAR" means the maximum amount of biosolids (dry weight basis) that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Apply biosolids" or "biosolids applied to the land" means land application of biosolids.

"Best Management Practices (BMP)" means a schedule of activities, prohibition of practices, maintenance procedures and other management practices to prevent or reduce the pollution of state waters. BMP's include treatment requirements, operating and maintenance procedures, schedule of activities, prohibition of activities, and other management practices to control plant site runoff, spillage, leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-32-660, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this regulation.Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight. ]

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.

"Bulk biosolids" means biosolids that are not sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

"Bypass" means intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment works.

"Concentrated confined animal feeding operation" means an animal feeding operation at which:

1. At least the following number and types of animals are confined:

a. 300 slaughter and feeder cattle;

b. 200 mature dairy cattle (whether milked or dry cows);

c. 750 swine each weighing over 25 kilograms (approximately 55 pounds);

d. 150 horses;

e. 3,000 sheep or lambs;

f. 16,500 turkeys;

g. 30,000 laying hens or broilers; or

h. 300 animal units; and

2. Treatment works are required to store wastewater, or otherwise prevent a point source discharge of wastewater pollutants to state waters from the animal feeding operation except in the case of a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm.

"Confined animal feeding operation" means a lot or facility together with any associated treatment works where the following conditions are met:

1. Animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period; and

2. Crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained over any portion of the operation of the lot or facility.

"Cover crop" means a crop, such as oats, wheat, or barley, not grown for harvest. ]

"Critical areas" and "critical waters" means areas and waters in proximity to shellfish waters, a public water supply, or recreation or other waters where health or water quality concerns are identified by the Department of Health.

"Cumulative pollutant loading rate" means the maximum amount of an inorganic pollutant that can be applied to an area of land.

"Density of microorganisms" means the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the sewage sludge.

"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality, or an authorized representative.

"Discharge" means, when used without qualification, a discharge of a pollutant or any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to state waters or waters of the contiguous zone or ocean other than discharge from a vessel or other floating craft when being used as a means of transportation.

"Discharge of a pollutant" means any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to state waters or waters of the contiguous zone or ocean other than discharge from a vessel or other floating craft when being used as a means of transportation.

"Domestic septage" means either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.

"Domestic sewage" means waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.

"Draft VPA permit" means a document indicating the board's tentative decision to issue, deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate or reissue a VPA permit. A notice of intent to terminate a VPA permit and a notice of intent to deny a VPA permit are types of draft VPA permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance or termination is not a draft VPA permit.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids and expressed in units of English tons.

"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge or biosolids after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as percent solids.

"Dry weight basis" means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105°C until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100% solids content).

"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.

"Facilities" means, in regard to biosolids, ] processes, equipment, storage devices and dedicated sites, located or operated separately from a treatment works, utilized for sewage sludge management including, but not limited to, handling, treatment, transport, and storage of biosolids.

"Feed crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.

"Fiber crops" means crops produced primarily for the manufacture of textiles, such as flax and cotton.

"Field" means an area of land within a site where land application is proposed or permitted.

"Food crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.

"Forest" means a tract of land thick with trees and underbrush.

"General VPA permit" means a VPA permit issued by the board authorizing a category of pollutant management activities.

"Generator" means the owner of a sewage treatment works that produces sewage sludge and biosolids.

"Ground water" "Groundwater" ] means water below the land surface in the saturated zone.

"Industrial wastes" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade, or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Land application" means [ , in regard to biosolids, ] the introduction of wastewaters or sludge into or onto the ground for treatment or reuse distribution of either treated wastewater, referred to as "effluent," or stabilized sewage sludge, referred to as "biosolids," by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing the crops and vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this regulation are not to be considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this regulation, the use of biosolids in agricultural researchis and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are ] not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback areas, where biosolids may be applied. ]

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this regulation.

"Land with a high potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g., a construction site located in a city).

"Land with a low potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).

"Limitation" means any restriction imposed on quantities, rates or concentration of pollutants which are managed by pollutant management activities.

"Liner" means soil or synthetic material that has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 X 10-7 centimeters per second or less.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by a local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors commonly associated with biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Monitoring report" means forms supplied by the department for use in reporting of self-monitoring results of the permittee.

"Monthly average" means the arithmetic mean of all measurements taken during the month.

"Municipality" means a city, county, town, district association, authority or other public body created under the law and having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial, or other wastes. or other public body (including an intermunicipal agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under state law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge or biosolids management; or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under state law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity; or an integrated waste management facility as defined in § 201(e) of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of sewage sludge or biosolids.

"Nonpoint source" means a source of pollution, such as a farm or forest land runoff, urban storm water runoff or mine runoff that is not collected or discharged as a point source.

"Odor sensitive receptor" means, in the context of land application of biosolids,any health care facility, such as hospitals, convalescent homes, etc. or ] a building or outdoor facility regularly used to host or serve large groups of people such as schools, dormitories,or ] athletic and other recreational facilities, and hospitals and convalescent homes ].

"Operate" means the act of any person who may have an impact on either the finished water quality at a waterworks or the final effluent at a sewage treatment works, such as to (i) place into or take out of service a unit process or unit processes, (ii) make or cause adjustments in the operation of a unit process or unit processes at a treatment works, or (iii) manage sewage sludge or biosolids.

"Operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control waterworks or wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of waterworks or wastewater works.

"Other container" means either an open or closed receptacle. This includes, but is not limited to, a bucket, a box, a carton, and a vehicle or trailer with a load capacity of one metric ton or less.

"Overflow" means the unintentional discharge of wastes from any portion of a treatment works.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including sanitary districts, sanitation district commissions and authorities; federal agencies; any individual; any group of individuals acting individually or as a group; or any public or private institution, corporation, company, partnership, firm, or association that owns or proposes to own a sewerage system or treatment works as defined in § 62.1-44.3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Pasture" means land on which animals feed directly on feed crops such as legumes, grasses, grain stubble, or stover.

"Pathogenic organisms" means disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.

"Permittee" means an owner or operator who has a currently effective VPA permit issued by the board or the department.

"Person who preparessewage sludge biosolids ]" means either the person who generatessewage sludge biosolids ] during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person who derives the material from sewage sludge.

"pH" means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25°C or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25°C.

"Place sewage sludge" or "sewage sludge placed" means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.

"Point source" means any discernible, defined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agricultural land.

"Pollutant" means, in regard to wastewater, any substance, radioactive material, or heat which causes or contributes to, or may cause or contribute to, pollution. It does not mean (i) sewage from vessels; or (ii) water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil or gas production and disposed of in a well, if the well is used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes if approved by Department of Mines Minerals and Energy unless the board determines that such injection or disposal will result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.

"Pollutant" means, in regard to sewage sludge or biosolids, an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the board, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.

"Pollutant limit" means a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of biosolids (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids), the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare), or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).

"Pollutant management activity" means a treatment works with a potential or actual discharge to state waters, but which does not have a point source discharge to surface waters.

"Pollution" means such alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of any state waters or soil as will, or is likely to, create a nuisance or render such waters or soil: (i) harmful or detrimental or injurious to the public health, safety, or welfare or to the health of animals, fish, or aquatic life; (ii) unsuitable despite reasonable treatment for use as present or possible future sources of public water supply; or (iii) unsuitable for recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other reasonable uses. Such alteration is also deemed to be pollution, if there occurs: (a) an alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological property of state waters or soil, or a discharge or a deposit of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters or soil by any owner which by itself is not sufficient to cause pollution, but which, in combination with such alteration of, or discharge, or deposit, to state waters or soil by other owners, is sufficient to cause pollution; (b) the discharge of untreated sewage by any owner into state waters or soil; or (c) the contravention of standards of air or water quality duly established by the board.

"Primary sludge" means sewage sludge removed from primary settling tanks that is readily thickened by gravity thickeners.

"Privately owned treatment works (PVOTW)" means any sewage treatment works not publicly owned.

"Process" means a system, or an arrangement of equipment or other devices that remove from waste materials pollutants including, but not limited to, a treatment works or portions thereof.

"Public contact site" means land with a high potential for contact by the public. This includes, but is not limited to, public parks, ball fields, cemeteries, and golf courses.

"Publicly owned treatment works (POTW)" means any sewage treatment works that is owned by a state or municipality. Sewers, pipes, or other conveyances are included in this definition only if they convey wastewater to a POTW providing treatment.

"Public hearing" means a fact-finding proceeding held to afford interested persons an opportunity to submit factual data, views, and arguments to the board.

"Reclamation site" means drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using biosolids. This includes, but is not limited to, strip mines and construction sites.

"Reimbursement application" means forms approved by the department to be used to apply for reimbursement of local monitoring costs for land application of biosolids in accordance with a local ordinance.

"Run-off" means rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.

"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations leading to compliance with the federal Clean Water Act (33 USC 1251 et seq.), the law, and board regulations, standards and policies.

"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied. ]

"Sewage" means the water-carried and nonwater-carried human excrement, kitchen, laundry, shower, bath, or lavatory wastes, separately or together with such underground, surface, storm, and other water and liquid industrial wastes as may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial establishments, or other places.

"Sewage sludge"or "sludge" ] means any solid, semisolid, or liquidresidues residue ] generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, butit ] is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.Liquid sludge contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered sludge contains 15% or more dry residue by weight. ]

"Sewage sludge unit" means land on which only sewage sludge is placed for final disposal. This does not include land on which sewage sludge is either stored or treated. Land does not include surface waters.

"Sewage sludge use or disposal" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Site" means the area of land within a defined boundary where an activity is proposed or permitted.

"Sludge" means solids, residues, and precipitates separated from or created by the unit processes of a treatment works.

"Sludge management" means the treatment, handling, transportation, storage, use, distribution, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Specific oxygen uptake rate" or "SOUR" means the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.

"State waters" means all water on the surface or under the ground wholly or partially within or bordering the state or within its jurisdiction.

"State Water Control Law (law)" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Store sewage sludge" or "storage of sewage sludge" means the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.

"Substantial compliance" means designs and practices that do not exactly conform to the standards set forth in this chapter as contained in documents submitted pursuant to 9VAC25-32-340, but whose construction or implementation will not substantially affect health considerations or performance.

"Supernatant" is a liquid obtained from separation of suspended matter during sludge treatment or storage.

"Surface disposal site" means an area of land that contains one or more active sewage sludge units.

"Surface water" means:

1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate "wetlands";

3. All other waters such as inter/intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, "wetlands," sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:

a. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or

c. Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;

4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters of the United States under this definition;

5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;

6. The territorial sea; and

7. "Wetlands" adjacent to waters, other than waters that are themselves wetlands, identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.

"Total solids" means the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried to 103°C to 105°C.

"Toxic pollutant" means any [ agent or material including, but not limited to, those listed under § 307(a) of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1317(a)) which after discharge will, on the basis of available information, cause toxicity pollutant listed as toxic under § 307 (a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of "sludge use or disposal practices," any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405 (d) of the CWA ].

"Toxicity" means the inherent potential or capacity of a material to cause adverse effects in a living organism, including acute or chronic effects to aquatic life, detrimental effects on human health, or other adverse environmental effects.

"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).

"Treat sewage sludge" or "treatment of sewage sludge" means the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.

"Treatment works" means any devices and systems used for the storage, treatment, recycling or reclamation of sewage or liquid industrial waste, or other waste or necessary to recycle or reuse water, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power and other equipment and their appurtenances; extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, or alterations; and any works, including land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment; or any other method or system used for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined sewer water and sanitary sewer systems. either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature. Treatment works may include but are not limited to pumping, power, and other equipment and their appurtenances; septic tanks; and any works, including land, that are or will be (i) an integral part of the treatment process or (ii) used for ultimate disposal of residues or effluents resulting from such treatment. "Treatment works" does not include biosolids use on privately owned agricultural land.

"Twenty-five-year, 24-hour storm event" means the maximum 24-hour precipitation event with a probable recurrence interval of once in 25 years as established by the National Weather Service or appropriate regional or state rainfall probability information.

"Unstabilized solids" means organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.

"Upset" means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology-based permit limitations because of factors beyond the permittee's reasonable control. An upset does not include noncompliance caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.

"Use" means to manage or recycle a processed waste product in a manner so as to derive a measurable benefit as a result of such management.

"Variance" means a conditional approval based on a waiver of specific regulations to a specific owner relative to a specific situation under documented conditions for a specified period of time.

"Vector attraction" means the characteristic ofbiosolids or ] sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.

"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters. ]

"Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permit" means a document issued by the board, pursuant to this chapter, authorizing pollutant management activities under prescribed conditions.

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit" means a document issued by the board pursuant to 9VAC25-31-10 et seq., authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters.

"Volatile solids" means the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550°C in the presence of excess air.

"VPA application" means the standard form or forms approved by the board for applying for a VPA permit.

"Water quality standards" means the narrative statements for general requirements and numeric limits for specific requirements that describe the water quality necessary to meet and maintain reasonable and beneficial uses. Such standards are established by the board under § 62.1-44.15 (3a) of the Code of Virginia.

B. Generally used technical terms not defined in subsection A of this section or the department's latest definitions of technical terms as used to implement § 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia shall be defined in accordance with "Glossary-Water and Wastewater Control Engineering" published by the American Public Health Association (APHA), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF).

9VAC25-32-30

9VAC25-32-30. Requirements and prohibitions.

A. All pollutant management activities covered under a VPA permit shall maintain no point source discharge of pollutants to surface waters except in the case of a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm.

B. 1. Except in compliance with a VPA permit, or another permit issued by the board, it shall be unlawful for any person to:

a. 1. Discharge into, or adjacent to, state waters sewage, industrial wastes, other wastes, or any noxious or deleterious substances; or

b. 2. Otherwise alter the physical, chemical or biological properties of such state waters and make them detrimental to the public health, or to animal or aquatic life, or to the use of such waters for domestic or industrial consumption, or for recreation, or for other uses.

2. C. Any person required to obtain a permit pursuant to this chapter who discharges or causes or allows a discharge of sewage, industrial waste, other wastes or any noxious or deleterious substance into or upon state waters in violation of subdivision subsection B 1 of this section; or who discharges or causes or allows a discharge that may reasonably be expected to enter state waters in violation of subdivision subsection B 1 of this section shall notify the department of the discharge immediately upon discovery of the discharge and, in any event, no later than 24 hours after the discovery. A written report of the unauthorized discharge shall be submitted by the owner, to the department, within five days of discovery of the discharge.

a. 1. The written report shall contain:

(1) a. A description of the nature of the discharge;

(2) b. The cause of the discharge;

(3) c. The date on which the discharge occurred;

(4) d. The length of time that the discharge continued;

(5) e. The volume of the discharge;

(6) f. If the discharge is continuing, how long it is expected to continue;

(7) g. If the discharge is continuing, what the expected total volume of the discharge will be; and

(8) h. Any steps planned or taken to reduce, eliminate and prevent a recurrence of the present discharge or any future discharges not authorized by the permit.

b. 2. Discharges reportable to the department under the immediate reporting requirements of other regulations are exempted from this requirement.

C. D. VPA permits may be utilized to authorize pollutant management activities including, but not limited to, animal feeding operations, storage or land application of sewage, sludge, biosolids, industrial waste or other waste; or the complete reuse or recycle of wastewater. Point source discharges of pollutants to surface waters may be authorized by a VPDES permit (See 9VAC25-31-10 et seq. 9VAC25-31, VPDES Permit Regulation).

D. E. No VPA permit shall be issued in the following circumstances:

1. Where the terms or conditions of the VPA permit do not comply with the applicable regulations or requirements of the law;

2. For the discharge of any radiological, chemical or biological warfare agent or high level radioactive material into state waters; or

3. For any pollutant management activity that is in conflict with any area-wide or basin-wide water quality control and waste management plan or policy established by the board pursuant to the law.

9VAC25-32-40

9VAC25-32-40. Exclusions.

The following do not require a VPA permit:

1. The introduction of sewage, industrial waste or other pollutants into publicly owned treatment works by indirect dischargers. Plans or agreements to switch to this method of disposal in the future do not relieve dischargers of the obligation to have and comply with VPA permits until all discharges of pollutants to state waters are eliminated;

2. Any introduction of pollutants from nonpoint source agricultural or silvicultural activities, including runoff from orchards, cultivated crops, pastures, range lands, and forest lands, except that this exclusion shall not apply to concentrated confined animal feeding operations;

3. Return flows from irrigated agricultural land;

4. Land disposal activity, including biosolids use or sewage sludge use or disposal or onsite waste treatment, when this activity is otherwise authorized by the Department of Environmental Quality department; [ and

5. Land disposal activity, including onsite waste treatment, when this activity is authorized by a Virginia Department of Health permit; and ]

[ 5. 6. ] Discharges authorized by EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act Underground Injection Control Program (UIC), 40 CFR Part 144, and approved, in writing, by the board.

9VAC25-32-60

Part II
Permit Application and Issuance

9VAC25-32-60. Application for a VPA permit.

A. Duty to apply. Any owner of a pollutant management activity who does not have an effective VPA permit, except persons covered by general VPA permits or excluded under 9VAC25-32-40, shall submit a complete application to the department in accordance with this section.

1. a. A complete VPA permit application shall be submitted by the owner of the pollutant management activity before a VPA permit can be issued. This item does not apply where general VPA permits are applicable.

b. The board may require the submission of additional information after an application has been filed, and may suspend processing of any application until such time as the owner has supplied missing or deficient information and the board considers the application complete. Further, when the owner becomes aware that he omitted one or more relevant facts from a VPA permit application, or submitted incorrect information in a VPA permit application or in any report to the department, he shall promptly submit such facts or the correct information.

c. In accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 A of the Code of Virginia, no application for a permit or variance to authorize the storage of sewage sludge shall be complete unless it contains certification from the governing body of the locality in which the sewage sludge is to be stored that the storage site is consistent with all applicable ordinances. The governing body shall confirm or deny consistency within 30 days of receiving a request for certification. If the governing body does not so respond, the site shall be deemed consistent.

d. No application for a permit to land apply biosolids in accordance with Part IX (9VAC25-32-310 et seq.) of this chapter shall be complete unless it includes the written consent of the landowner to apply biosolids on his property.

B. Time to apply.

2. a. 1. Any owner proposing a new pollutant management activity shall submit an application for a VPA permit 180 days prior to the date planned for commencing erection, construction or expansion or employment of new processes at any site. There shall be no operation of said facilities prior to the issuance of a VPA permit.

b. 2. Any owner with an existing pollutant management activity that has not been permitted shall submit an application within 60 days upon being requested to by the board. The board, after determining there is pollution occurring, may allow the construction of treatment works prior to permit issuance. There shall be no operation of said treatment works prior to permit issuance.

c. 3. Owners currently managing pollutants who have effective VPA permits shall submit a new application 180 days prior to proposed facility expansions, production increases, or process modification which will:

(1) a. Result in significantly new or substantially increased amounts of pollutants being managed or a significant change in the nature of the pollutant management activity that was not anticipated and accounted for on the application for the effective VPA permit; or

(2) b. Violate or lead to violation of the terms and conditions of the effective VPA permit.

3. Pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:3 of the Code of Virginia, no application for a VPA permit from a privately owned treatment works serving, or designed to serve, 50 or more residences shall be considered complete unless the applicant has provided the department with notification from the State Corporation Commission that the applicant is incorporated in the Commonwealth and is in compliance with all regulations and relevant orders of the State Corporation Commission.

B. C. Duty to reapply. Any permittee with an effective VPA permit shall submit a new application at least 180 days before the expiration date of the effective VPA permit unless permission for a later date has been granted by the board. Permission shall not be granted to submit an application later than the expiration date of the existing VPA permit.

D. Completeness.

1. A complete VPA permit application shall be submitted by the owner of the pollutant management activity before a VPA permit can be issued. The permit application may be submitted as a hard copy or electronically with a hard copy signature page. This item does not apply where general VPA permits are applicable.

2. The board may require the submission of additional information after an application has been filed, and may suspend processing of any application until such time as the owner has supplied missing or deficient information and the board considers the application complete. Further, when the owner becomes aware that he omitted one or more relevant facts from a VPA permit application, or submitted incorrect information in a VPA permit application or in any report to the department, he shall promptly submit such facts or the correct information.

3. In accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 A of the Code of Virginia, no application for a permit or variance to authorize the storage of biosolids shall be complete unless it contains certification from the governing body of the locality inwhich ] the biosolids is to be stored that the storage site is consistent with all applicable ordinances. The governing body shall confirm or deny consistency within 30 days of receiving a request for certification. If the governing body does not so respond, the site shall be deemed consistent.

4. No application for a permit to land apply biosolids in accordance with Part IX(9VAC25-32-310 et seq.) (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) ] of this chapter shall be complete unless it includes the written consent of the landowner to apply biosolids on his property.

5. Pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:3 of the Code of Virginia, no application for a VPA permit from a privately owned treatment works serving, or designed to serve, 50 or more residences shall be considered complete unless the applicant has provided the department with notification from the State Corporation Commission that the applicant is incorporated in the Commonwealth and is in compliance with all regulations and relevant orders of the State Corporation Commission.

C. E. Information requirements. All applicants for VPA permits shall provide information in accordance with to the department using themost current ] application forms provided by the [ department board ].

F. Application for the authorization to land apply biosolids. All persons applying to land apply biosolids must provide the information in this subsection to the department using an application form approved by the department. New applicants must submit all information available at the time of permit application. The information may be provided by referencing information previously submitted to the department. The board may waive any requirement of this subsection if it has access to substantially identical information. The board may also waive any requirement of this subsection that is not of material concern for a specific permit.

1. General information.

a. Legal name and address.

b. Owner contact informationincluding:

(1) Name;

(2) Mailing address;

(3) Telephone number; and

(4) Email address ].

c. A general description of the proposedplan activity ] including:

(1) Name and location of generatorsinvolved ] andtheir ] ownersinvolved ];

(2) Biosolids quality, and the generator's ] biosolids treatment and handling processes;

(3) Generator's odor control plan, that contains at minimum:

(a) Methods used to minimize odor in producing biosolids;

(b) Methods used to identify malodorous biosolids before land application (at the generating facility);

(c) Methods used toidentify and ] abate malodorous biosolids if delivered to the field, prior to land application; and

(d) Methods used to abate malodor from biosolids if land applied;

(4) Means of biosolids transport or conveyance;

(5) Location and volume of storage proposed;

(6) A description of field staging methods;

(7) General location of sites proposed for application, and

(8) Methods of biosolids application proposed.

d. Written permission of landownersand farmers ] ona the most current ] form approved by the board and pertinent lease agreements as may be necessary for operation of the treatment works.

e. Methods for notification of local government and obtaining compliance with local government zoning and applicable ordinances.

f. A copy of a letter of approval of the nutrient management plan for the operation from the Department of Conservation and Recreation if required in subdivision3 c 3 b ] of this subsection.

2. Design information.

a. Biosolids characterization. For each source of biosolids that the applicant proposes to land apply, the applicant must submit biosolids monitoring data for the pollutants for which limits in biosolids have been established in Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter, for the applicant's use or disposal practices on the date of permit application with the following conditions:

(1) When applying for authorization to land apply a biosolids source not previously included in a VPDES orVirginia Pollution Abatement Permit VPA permit ], the biosolids shall be sampled and analyzed for PCBs. The sample results shall be submitted with the permit application or request to add the source;

(2) The board may require sampling for additional pollutants, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis;

(3) Applicants must provide:

(a) Biosolids analytical data from a minimum of three samples taken within four and one-half years prior to the date of the permit application. Samples must be representative of the biosolids and should be taken at least one month apart. Existing data may be used in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of this application. The department may reduce the number of samples collected based on site specific conditions ];

(b) The total dry tons per 365-day period of biosolids subject to this subsection that is applied to the land; and

(c) A statement that the biosolids is nonhazardous; a documentation statement for treatment and quality; and a description of how treated biosolids meets other standards in accordance with this regulation;

(4) Samples shall be collected and analyzed in accordance with analytical methods specified inEPA-SW-846, Third Edition (1986) with Revision I unless an alternative has been specified in an existing biosolids permit. Samples for PCB analysis shall be collected and analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 1668B; 40 CFR Part 503 (March 26, 2007) and 40 CFR Part 136 (March 26, 2007); ] and

(5) The monitoring data provided must include at least the following information for each parameter:

(a) Average monthly concentration for all samples (mg/kg dry weight), based upon actual sample values;

(b) Analytical method used; and

(c) Method detection level.

b. Storage facilities. Plans and specifications for storage facilities of all biosolids to be handled, including routine and on-site storage, shall be submitted for the issuance of a certificate to construct and a certificate to operate in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790) and shall depict the following information:

(1) Site layout on a recent 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle or other appropriate scaled map;

(2) Location of any required soil, geologic, and hydrologic test holes or borings;

(3) Location of the following field features within 0.25 miles of the site boundary (indicate on map) with the approximate distance from the site boundary:

(a) Water wells (operating or abandoned);

(b) Surface waters;

(c) Springs;

(d) Public water supplies;

(e) Sinkholes;

(f) Underground and surface mines;

(g) Mine pool (or other) surface water discharge points;

(h) Mining spoil piles and mine dumps;

(i) Quarries;

(j) Sand and gravel pits;

(k) Gas and oil wells;

(l) Diversion ditches;

(m) Occupied dwellings, including industrial and commercial establishments;

(n) Landfills and dumps;

(o) Other unlined impoundments;

(p) Septic tanks and drainfields; and

(q) Injection wells.

(4) Topographic map (10-foot contour preferred) of sufficient detail to clearlyshown show ] the following information:

(a) Maximum and minimum percent slopes;

(b) Depressions on the site that may collect water;

(c) Drainage ways that may attribute to rainfall run-on to or runoff fromthis the ] site; and

(d) Portions of the site (if any) that are located within the 100-year floodplain;

(5) Data and specifications for the liner proposed for seepage control;

(6) Scaled plan view and cross-sectional view of the facilities showing inside and outside slopes of all embankments and details of all appurtenances;

(7) Calculations justifying impoundment capacity; and

(8)Ground water Groundwater ] monitoring plans for facilitiesproposing storage of liquid biosolids or supernatant, including if required by the department. The groundwater monitoring plan shall include ] pertinent geohydrological data to justify upgradient and downgradient well location and depth.

c. Staging. Generic plans for staging of biosolids.

d. Land application sites:

(1) DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying each land application fieldor. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the ] siteidentification code used by the permit applicant to report activities ] and the site's location;

(2) The site's latitude and longitudeto the nearest second in decimal degrees to three decimal places ] and the method of determination;

(3) A legible topographic mapand aerial photograph, including legend, ] of proposed application areas to scale as needed to depict the following features:

(a) Property boundaries;

(b) Surface water courses;

(c) Water supply wells and springs;

(d) Roadways;

(e) Rock outcrops;

(f) Slopes;

(g) Frequently flooded areas (National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) designation);and

(h) Occupied dwellings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and all existing dwelling and property line setback distances;

(i) Publicly accessible properties and occupied buildings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and the associated extended setback distances; and

(j) ] The gross acreage of the fields where biosolids will be applied;

(4) County map or other map of sufficient detail to show general location of the site and proposed transport vehicle haul routes to be utilized from the treatment plant;

(5) County tax mapslabeled with Tax Parcel ID or IDs ] for each farm to be included in the permit, which may include multiple fieldsto depict properties within 400 feet of the field boundaries ];

(6) A USDA soil survey map, if available, of proposed sites for land application of biosolids;

(7) The name, mailing address, and telephone number ofthe each ] site owner, if different from the applicant;

(8) The name, mailing address, and telephone number of the person who applies biosolids to the site, if different from the applicant;

(9) Whether the site is agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, as such site types are defined in9VAC25-31-500 9VAC25-32-10 ];

(10) Description of agricultural practices including a list of proposed crops to be grown;

(11) Whether either of the vector attraction reduction options of 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 is met at the site and a description of any procedures employed at the time of use to reduce vector attraction properties in biosolids;

(12) For projects utilizing frequent application of biosolids at agronomic rates the following additional site information will be necessary:

(a) Information specified in subdivisions 2 a and 4 of this subsection;

(b) Representative soil borings and test pits to a depth of five feet or to bedrock if shallower, are to be coordinated for each major soil type and tests performed and data collected on soil type; soil texture for each horizon (USDA classification); soil color for each horizon; depth from surface to mottling and bedrock if less than two feet; depth from surface to subsoil restrictive layer; indicated infiltration rate (surface soil) and indicated permeability of subsoil restrictive layer;

(c) Additional soil testing in accordance with Table 1 of 9VAC25-32-460; and

(d) Ground water monitoring plans for land treatment area including pertinent geohydrologic data to justify upgradient and downgradient well location and depth;

(13) (11) ] The following information for each land application site that has been identified at the time of permit application, if the applicant intends to apply bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] to the site:

(a) Whether the applicant has contacted the permitting authority in the state where the bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] will be applied, to ascertain whether bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] has been applied to the site on or since July 20, 1993, and if so, the name of the permitting authority and the name and phone number of a contact person at the permitting authority; and

(b) Identification of facilities other than the applicant's facility that have sent, or are sending, biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] to the site since July 20, 1993, if, based on the inquiry in subdivision 8 d (1) of this subsection, bulk biosolids subject to cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993; and

(14) If not all land application sites have been identified at the time of permit application, the applicant must submit a land application plan that, at a minimum:

(a) Describes the geographical area covered by the plan;

(b) Identifies the site selection criteria;

(c) Describes how the site or sites will be managed;

(d) Provides for advance notice to the department of specific land application sites in a manner prescribed by 9VAC25-32-515; and

(e) Provides for advance public notice of land application sites in a manner prescribed by 9VAC25-32-140 ].

3. A biosolidsoperations ] management plan shall be provided that includes the following minimum site specific information at the time of permit application.

a. Description of operation: A comprehensive, general description of the operationshall be provided, including biosolids source or sources; quantities; flow diagram illustrating treatment works biosolids flows and solids handling units; site description; methodology of biosolids handling for application periods, including storage and nonapplication period storage; and alternative management methods when storage is not provided as required by 9VAC25-32-60 ].

b. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreationshall be as ] required for application sites prior to board authorization under the following conditions:

(1) Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

(2) Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;and ]

(3) Minedor disturbed ] land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates.; or

(4) Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters. ]

4. Biosolids transport.

a.Description and specifications on the bed or the tank vehicle General description of transport vehicles to be used ].

b. Haul routes to be used from the biosolids generator to the storage unit and land application sites.

c. b. ] Procedures for biosolids offloading at the biosolids facilities and the land application site together with spill prevention, cleanup (including vehicle cleaning); field reclamation and emergency spill notification and cleanup measures.

d. c. ] Voucher system used for documentation and recordkeeping.

5. Field operations.

a. Storage.

(1) Routine storage - supernatant handling and disposal, biosolids handling and loading of transport vehicles, equipment cleaning, freeboard maintenance, and inspections for structural integrity.

(2) On-site storage - procedures for department or board approval and implementation.

(3) Staging - procedures to be followed including either designated site locations provided in the "Design Information" or the specific site criteria for such locations including the liner or cover requirements and the time limit assigned for such use.

(4)Field reclamation Reestablishment ] of offloading(staging) and staging ] areas.

b. Application methodology.

(1) Description and specifications on spreader vehicles.

(2) Procedures for calibrating equipment for various biosolids contents to ensure uniform distribution and appropriate loading rates on a day-to-day basis.

(3) Procedures used to ensure that operations address the following constraints: application of biosolids to frozen ground, pasture or hay fields, crops for direct human consumption and saturated or ice-covered or snow-covered ground;maintenance of buffer zones; establishment of setback distances; ] slopes; prohibited access for beef and dairy animals, and soil pH requirements; and proper site specific biosolids loading rates on a field-by-field basis.

c. Odor control plan for land applier. Include at a minimum:

(1) Methods used to identify and abate malodorous biosolids in the field prior to land application, and

(2) Methods used to abate malodorous biosolids if land applied.

6. An applicant for a permit authorizing the land application of biosolids shall provide to the department, and to each locality in which the applicant proposes to land apply biosolids, written evidence of financial responsibility. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with the requirements specified under Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX of this chapter.

9VAC25-32-80

9VAC25-32-80. Conditions applicable to all VPA permits.

A. Duty to comply. The permittee shall comply with all conditions of the VPA permit. Any permit noncompliance is a violation of the law, and is grounds for enforcement action, permit termination, revocation, modification, or denial of a permit renewal application.

B. Duty to halt or reduce activity. It shall not be a defense for a permittee in an enforcement action that it would have been necessary to halt or reduce the permitted activity in order to maintain compliance with the conditions of the VPA permit.

C. Duty to mitigate. The permittee shall take all reasonable steps to minimize, correct or prevent any pollutant management activity in violation of the VPA permit which has a reasonable likelihood of adversely affecting human health or the environment.

D. Proper operation and maintenance. The permittee shall be responsible for the proper operation and maintenance of all treatment works, systems and controls which are installed or used to achieve compliance with permit conditions. Proper operation and maintenance includes effective plant performance, adequate funding, adequate licensed operator staffing, and adequate laboratory and process controls, including appropriate quality assurance procedures.

E. Permit action.

1. A VPA permit may be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated as set forth in this chapter.

2. If a permittee files a request for a permit modification, revocation, or termination, or files a notification of planned changes, or anticipated noncompliance, the permit terms and conditions shall remain effective until the request is acted upon by the board. This provision shall not be used to extend the expiration date of the effective VPA permit.

3. VPA permits may be modified, revoked and reissued or terminated upon the request of the permittee or interested persons, or upon the board's initiative, to reflect the requirements of any changes in the statutes or regulations.

4. VPA permits continued under 9VAC25-32-130 remain effective and enforceable.

F. Inspection and entry. Upon presentation of credentials, any duly authorized agent of the board may, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances:

1. Enter upon any permittee's property, public or private, and have access to records required by the VPA permit;

2. Have access to, inspect and copy any records that must be kept as part of VPA permit conditions;

3. Inspect any facility's equipment (including monitoring and control equipment) practices or operations regulated or required under the VPA permit; and

4. Sample or monitor any substances or parameters at any locations for the purpose of assuring VPA permit compliance or as otherwise authorized by law.

G. Duty to provide information.

1. The permittee shall furnish to the department, within a reasonable time, any information which the board may request to determine whether cause exists for modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating the VPA permit, or to determine compliance with the VPA permit. The permittee shall also furnish to the department, upon request, copies of records required to be kept by the permittee.

2. Plans, specifications, maps, conceptual reports and other relevant information shall be submitted as requested by the board prior to commencing construction.

H. Monitoring and records.

1. Samples and measurements taken for the purpose of monitoring shall be representative of the monitored activity.

2. The permittee shall retain records of all monitoring information, including all calibration and maintenance records and all original strip chart recordings for continuous monitoring instrumentation, copies of all reports required by the VPA permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for the VPA permit, for a period of at least three years or in the case of activities regulated under Part IX (9VAC25-32-310 et seq.) of this chapter, at least five years from the date of the sample, measurement, report or application. This period may be extended by request of the board at any time.

Records related to biosolids data and information specified in agreements between generator, owner, agents, landowners and farmers shall be described and maintained for a minimum period of five years or the duration of the permit or subsequent revisions if longer than five years.

3. Records of monitoring information shall include:

a. The date, exact place and time of sampling or measurements;

b. The name of the individual or individuals who performed the sampling or measurements;

c. The date or dates analyses were performed;

d. The name of the individual or individuals who performed the analyses;

e. The analytical techniques or methods supporting the information such as observations, readings, calculations and bench data used; and

f. The results of such analyses.

4. Monitoring shall be conducted according to analytical methods promulgated pursuant to § 304(h) of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations at 40 CFR Part 136 (1995). Any other acceptable test procedure not listed in 40 CFR Part 136 (1995) shall be specified in the VPA permit.

5. Records related to biosolids data and information specified in agreements between generator, owner, agents, landowners, and farmers shall be described and maintained for a minimum period of five years or the duration of the permit or subsequent revisions if longer than five years.

I. Reporting requirements.

1. The permittee shall give prompt notice to the department of any planned changes to the design or operation of the pollutant management activity.

2. If any unusual or extraordinary discharge including a bypass or upset should occur from a treatment works and the discharge enters or could be expected to enter state waters, the owner shall promptly notify, in no case later than 24 hours, the department by telephone after the discovery of the discharge. This notification shall provide all available details of the incident, including any adverse effects on aquatic life and the known number of fish killed. The permittee shall reduce the report to writing and shall submit it to the department within five days of discovery of the discharge in accordance with subdivision 6 of this subsection. Unusual and extraordinary discharges include but are not limited to any discharge resulting from:

a. Unusual spillage of materials resulting directly or indirectly from processing operations;

b. Breakdown of processing or accessory equipment;

c. Failure or taking out of service of some or all of the treatment works; and

d. Flooding or other acts of nature.

3. The permittee shall give at least 10 days advance notice to the department of any planned changes to the facility or activity which may result in noncompliance.

4. Monitoring results shall be reported at the intervals specified in the applicable VPA permit.

a. Monitoring results shall be reported in a format acceptable to the board.

b. If a permittee monitors the pollutant management activity, at a sampling location specified in the VPA permit, for any pollutant more frequently than required by the VPA permit using approved analytical methods, the permittee shall report the results of this monitoring on the monitoring report.

c. If the permittee monitors the pollutant management activity, at a sampling location specified in the VPA permit, for any pollutant that is not required to be monitored by the VPA permit, and uses approved analytical methods the permittee shall report the results with the monitoring report.

d. Calculations for all limitations which require averaging of measurements shall utilize an arithmetic mean unless otherwise specified in the VPA permit.

5. Reports of compliance or noncompliance with or any progress report on interim and final requirements contained in any compliance schedule in the VPA permit shall be submitted no later than 14 days following each scheduled date.

6. 24-hour reporting.

a. The permittee shall report any noncompliance which may adversely affect state waters or may endanger public health. An oral report must be provided [ to the department ] as soon as possible, but in no case later than 24 hours from the time the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances. A written report shall be submitted within five days and shall contain a description of the noncompliance and its cause; the period of noncompliance including exact dates and times, and, if the noncompliance has not been corrected, how long it is expected to continue, steps planned or taken to reduce, eliminate and prevent a recurrence of the noncompliance. The board may waive the written report requirements on a case-by-case basis if the oral report has been received within 24 hours and no adverse impact on state waters has been reported. All other noncompliance reports which may not adversely affect state waters shall be submitted with the monitoring report. Reports shall include overflows.

b. The following shall be included as information which must be reported within 24 hours under this subdivision:

(1) Any unanticipated bypass; and

(2) Any upset which causes a discharge to surface waters.

J. Bypass.

1. A bypass of the treatment works is prohibited except as provided herein.

2. If the permittee knows in advance of the need for a bypass, he shall notify the department promptly at least 10 days prior to the bypass. After considering its adverse effects, the board may approve an anticipated bypass if:

a. The bypass will be unavoidable to prevent loss of human life, personal injury, or severe property damage ("severe property damage" means substantial physical damage to property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to become inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural resources which can reasonably be expected to occur in the absence of a bypass. Severe property damage does not mean economic loss caused by delays in production); and

b. There are no feasible alternatives to bypass such as the use of auxiliary treatment facilities, retention of untreated waste, or maintenance during normal periods of equipment downtime. However, if bypass occurs during normal periods of equipment downtime or preventive maintenance and in the exercise of reasonable engineering judgment the permittee could have installed adequate backup equipment to prevent such bypass, this exclusion shall not apply as a defense.

3. If an unplanned bypass occurs, the permittee shall notify the department as soon as possible, but in no case later than 24 hours, and shall take steps to halt the bypass as early as possible. This notification will be a condition for defense to an enforcement action that an unplanned bypass met the conditions in subdivision 2 of this subsection and in light of the information reasonably available to the owner at the time of the bypass.

K. Upset. A permittee may claim an upset as an affirmative defense to an action brought for noncompliance. In any enforcement proceedings a permittee shall have the burden of proof to establish the occurrence of any upset. In order to establish an affirmative defense of upset, the permittee shall present properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs or other relevant evidence that shows:

1. That an upset occurred and that the cause can be identified;

2. That the permitted facility was at the time being operated efficiently and in compliance with proper operation and maintenance procedures;

3. That the 24-hour reporting requirements to the department were met; and

4. That the permittee took all reasonable steps to minimize or correct any adverse impact on state waters resulting from noncompliance with the VPA permit.

L. Signature requirements. All applications, reports, or information submitted to the department shall be signed and certified as required in 9VAC25-32-70.

M. Transfers. A VPA permit is not transferable to any person except after notice to the department according to 9VAC24-32-230. The board may require modification or revocation and reissuance of the VPA permit to change the name of the permittee and incorporate such other requirements as may be necessary.

9VAC25-32-100

9VAC25-32-100. Establishing limitations and other VPA permit conditions.

A. In addition to the conditions established in 9VAC25-32-80 and 9VAC25-32-90, each VPA permit shall include conditions meeting the following requirements where applicable.

1. Determination of limitations. VPA permit limitations and conditions shall be established based on the nature of the pollutant management activity in order to ensure compliance with technology-based limitations, water quality standards, the law and all regulations promulgated thereunder. These limitations and conditions may include, but are not limited to, duration of VPA permits, monitoring requirements, limitations to control toxic pollutants, best management practices and schedules of compliance.

2. Duration of VPA permits. VPA permits issued under this regulation shall have an effective date and an expiration date which will determine the life of the VPA permit. VPA permits shall be effective for a fixed term not to exceed 10 years as specified in the VPA permit. The term of the VPA permits shall not be extended by modification beyond the maximum duration. The VPA permit shall expire at the end of the term unless an application for a new VPA permit has been timely filed as required by this chapter and the board is unable, through no fault of the permittee, to issue a new VPA permit before the expiration date of the previous VPA permit.

3. B. Monitoring requirements.

a. 1. All VPA permits may specify:

(1) a. Requirements concerning the proper use, maintenance and installation, when appropriate, of monitoring equipment or methods;

(2) b. Required monitoring including type, intervals, and frequency sufficient to yield data which are representative of the monitored activity and including, when appropriate, continuous monitoring; and

(3) c. Applicable reporting requirements based upon the impact of the regulated activity on water quality.

b. 2. VPA permits may include requirements to report monitoring results with a frequency dependent on the nature and effect of the pollutant management activity.

c. 3. In addition, the following monitoring requirements may be included in the VPA permits:

(1) a. Mass or other measurements specified in the VPA permit for each pollutant of concern;

(2) b. The volume of waste, wastewater, biosolids, or sludge managed by the activity; and

(3) c. Other measurements as appropriate.

4. C. Best Management Practices (BMPs). The VPA permit shall require the use of BMPs to control or abate pollutants where numeric limits are infeasible, and the VPA permit may include BMPs in addition to numeric limits where BMPs are necessary to achieve limitations and standards or to carry out the purpose and intent of the law.

5. D. Sludge disposal. The VPA permit shall include, where appropriate, specific requirements for disposal of all sludge.

6. E. Sewage sludge Biosolids land application. Where, because of site-specific conditions, including soil type, identified during the permit application review process, the department determines that special requirements are necessary to protect the environment or the health, safety or welfare of persons residing in the vicinity of a proposed land application site, the department may incorporate in the permit at the time it is issued reasonable special conditions regarding [ buffering setback distances ], transportation routes, slope, material source, methods of handling and application, and time of day restrictions exceeding those required by this regulation. The permit applicant shall have at least 14 days in which to review and respond to the proposed conditions.

7. F. Schedules of compliance. The VPA permit may specify a schedule, when appropriate, leading to compliance with the VPA permit as soon as possible. When schedules of compliance are applicable the following shall be incorporated:

a. 1. Schedule or schedules of compliance shall require the permittee to take specific steps where necessary to achieve expeditious compliance with the VPA permit;

b. 2. The schedule of compliance shall set forth interim time periods not more than one year apart for the submission of reports of progress toward completion of each requirement; and

c. 3. Schedule or schedules of compliance may be modified by modification of the VPA permit for good cause beyond the control of the permittee (e.g., act of God, strike, flood, material shortage).

9VAC25-32-140

Part III
Public Involvement

9VAC25-32-140. Public notice of VPA permit action and public comment period.

A. Draft VPA permits.

A. 1. Every draft VPA permit shall be given public notice, paid for by the owner, by publication once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the pollutant management activity.

B. 2. Interested persons shall have a period of at least 30 days following the date of the initial newspaper public notice to submit written comments on the tentative decision and to request a public hearing.

C. 3. The contents of the public notice of an application for a VPA permit shall include:

1. a. The name and address of the applicant. If the location of the pollutant management activity differs from the address of the applicant the notice shall also state the location of the pollutant management activity including storage and land application sites;

2. b. A brief description of the business or activity conducted at the facility;

3. c. A statement of the tentative determination to issue or deny a VPA permit;

4. d. A brief description of the final determination procedure;

5. e. The address and phone number of a specific person at the state office from whom further information may be obtained; and

6. f. A brief description of how to submit comments and request a hearing.

D. Public notice shall not be required for submission or approval of plans and specifications or conceptual engineering reports not required to be submitted as part of the application.

B. VPA permit application.

E. 1. Upon receipt of an application for a the issuance of a new or modified permit or for a modification of a permit, the board department shall notify in writing the locality wherein the pollutant management activity does or is proposed to take place. This notification shall, at a minimum, include:

1. Cause to be notified, in writing, the locality wherein the pollutant management activity does or is proposed to take place. This notification shall, at a minimum, include:

a. The name of the applicant;

b. The nature of the application and proposed pollutant management activity; and

c. The availability and timing of any comment period; and

c. d. Upon request, any other information known to, or in the possession of, the board or the department regarding the application except as restricted by 9VAC25-32-150.

2. Establish Whenever the department receives an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage, or an application to reissue with the addition of sites increasing acreage by 50% or more of that authorized in the initial permit, the department shall establish a date for a public meeting to discuss technical issues relating to proposals for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge or stabilized septage. The department shall give notice of the date, time, and place of the public meeting and a description of the proposal by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the proposal is to take place. Public notice of the scheduled meeting shall occur no fewer than seven or nor more than 14 days prior to the meeting. The board department shall not issue the permit until the public meeting has been held and comment has been received from the local governing body or until 30 days have lapsed from the date of the public meeting.

3. Following the submission of an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage,DEQ the department ] shallmake a good faith effort to ] notify or cause to be notified persons residing on property bordering the sites that contain the proposed land application fields. This notification shall be in a manner selected by the department. For the purposes of this subsection, "site" means all contiguous land under common ownership, but which may contain more than one tax parcel.

4. Public notice shall not be required for submission or approval of plans and specifications or conceptual engineering reports not required to be submitted as part of the application.

C. Following the submission of an application to add a site that is not contiguous to sites included in an existing permit authorizing the land application of biosolids:

1. The department shall notify persons residing on property bordering such site and shall receive written comments from those persons for a period of 30 days. Based upon written comments, the department shall determine whether additional site-specific requirements should be included in the authorization for land application at the site.

2. An application for any permit amendment to increase the acreage authorized by the initial permit by 50% or more shall be considered a major modification and shall be treated as a new application for purposes of public notice and public hearings. The increase in acreage for the purpose of determining the need for the public meeting is the sum of all acreage that has been added to the permit since the last public meeting, plus that proposed to be added.

F. D. Before issuing any permit, if the [ board department ] finds that there are localities particularly affected by the permit, the [ board department ] shall:

1. Publish, or require the applicant to publish, a notice in a local paper of general circulation in the localities affected at least 30 days prior to the close of any public comment period. Such notice shall contain a statement of the estimated local impact of the proposed permit, which at a minimum shall include information on the specific pollutants involved and the total quantity of each which may be discharged; and

2. Mail the notice to the chief elected official and chief administrative officer and planning district commission for those localities.

Written comments shall be accepted by the [ board department ] for at least 15 days after any public hearing on the permit, unless the [ board votes department decides ] to shorten the period. For the purposes of this section, the term "locality particularly affected" means any locality which bears any identified disproportionate material water quality impact which would not be experienced by other localities.

G. When a site is to be added to an existing permit authorizing land application of biosolids, the department shall notify persons residing on property bordering such site, and shall receive written comments from those persons for a period not to exceed 30 days. Based upon the written comments, the department shall determine whether additional site-specific requirements should be included in the authorization for land application at the site.

9VAC25-32-240

9VAC25-32-240. Minor modification.

A. Upon request of the permittee, or upon board initiative with the consent of the permittee, minor modifications may be made in the VPA permit without following the public involvement procedures.

B. Minor modification may only:

1. Correct typographical errors;

2. Require reporting by the permittee at a frequency other than that required in the VPA permit;

3. Change an interim compliance date in a schedule of compliance to no more than 120 days from the original compliance date and provided it will not interfere with the final compliance date;

4. Allow for a change in name, ownership or operational control when the board determines that no other change in the VPA permit is necessary, provided that a written agreement containing a specific date for transfer of VPA permit responsibility, coverage and liability from the current to the new permittee has been submitted to the department;

5. Delete the listing of a land application site when the pollutant management activity is terminated and does not result in an increase of pollutants which would exceed VPA permit limitations;

6. Reduce VPA permit limitations to reflect a reduction in the permitted activity when such reduction results from a shutdown of processes or pollutant generating activities or from connection of the permitted activity to a POTW;

7. Change plans and specifications where no other changes in the VPA permit are required;

8. Authorize treatment facility expansions, production increases or process modifications which will not cause a significant change in the quantity of pollutants being managed or a significant change in the nature of the pollutant management activity; or

9. Delete VPA permit limitation or monitoring requirements for specific pollutants when the activities generating these pollutants are terminated.

C. An application for any permit amendments to increase the acreage authorized by the [ initial ] permit by 50% or more shall be treated as a new application for purposes of public notice and public hearingsshall not be considered a minor modification and shall require the public involvement procedures outlined in 9VAC25-32-140 C ].

9VAC25-32-260

9VAC25-32-260. General VPA permits.

The board may issue a general VPA permit in accordance with the following:

1. Sources. A general VPA permit may be written to regulate a category of pollutant management activities that:

a. Involve the same or similar types of operations;

b. Manage the same or similar types of wastes;

c. Require the same VPA permit limitations or operating conditions;

d. Require the same or similar monitoring; and

e. In the opinion of the board, are more appropriately controlled under a general VPA permit than under individual VPA permits.

2. Administration.

a. General VPA permits will be issued, modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated pursuant to the law and the board's Public Participation Guidelines (9VAC25-10-10 et seq.) Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

b. The board may require any person operating under a general VPA permit to apply for and obtain an individual VPA permit. Interested persons may petition the board to take action under this subdivision. Cases where an individual VPA permit may be required include the following:

(1) Where the pollutant management activity is a significant contributor of pollution;

(2) Where the owner is not in compliance with the conditions of the general VPA permit;

(3) When a water quality management plan containing requirements applicable to the pollutant management activity is approved; or

(4) When a permitted activity no longer meets the general VPA permit conditions.

c. Any owner operating under a general VPA permit may request to be excluded from the coverage of the general VPA permit by applying for an individual VPA permit.

d. When an individual VPA permit is issued to an owner the applicability of the general VPA permit to the individual permittee is automatically terminated on the effective date of the individual VPA permit.

e. When a general VPA permit is issued which applies to an owner already covered by an individual VPA permit, such owner may request exclusion from the provisions of the general VPA permit and subsequent coverage under an individual VPA permit.

f. A general VPA permit may be revoked as to an individual owner for any of the reasons set forth in 9VAC25-32-210 or subdivision 2 b of this section subject to appropriate opportunity for a hearing.

9VAC25-32-300

9VAC25-32-300. Transition.

A. Effective July 24, 1996, the following will occur:

1. All VPA applications received after that date will be processed in accordance with this regulation.

2. Any owner holding a No-Discharge Certificate will be notified of the deadline for applying for a VPA permit, unless this notification has already been made. All such notifications shall be completed by July 1, 1998. Upon notification that a VPA permit is necessary for the pollutant management activity authorized by the No-Discharge Certificate, the permittee shall have 180 days to apply for a VPA permit. If a VPA permit is required, the existing No-Discharge Certificate will remain in effect until the VPA permit is issued. Concurrent with the issuance of the VPA permit, the No-Discharge Certificate will be revoked subject to appropriate notice and opportunity for public hearing. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all No-Discharge Certificates which do not bear an expiration date shall terminate no later than July 1, 1999.

B. A. Permits issued prior to January 1, 2008, by the Department of Health under the authority of the State Board of Health prior to January 1, 2008, shall continue in force until expired, reissued, amended, or terminated in accordance with the permit or this regulation. All owners holding biosolids use construction or operation permits as of January 1, 2008, shall submit an application for a Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit in accordance with this regulation within 180 days before the date of expiration of permits issued prior to January 1, 2008, or at the time of any modification request submitted after January 1, 2008, or by June 1, 2008, whichever is later. All owners of biosolids use facilities shall comply with the applicable requirements set forth in the operational regulations of Part IX (9VAC25-32-310 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. All owners holding active biosolids use permits as of January 1, 2008, shall submit an application for a Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit in accordance with this regulation at least 180 days before the expiration date of permits issued prior to January 1, 2008, or by June 30, 2012, whichever comes first.

C. All owners of biosolids use facilities shall comply with the applicable requirements set forth in the operational regulations of Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter.

D. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all VDH-BUR permits shall terminate no later than December 31, 2012, [ or 12 months after the effective date, whichever is later, ] if an administratively complete VPA application for the activity authorized by the VDH-BUR permit has not been submitted to the department.

9VAC25-32-303

Part IX
Biosolids Program

Article 1
Procedures and Requirements

9VAC25-32-303. Purpose and applicability.

A. This part establishes standards, which consist of general requirements, pollutant limits, management practices, and operational standards, for the final use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Standards are included in this part for biosolids applied to the land. Also included in this part are pathogen and alternative vector attraction reduction requirements for biosolids applied to the land.

B. The standards in this part also include the frequency of monitoring and recordkeeping requirements when biosolids is applied to the land.

C. Applicability.

1. This part applies to any person who prepares biosolids or applies biosolids to the land.

2. This part applies to biosolids applied to the land.

3. This part applies to land where biosolids is applied.

9VAC25-32-305

9VAC25-32-305. Permits.

A. No owner shall cause or allow any land application, marketing, or distribution of biosolids except in compliance with a permit issued by the board that authorizes these activities.

B. A separate biosolids use permit shall be issued for each political jurisdiction (county or city) where land application is proposed.

C. No person shall land apply Class B biosolids on any land in Virginia unless that land has been identified in an application to issue, reissue or modify a permit and approved by the board.

D. No person shall land apply, market, ] or distribute biosolids in Virginia unless the biosolidssource ] has been approved by the board.

9VAC25-32-307

9VAC25-32-307. Relationship to other regulations.

A. Disposal of sewage sludge in a municipal solid waste landfill unit that complies with the requirements in the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulation(9VAC20-80) (9VAC20-81) ] constitutes compliance with § 405 (d) of the federal Clean Water Act.

B. Any person who prepares sewage sludge that is disposed in a municipal solid waste landfill unit shall ensure that the sewage sludge meets the requirements in9VAC20-80 9VAC20-81 ] concerning the quality of materials disposed in a municipal solid waste landfill.

9VAC25-32-310

Part IX
Biosolids Program

Article 1
Definitions and Procedures

9VAC25-32-310. Definitions. (Repealed.)

A. For the purposes of this part the following definitions shall apply:

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment for required pathogen control and is treated or managed to reduce vector attraction to a satisfactory level and contains acceptable levels of pollutants, such that it is acceptable for use for land application, marketing or distribution in accordance with this regulation.

"Critical areas/waters" means areas/waters in proximity to shellfish waters, a public water supply, recreation or other waters where health or water quality concerns are identified by the board or the Department of Health.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids and expressed in units of English tons.

"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge or biosolids after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as a percent solids.

"Effluent limitations" means schedules of compliance, prohibitions, permit requirements, established under state or federal law for control of sewage discharges.

"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.

"Facilities" means processes, equipment, storage devices and dedicated sites, located or operated separately from a treatment works, utilized for sewage sludge management, including but not limited to, handling, treatment, transport and storage of biosolids.

"Generator" means the owner of a sewage treatment works that produces sewage sludge and biosolids.

"Industrial wastes" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Land application" means the distribution of either treated wastewater of acceptable quality, referred to as effluent, or stabilized sewage sludge of acceptable quality, referred to as biosolids, upon, or insertion into, the land with a uniform application rate for the purpose of utilization, or assimilation. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this regulation are not to be considered to be treatment works.

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this regulation.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Operate" means the act of any person who may have an impact on either the finished water quality at a waterworks or the final effluent at a sewage treatment works, such as to (i) place into or take out of service a unit process or unit processes, (ii) make or cause adjustments in the operation of a unit process or unit processes at a treatment works, or (iii) manage sewage sludge or biosolids.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including sanitary districts, sanitation district commissions and authorities, federal agencies, any individual, any group of individuals acting individually or as a group, or any public or private institution, corporation, company, partnership, firm or association that owns or proposes to own a sewerage system or treatment works as defined in § 62.1-44.3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Permit" means an authorization granted by the board to construct, or operate, facilities and specific sites utilized for biosolids management, including land application, marketing and distribution of biosolids.

"Permittee" means a person, firm, corporation, political subdivision or other entity holding a permit approved by the board for the land application, storage or distribution of biosolids as provided for in this regulation.

"Pollutant" means any substance, radioactive material, or waste heat that causes or contributes to, or may cause or contribute to, pollution.

"Pollution" means such alteration of the physical, chemical or biological properties of any state waters or soil as will, or is likely to, create a nuisance or render such waters or soil (i) harmful or detrimental or injurious to the public health, safety or welfare, or to the health of animals, fish or aquatic life; (ii) unsuitable despite reasonable treatment for use as present or possible future sources of public water supply; or (iii) unsuitable for recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural or for other reasonable uses. Such alteration is also deemed to be pollution, if there occurs: (a) an alteration of the physical, chemical or biological property of state waters or soil, or a discharge or a deposit of sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes to state waters or soil by any owner which by itself is not sufficient to cause pollution, but which, in combination with such alteration of, or discharge, or deposit, to state waters or soil by other owners, is sufficient to cause pollution; (b) the discharge of untreated sewage by any owner into state waters or soil; or (c) the contravention of standards of air or water quality duly established by the State Water Control Board.

9VAC25-32-313

9VAC25-32-313. General requirements.

A. No person shall apply biosolids to the land except in accordance with the requirements in this article.

B. No person shall apply bulk biosolids to the land if it is likely to adversely affect a threatened or endangered species listed in 9VAC25-260-320 or § 4 of the Endangered Species Act (16 USC § 1533) or if the land application is likely to adversely affect its designated critical habitat.

C. No person shall apply bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site if any of the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] has been reached.

D. No person shall apply domestic septage to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site during a 365-day period if the annual application rate in 9VAC25-32-356C D ] has been reached during that period.

E. The person who prepares bulk biosolids that is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site shall provide the person who applies the bulk biosolids written notification of the concentration of total nitrogen(as N on a dry weight basis) and phosphorus (as N and P on a dry weight basis) ] in the bulk biosolids.

F. Before bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] is applied to the land, the person who proposes to apply the bulk biosolids shall contact the department to determine whether bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993.

1. If bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] has not been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, the cumulative amount of each pollutant listed in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] may be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-32-356A 2 a B 2 a ].

2. If bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, and the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site in the bulk biosolids since that date is known, the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site shall be used to determine the additional amount of each pollutant that can be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-32-356A 2 a B 2 a ].

3. If bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, and the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site in the bulk biosolids since that date is not known, an additional amount of each pollutant shall not be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-32-356A 2 a B 2 a ].

G. When a person who prepares bulk biosolids provides the bulk biosolids to a person who applies the bulk biosolids to the land, the person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall provide the person who applies the biosolids notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

H. When a person who prepares biosolids provides the biosolids to another person who prepares the biosolids, the person who provides the biosolids shall provide the person who receives the biosolids notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

I. The person who applies bulk biosolids to the land shall provide the owner or lease holder of the land on which the bulk biosolids is applied notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

J. Any person who prepares bulk biosolids in another state that is applied to land in Virginia shall provide written notice to the department prior to the initial application of bulk biosolids to the land application site by the applier. The notice shall include:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each land application site;

2. The approximate time period bulk biosolids will be applied to the site;

3. The name, address, telephone number, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) for the person who prepares the bulk biosolids; and,

4. The name, address, telephone number, and National (or Virginia) Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) for the person who will apply the bulk biosolids.

K. Any person who applies bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ] to the land shall provide written notice, prior to the initial application of bulk biosolids to the land application site by the applier, to the department and the department shall retain and provide access to the notice. The notice shall include:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of the land application site; and

2. The name, address, telephone number, and Virginia Pollution Abatement permit number (if appropriate) of the person who will apply the bulk biosolids.

9VAC25-32-315

9VAC25-32-315. Additional and more stringent requirements.

A. On a case-by-case basis, the board may impose requirements for the use of biosolids or the disposal of sewage sludge in addition to or more stringent than the requirements in this part when necessary to protect human health and the environment from any adverse effect of a pollutant in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

B. Nothing in this part precludesthe authority of ] another state agencywith responsibility for regulating biosolids or sewage sludge or any, ] political subdivision of Virginia, ] or an interstate agencyfrom imposing requirements for the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge more stringent than the requirements in this part or from imposing additional requirements for with respect to ] the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge.

C. For biosolids land application where, because of site specific conditions, including soil type, identified during the permit application review process, the department determines that special requirements are necessary to protect the environment or the health, safety, or welfare of persons residing in the vicinity of a proposed land application site, the department may incorporate in the permit at the time it is issued reasonable special conditions regardingbuffering setback distances ], transportation routes, slope, material source, methods of handling and application, and time of day restrictions exceeding those required by this regulation. The permit applicant shall have at least 14 days in which to review and respond to the proposed conditions.

9VAC25-32-317

9VAC25-32-317. Exclusions.

A. Treatment processes. This part does not establish requirements for processes to treat domestic sewage or for processes used to treat sewage sludge prior to final use or disposal, except as provided in 9VAC25-32-675 and 9VAC25-32-685.

B. Selection of a use or a disposal practice. This part does notrequire the selection of a dictate the selection of a specific ] biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practiceby the owner of the wastewater treatment works ].The determination of the manner in which biosolids is used or sewage sludge is disposed is a local determination. ]

C. Incineration of sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for sewage sludge fired in a sewage sludge incinerator or co-fired in an incinerator with other wastes or for the incinerator in which sewage sludge or other waste are co-fired.

D. Hazardous sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge determined to be hazardous in accordance with 40 CFR Part 261 (2000) or the Code of Virginia.

E. Sewage sludge with high PCB concentration. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge with a concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) equal to or greater than 50 milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis).

F. Incinerator ash. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator.

G. Grit and screenings. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of grit (e.g., sand, gravel, cinders, or other materials with a high specific gravity) or screenings (e.g., relatively large materials such as rags) generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

9VAC25-32-320

9VAC25-32-320. Local enforcement of the regulation.

A. In the event of a dispute concerning the existence of a violation between a permittee and a locality that has adopted a local ordinance for testing and monitoring of the land application of sewage sludge and a permittee concerning the existence of a violation biosolids, the activity alleged to be in violation shall be halted pending a determination by the director. The decision of the director shall be final and binding unless reversed on judicial appeal pursuant to § 2.2-4026 of the Code of Virginia. If the activity is not halted, the director may seek an injunction compelling the halting of the activity, from a court having jurisdiction.

B. Upon determination by the director that there has been a violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1 or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia, or of any regulation promulgated under those sections, and that such violation poses an imminent threat to public health, safety or welfare, the department shall commence appropriate action to abate the violation and immediately notify the chief administrative officer of any locality potentially affected by the violation.

C. Local governments shall promptly notify the department of all results from the testing and monitoring of the land application of sewage sludge biosolids performed by persons employed by local governments and any violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1 or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia.

D. Local governments receiving complaints concerning land application of biosolids shall notify the department and the permit holder within 24 hours of receiving the complaint.

9VAC25-32-330

9VAC25-32-330. Variances.

A. The board may grant a variance to a procedural, design, or operational regulation by following the appropriate procedures set forth in this section.

B. Requirements for a variance. The board may grant a variance if it finds that the hardship imposed (may be economic) outweighs the benefits that may be received by the public and that the granting of such variance does not subject the public to unreasonable health risks or environmental pollution.

C. Application for a variance. Any owner may apply in writing for a variance. The application should shall be sent submitted to the appropriate regional office for evaluation. The application shall include:

1. A citation of the regulation from which a variance is requested.

2. The nature and duration of variance requested.

3. A statement of the hardship to the owner and the anticipated impacts to the public health and welfare if a variance were granted.

4. Suggested conditions that might be imposed on the granting of a variance that would limit its detrimental impact on public health and welfare.

5. Other information, if any, believed to be pertinent by the applicant.

6. Such other information as may be required to make the determination in accordance with subsection B of this section.

D. Consideration of a variance.

1. The board shall act on any variance request submitted pursuant to this subsection within 90 days of receipt of request.

2. In the board's consideration of whether a biosolids use variance should be granted, the board shall consider such factors as the following:

a. The effect that such a variance would have on the adequate operation of the biosolids use facility, including public nuisance concerns;

b. The cost and other economic considerations imposed by this requirement; and

c. The effect that such a variance would have on the protection of the public health or the environment.

E. Disposition of a variance request.

1. The board may grant the variance request and if the board proposes to deny the variance it shall provide the owner an opportunity to an informal [ hearing proceeding ] as provided in § 2.2-4019 of the Code of Virginia. Following this opportunity for an informal [ hearing proceeding ] the board may reject any application for a variance by sending a rejection notice to the applicant. The rejection notice shall be in writing and shall state the reasons for the rejection. A rejection notice constitutes a case decision.

2. If the board proposes to grant a variance request submitted pursuant to this regulation, the applicant shall be notified in writing of this decision. Such notice shall identify the variance, the biosolids use facility involved, and shall specify the period of time for which the variance will be effective. Such notice shall provide that the variance will be terminated when the biosolids use facility comes into compliance with the applicable regulation and may be terminated upon a finding by the board that the biosolids use facility has failed to comply with any requirements or schedules issued in conjunction with the variance. The effective date of the variance shall be 15 days following its issuance.

F. Posting of variances. All variances granted for the design or operation of biosolids use facility are nontransferable. Any requirements of the variance shall become part of the permit for biosolids use subsequently granted by the board.

9VAC25-32-340

9VAC25-32-340. Permits. (Repealed.)

No owner shall cause or allow any land application, marketing or distribution of biosolids except in compliance with a permit issued by the board that authorizes these activities. Application for a permit shall be in accordance with 9VAC25-32-60. Information for the permit application is to be provided by completion and submission of the appropriate application forms and applicable sections in Article 4 (9VAC25-32-670 et seq.) of this part to the appropriate regional office. Applications can be obtained from any regional office.

A separate biosolids use permit shall be issued for each political jurisdiction (county or city) where land application is to be undertaken.

9VAC25-32-355

9VAC25-32-355. Biosolids Use Regulation Advisory Committee. (Repealed.)

A. The department shall appoint a committee to advise the department on issues related to implementation and administration of this part. Advisory committee membership should include representatives of large size and small size communities and industries and their consultants. The advisory committee shall contain a maximum of 25 members.

B. The committee members shall be selected from organizations such as:

1. Virginia Association of Counties (VACO) and a representative, such as a local monitor, of a county with sites permitted for land application of biosolids in accordance with this regulation;

2. Virginia Municipal League (VML), the Association of Municipal Wastewater Agencies (VAMWA), and the owners of medium and small flow treatment works;

3. Virginia professional societies (i.e., engineers and soil scientists) and regional wastewater organizations such as the Virginia Water Environment Association;

4. Biosolids consultants and contractors;

5. State university and college faculties;

6. Agricultural industry, the Virginia Farm Bureau and farmers with land permitted in accordance with this regulation;

7. Medical professionals and "at large" citizens; and

8. State agencies such as the Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Department of Health, and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

C. Consideration shall also be given to appropriate citizens who are not members of these organizations and other interested parties and groups such as citizens' conservation organizations.

D. Each committee member may designate an alternate to serve when necessary.

E. The function of the committee will be to meet, discuss issues, and make recommendations to the department concerning the regulations and standards contained in this part and other policies, procedures and programs for regulating biosolids use and associated fees. The committee's meetings will be advertised and open to the public, and comments and recommendations from the public will be received.

9VAC25-32-356

Article 2
Operational and Monitoring Requirements

9VAC25-32-356. Pollutantmonitoring and ] limits.

A.Bulk biosolids or biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall be monitored for the parameters identified in Table 1 of this section:

TABLE 1
PARAMETERS for BIOSOLIDS ANALYSIS(1)

Pollutant

Percent solids (%)

Volatile solids (%)

pH (standard units)

Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (%)

Ammonia nitrogen (%)

Nitrates (mg/kg)

Total phosphorus (%)

Total potassium (%)

Alkalinity as CaCO3 (mg/kg)(2)

Arsenic (mg/kg)

Cadmium (mg/kg)

Copper (mg/kg)

Lead (mg/kg)

Mercury (mg/kg)

Molybdenum (mg/kg)

Nickel (mg/kg)

Selenium (mg/kg)

Zinc (mg/kg)

(1)Values reported on a dry weight basis unless indicated.

(2)Lime treated biosolids (10% or more lime by weight) shall be analyzed for percent CaCO3.

B. ] Biosolidspollutant limits ].

1. Bulk biosolids or biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall not be applied to the land if the concentration of any pollutant in the biosolids exceeds the ceiling concentration for the pollutant inTable 1 Table 2 ] of this section.

2. If bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, either:

a. The cumulative loading rate for each pollutant shall not exceed the cumulative pollutant loading rate for the pollutant inTable 2 Table 3 ] of this section; or

b. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant inTable 3 Table 4 ] of this section.

3. If bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden, the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant inTable 3 Table 4 ] of this section.

4. If biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, either:

a. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant inTable 3 Table 4 ] of this section; or

b. The product of the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids and the annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids shall not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant inTable 4 Table 5 ] of this section to be exceeded. The procedure used to determine the annual whole sludge application rate is presented in subsection D of this section.

B. C. ] Pollutant concentrations and loading rates - biosolids.

TABLE 1 TABLE 2 ]
CEILING CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Ceiling Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

75

Cadmium

85

Copper

4,300

Lead

840

Mercury

57

Molybdenum(1) ]

75

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

7,500

*Dry weight basis

(1) Biosolids with a molybdenum concentration greater than 40 mg/kg shall not be applied to land used for livestock grazing. ]

 

TABLE 2 TABLE 3 ]
CUMULATIVE POLLUTANT LOADING RATES(1)

 

Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate

Pollutant

(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic(2)

41

36

Cadmium

39

35

Copper

1,500

1,340

Lead

300

270

Mercury

17

16

Molybdenum(2)

 

 

Nickel

420

375

Selenium

100

89

Zinc

2,800

2,500

Notes:(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application is currently under study by USEPA.Research suggests that for Molybdenum a cumulative pollutant loading rate below 40 kg/hectare may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals. ]

 

TABLE 3 TABLE 4 ]
POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Monthly Average Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

41

Cadmium

39

Copper

1,500

Lead

300

Mercury

17

Molybdenum(1)

 

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

2,800

*Dry weight basis

Note: (1) The monthly average concentration is currently under study by USEPA.Research suggests that a monthly average Molybdenum concentration below 40 mg/kg may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals. ]

 

TABLE 4 TABLE 5 ]
ANNUAL POLLUTANT LOADING RATES
(1) ]

 

Annual Pollutant Loading Rate
(per 365-day period)

Pollutant

(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic(2) ]

2.0

1.8

Cadmium

1.9

1.7

Copper

75

67

Lead

15

13

Mercury

0.85

0.76

Molybdenum(2)

 

 

Nickel

21

19

Selenium

5.0

4.6

Zinc

140

125

Notes:(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application is currently under study by USEPA.

C. D. ] Procedures to determine the annual whole sludge application rate (AWSAR) for biosolids. SubdivisionA 4 b B 4 b ] of this section requires that the product of the concentration for each pollutant listed in Table 4 of this section in biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land and the AWSAR for the biosolids not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant inTable 4 Table 5 ] to be exceeded. This subsection contains that procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates (APLR) inTable 4 Table 5 ] of this section to be exceeded.

1. The relationship between the APLR for a pollutant and the AWSAR for a biosolids is shown in equation (1):

 

EQUATION (1)

 

APLR = C X AWSAR X 0.001

 

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

 

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

 

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

 

0.001 = A conversion factor

2. To determine the AWSAR, equation (1) is rearranged into equation (2):

 

EQUATION (2)

 

AWSAR = APLR/(C X 0.001)

 

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

 

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

 

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

 

0.001 = A conversion factor

3. The procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids is presented below:

a. Analyze a sample of the biosolids to determine the concentration for each of the pollutants listed in Table 4 of this section in the biosolids.

b. Using the pollutant concentrations from subdivision 3 a of this subsection and the APLRs fromTable 4 Table 5 ] of this section, calculate an AWSAR for each pollutant using Equation (2) above.

c. The AWSAR for the biosolids is the lowest AWSAR calculated in subdivision 3 b of this subsection.

9VAC25-32-357

9VAC25-32-357. Operational standards, pathogens, and vector attraction reduction.

A. Biosolids shall be monitored to verify that the selected pathogen reduction treatment classification and vector attraction reduction method requirements have been met.

B. Pathogens – biosolids.

1. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A or the Class B pathogen requirements and site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

C. Pathogens – domestic septage. The requirements ineither ] 9VAC25-32-675 C1 or C 2 ] shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

D. Vector attraction reduction – biosolids.

1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 10 shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

E. Vector attraction reduction – domestic septage. The vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 9, B 10, or B 12 shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

F. Additional operational control information may be required on an individual basis by the department.

9VAC25-32-358

9VAC25-32-358. Frequency of monitoring.

A. Biosolids.

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants listed in Tables 1 through4 5 ] of 9VAC25-32-356; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A and B 2 through B 4; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 4, B 7, and B 8 shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

 

TABLE 1
FREQUENCY OF MONITORING – LAND APPLICATION

 

Amount of biosolids(1)

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency(2)

 

Greater than zero but less than 290

Once per year

 

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

Once per quarter (four times per year)

 

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

Once per 60 days (six times per year)

 

Equal to or greater than 15,000

Once per month (12 times per year

 

Note(1): Either the amount of bulk biosolids applied to the land or the amount of biosolids received by a person who prepares biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land (dry weight basis).

 

Note(2): Sampling shall be conducted at approximately equal intervals at the listed frequencies. Biosolids programs that store biosolids and land apply only during discrete events throughout the year shall schedule sampling events to coincide with application periods. The department may require increased monitoring frequencies, if necessary, to adequately define any significant variability in biosolids quality.

2. After the biosolids has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the board may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A 5 b and c.In no case shall the frequency be reduced to less than once per year in any year that biosolids are applied to land. ]

B. Domestic septage. Ifeither the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 C 2 or ] the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 12 are met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, each container of domestic septage applied to the land shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

9VAC25-32-359

9VAC25-32-359. Recordkeeping.

A. Biosolids.

1. If the pollutant concentrations inTable 3 Table 4 ] of 9VAC25-32-356, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed inTable 3 Table 4 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment."; and

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied; and

(3) A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied.

2. If the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356Table 3 Table 4 ] and the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed inTable 3 Table 4 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(3) A description of how the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B are met; and

(4) When one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560, the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 are met on each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(3) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(4) When the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met; and

(5) The date bulk biosolids is applied to each site.

3. If the requirements in 9VAC25-32-356A 2 B 2 ] are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed inTable 1 Table 2 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-32-675 A or B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met)) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fines and imprisonment.";

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-32-675 A or B are met; and,

(4) When one of the vector attraction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information, retain the information in subdivisions A 3 b (1) through A 3 b (7) indefinitely, and retain the information in subdivisions A 3 b (8) through A 3 b (13) for five years:

(1) The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(2) The number of hectares in each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(3) The date bulk biosolids is applied to each site;

(4) The cumulative amount of each pollutant (i.e., kilograms) listed inTable 2 Table 3 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids applied to each site, including the amount in 9VAC25-32-313 F 2 c;

(5) The amount of biosolids (i.e.,dry ] metric tons) applied to each site;

(6) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-32-313 F 2 was prepared for eachsites site ] on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(7) A description of how the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-32-313 F 2 are met;

(8) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-32-313 B and 9VAC25-32-560 was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(9) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(10) The following certification statement when the bulk biosolids meet the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5 was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fines and imprisonment.";

(11) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5 are met for each site on which Class B bulk biosolids is applied;

(12) The following certification statement when the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 is met:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(13) If the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 are met, a description of how the requirements are met.

B. Domestic septage. When domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, the person who applies the domestic septage shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which domestic septage is applied;

2. The number of acres in each site on which domestic septage is applied;

3. The date domestic septage is applied to each site;

4. The nitrogenand phosphorus ] requirement for the crop or vegetation grown on each site during the 365-day period;

5. The rate, in gallons per acre per 365-day period, at which domestic septage is applied to each site;

6. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-32-675 C 1 or C 2) and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert 9VAC25-32-685 B 9, B 10, or B 12) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

7. A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-32-675 C 1 or C 2 are met; and

8. A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 9; B 10 and B 12 are met.

9VAC25-32-360

Article 2
Operational and Monitoring Requirements

9VAC25-32-360. Monitoring; records; reporting. Reporting.

The board may require the owner or operator of any facility to install, use, and maintain monitoring equipment for internal testing of biosolids quality, to identify and determine the causes of operational problems and to determine the necessary corrective actions to correct such problems. If required, test results shall be recorded, compiled, and reported to the department.

A. An activity report shall be submitted (electronically or postmarked) to the department by the 15th day ofthe each ] monthfor land application activity that occurred in the previous calendar month, ] unless another date is specified in the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-80 I 4, following any month in which land application occurs ]. The report shall indicate those sites where land application activities took place during the previous month.If no land application occurs under a permit during the calendar month, a report shall be submitted stating that no land application occurred. ]

B. A report shall be submitted to the department annually on February 19 of each year for the previous calendar year's activity. The report shall include at a minimum:

1. The information in 9VAC25-32-359 A, except the information in 9VAC25-32-359 A 1 b, A 2 b and A 3 b, for the appropriate requirements; and

2. The information in 9VAC25-32-359 A 3 b (1) through (7) when 90% or more of any of the cumulative pollutant loading rates inTable 2 Table 3 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 is reached at a land application site.

C. Biosolids application rates shall be calculated using the results from sampling and analysis completed during the most recent 12 months of monitoring. For proposed treatment works, rates may be initially based on the biosolids characteristic produced by similar generating facilities.

D. C. ] Reports shall be maintained documenting the required treatment and quality characteristics and the maximum allowable land application loading rates established for biosolids use; in addition, operational monitoring results shall verify that required sludge treatment has achieved the specified levels of pathogen control and vector attraction reductions (9VAC25-32-675 and 9VAC25-32-685). Adequate records on biosolids composition, treatment classification, biosolids application rates, and methods of application for each site shall be maintained by the generator and owner.

E. D. ] The generator and owner shall maintain the records for a minimum period of five years. Sites receiving frequent applications of biosolids that meet or exceed maximum cumulative constituent loadings and dedicated disposal sites should be properly referenced for future land transactions (Sludge Disposal Site Dedication Form).

9VAC25-32-370

9VAC25-32-370. Minimum biosolids sampling and testing program. (Repealed.)

A. Sampling and testing methods shall conform to current United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines establishing test procedures for analysis of pollutants or other EPA-approved methods.

B. Either the operation and maintenance manual, sludge management plan, or management practices plan shall contain a specific testing schedule. The testing schedule shall include minimum tests and their frequencies as required to monitor the facility in accordance with the appropriate certificate and the operating permit issued under this regulation.

C. The following sampling instructions shall be followed when collecting samples as required by this regulation:

1. Raw sewage or sludge samples are to be collected prior to the treatment process unit operations.

2. Final treated samples are to be taken at a point following appropriate unit operations in the treatment process. An evaluation of biosolids treatment may require monitoring of fecal coliform levels in the treated sludge.

3. Compositing of samples shall be in accordance with the treatment works operation and maintenance manual. Composite samples of sludge shall consist of grab samples taken in accordance with either the operation and maintenance manual or management practices plan, as appropriate. Composite samples shall be representative of the quality and quantity of the biosolids used. Greater frequency of grab sampling may be desirable where abnormal variation in waste strength occurs. Automatic proportional samplers are considered a valid sampling method.

9VAC25-32-380

9VAC25-32-380. Minimum operational testing and control program. (Repealed.)

A. Sampling and testing methods shall conform to current United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines establishing test procedures for analysis of pollutants or other EPA-approved methods.

B. The information furnished with either the operation and maintenance manual, sludge management plan, or management practices plan should recommend and describe the control tests and their frequency that should be routinely conducted by the holder of the permit in order to monitor operations and verify the treatment classification achieved (Table 3). All special sampling methods should be identified. Biosolids use site sampling and testing frequencies should be in accordance with the requirements established by the instructions contained in the biosolids use operation and maintenance manual if provided.

C. Additional operational control information may be required on an individual basis by the department.

9VAC25-32-390

9VAC25-32-390. Additional monitoring, reporting and recording requirements for land application. (Repealed.)

A. Either the operation and maintenance manual, sludge management plan or management practices plan shall contain a schedule of the required minimum tests necessary to monitor land application operation. Such testing schedule information for land application of biosolids shall contain instructions for recording and reporting. Monitoring of any associated land treatment systems shall be in accordance with the biosolids use operation and maintenance manual if provided.

B. The permit holder shall provide to the department, and to each locality in which it is permitted to land apply biosolids, written evidence of financial responsibility, including both current liability and pollution insurance, or such other evidence of financial responsibility as the board may establish by regulation in an amount not less than $1 million per occurrence, which shall be available to pay claims for cleanup costs, personal injury, bodily injury and property damage resulting from the transport, storage and land application of biosolids in Virginia. The aggregate amount of financial liability maintained by the permit holder shall be $1 million for companies with less than $5 million in annual gross revenue and shall be $2 million for companies with $5 million or more in annual gross revenue.

C. Evidence of financial responsibility, which may include liability insurance, meeting the requirements herein shall be maintained by the permit holder at all times that it is authorized to transport, store or land apply biosolids in Virginia. The permit holder shall immediately notify the Department of Health in the event of any lapse or cancellation of such financial resources, including insurance coverage, as required by this section.

9VAC25-32-400

9VAC25-32-400. Additional monitoring, reporting and recording requirements for sewage sludge and residual solids management.

Either the operation and maintenance manual, sludge management plan, or management practices plan shall contain a schedule of required minimum tests and their frequency to be conducted for the sewage sludge and biosolids management system and shall also contain necessary information to document sewage sludge and biosolids quality. Such test schedule information should include instructions for recording and reporting. Monitoring, reporting and recording requirements for sewage sludge and biosolids quality control shall be in accordance with the sludge management plan or management practices plan in accordance with 9VAC25-32-500 B. The recordkeeping and reporting requirements for sewage sludge and biosolids management contained in the treatment works operation and maintenance manual shall apply to all application sites, regardless of size or frequency of application. However, the requirements relative to monitoring, reporting and recording of site-specific soils and monitoring, reporting and recording of ground water and surface water are not applicable for any site that meets either of the following criteria:

1. Whenever exceptional quality biosolids are marketed and distributed with a label or identification information that specifies proper quality information and describes how agronomic rates are to be determined. Also, whenever Class I treated biosolids are land applied so that (i) the annual loading rate will not result in annual maximum loading rates in excess of those specified in Table 8; (ii) applied biosolids will meet vector attraction requirements; (iii) the amount of nutrients applied does not exceed the total crop needs or agronomic loading rate; (iv) no additional biosolids are applied for at least five years, or the biosolids are applied to land maintained only as pasture or hay land for five years following the last application of biosolids and the nutrient loading rate does not exceed 70% of the annual total crop needs of the grass or hay cover (Tables A-2 and 11).

2. Whenever the application site area for biosolids processed by Class I or II treatment is no larger than l0 acres and is isolated (2,000 feet or more separation distance) from other sites receiving applications of biosolids within three years of the time biosolids are applied to the identified site and the necessary vector attraction requirements are met.

A. The department may recommend require that specified additional site specific monitoring be performed by the holder of the permit for any biosolids land application practice regardless of frequency of application or size of the application area. Such recommendations will requirements may occur in situations in which [ groundwater ground water ] contamination, surface runoff, soil toxicity, health hazards or nuisance conditions are identified as an existing problem or documented as a potential problem as a result of biosolids use operations. Requirements of 9VAC 25-32-510 through 9VAC25-32-580 shall apply in full whether or not a monitoring waiver provision is applicable. Additional monitoring may include, but is not limited to,ground water groundwater ], surface water, crop, and soil monitoring.

B. The board may require the owner or operator of any facility or operation to install, use, and maintain monitoring equipment for internal testing of biosolids quality, to identify and determine the causes of operational problems, and to determine the necessary corrective actions to correct such problems. If this testing is required, test results shall be recorded, compiled, and reported to the department.

C. Additional operational control information may be required on an individual basis by the department.

D. The department may require biosolids to be tested for certain toxic organic compounds prior to agricultural use(Table 1 of 9VAC25-32-570) ]. If performed and validated, these test results shall be utilized to evaluate the maximum allowable annual loading rate for the tested biosolids. If analytical test results verify that biosolids contains levels of organic chemicals exceeding concentration limits incorporated in federal regulations or standards, appropriate restrictions shall be imposed for agricultural use of those biosolids.

E. Additional parameters may be required for screening purposes such as aluminum (mg/kg), watersoluable soluble ] boron (mg/kg), calcium (mg/kg), manganese (mg/kg), sulfates (mg/kg), and those pollutants for which removal credits are granted.

F. Microbiological testing may be necessary to document the sludge treatment classification (9VAC25-32-675). Microbiological standards shall be verified by the log mean of the analytical results from testing ofnine seven ] or more samples of the sludge source. Sampling events shall be separated by an appropriate period of time so as to be representative of the random and cyclic variations in sewage characteristics.

9VAC25-32-410

9VAC25-32-410. Operation and maintenance manuals.Operations Biosolids ] management plan.

A. General. The general purpose of an operation and maintenance manual is to facilitate operation and maintenance of the biosolids use facilities within permit requirements for both normal conditions and generally anticipated adverse conditions. The manual shall be tailored to the size and type of system being employed. The manual shall be directed toward the operating staff required for the facility. The manual shall be updated as necessary and be made available to the operating staff. The manual should be designed as a reference document, being as brief as possible while presenting the information in a readily accessible manner.

A. The permit holder shall maintainan operations management plan and implement a Biosolids Management Plan ] that shall consist of three components:

1. The materials, including site booklets, developed and submitted at the time of permit application or permit modification adding a farm to the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-60 F;

2. Nutrient management plandeveloped ] for each site, in accordance with 9VAC25-32-560 prior to biosolids application ]; and

3. Operations and maintenance (O&M) manual, developed and submitted to the department within 90 days of the effective date of the permit.

B. Contents. The manual shall contain the testing and reporting elements required by this regulation. In addition, for information and guidance purposes, the manual should contain additional schedules that supplement these required schedules.

B.The biosolids management plan and all of its components shall be incorporated as an enforceable part of the permit.

C. Nutrient management plan:

1. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be required for application sites prior to board authorization under specific conditions, including but not limited to:

a. Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

b. Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;

c. Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; and

d. Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

2. Where conditions at the land application site change so that it meets one or more of the specific conditions identified in subdivisions 1 a through d of this subsection, an approved nutrient management plan shall be submitted prior to any future land application at the site.

3. The nutrient management plan shall be available for review by the department at the land application site during biosolids land application.

4. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the nutrient management plan to the farm operator of the site, the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government unless they request in writing not to receive the nutrient management plan.

5. The nutrient management plan must be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to land application for application sites where the soil test phosphorus levels exceed the values in Table 1 of this section. For purposes of approval, permittees should submit the nutrient management plan to the Department of Conservation and Recreation at least 30 days prior to the anticipated date of land application to ensure adequate time for the approval process.

 

TABLE 1

SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS REQUIRING NMP APPROVAL

 

Region

Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Test (Mehlich I)*

 

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain

135

 

Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont

136

 

Ridge and Valley

162

 

*If results are from another laboratory, the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used.

D. ] The O&M manual shall include at a minimum:

1. Equipment maintenance and calibration procedures and schedules;

2. Storage facility maintenance procedures and schedules;

3. Sampling schedules for:

a. Required monitoring; and

b. Operational control testing;

4. Sample collection, preservation, and analysis procedures, including laboratories and methods used; and

5. Instructions for recording and reporting of all monitoring activities.

9VAC25-32-420

9VAC25-32-420. Operability.

A. Independently operated essential equipment, or components, of biosolids use facilities and operations, including treatment works, shall be provided with sufficient capacity and routine maintenance resources so that the average quantity of biosolids used may be reliably transported, stored, treated or otherwise managed in accordance with permit requirements. Permit noncompliance shall be prevented in those situations in which the largest component is out of service.

B. The need for spare parts should shall be determined from operational experience, and evaluation of past maintenance requirements, etc. A spare parts inventory may be included in the operation and maintenance manual. The inventory should list the minimum and maximum quantities of the spare parts to be kept on hand, the equipment in which they are used, their storage location, replacement procedures and other pertinent information.

C. Sufficient spare parts determined as necessary to ensure continuous operability of essential unit operations and equipment should shall be either located at the treatment works or at readily accessible locations. The minimum quantities of spare parts actually provided shall be in accordance with the operation and maintenance manual.

9VAC25-32-440

9VAC25-32-440. Biosolids monitoring/reporting. (Repealed.)

A. Monitoring biosolids quality shall be performed as required for permit compliance. Monitoring frequency shall be sufficient to both reflect the degree of variability, if any, expected in the biosolids quality and the frequency of application. The following guidelines should provide sufficient data for characterizing the quality of biosolids for biosolids programs that land apply continuously throughout the year.

TABLE 1

Amount of biosolids(1) (metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency

Greater than zero but less than 290

Once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

Once per quarter (four times per year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

Once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

Per month (12 times per year)

Note: (1)Either the amount of bulk sewage applied to the land or the amount of sewage sludge received by a person who prepares sewage sludge that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land (dry weight basis).

Note: Sampling shall be conducted at approximately equal intervals at the listed frequencies. Biosolids programs that store biosolids and land apply only during discrete events throughout the year shall schedule sampling events to coincide with application periods. The regulatory agency may require increased monitoring frequencies, if necessary, to adequately define any significant variability in biosolids quality. After two years of monitoring the permittee may request that the monitoring frequency be reduced, but in no case to less than once per year in any year that biosolids are applied to land.

B. An activity report shall be submitted (postmarked) to the department by the 15th day of the month unless another date is specified in the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-80 I 4, following any month in which land application occurs. The report shall indicate those sites where land application activities took place during the previous month.

C. Biosolids application rates should be based on the annual average sludge quality. The average sludge quality should be established from the results of approved analytical testing of composite samples obtained during the most recent 12 months of monitoring. For proposed treatment works, rates may be initially based on the biosolids characteristic produced by similar generating facilities.

D. The required treatment and quality characteristics and the maximum allowable land application loading rates shall be established for biosolids use. In addition, operational monitoring results shall verify that required sludge treatment has achieved the specified levels of pathogen control and vector attraction reductions (Table 3). Adequate records on sludge composition, treatment classification, sludge application rates and methods of application for each site shall be maintained by the generator and owner. Table 4 shows a sample operating report for documenting the minimum required information. Reporting shall be yearly (postmarked by February 19 for the preceding calendar year) unless otherwise required. The generator and owner shall maintain the records as necessary for a minimum period of five years until further notification by the department. Sites receiving frequent applications of sludge that meet or exceed maximum cumulative constituent loadings and dedicated disposal sites should be properly referenced for future land transactions (see the sample Sludge Disposal Site Dedication Form - Table A-1).

9VAC25-32-450

9VAC25-32-450. Sampling, analysis, ] and preservation.

A. General. The sampling procedures and protocols used for the national sewage sludge survey (EPA Office of Water Regulations and Standards, March 1988) or validated equivalent methods will be approved by the board through issuance of a permit for biosolids use. Composite samples are better than single grab samples because they define representative "average" levels of sludge characteristics. A large open container such as a one- to two-gallon capacity bucket will normally be necessary to obtain complete grab samples of sludge flows. The volume or weight of grab samples should be adjusted so as to represent approximately equal volumes or weights of the sludge volume or mass being sampled. These adjusted grab samples can then be added to form a composite sample.

A. Representative samples of biosolids that is applied to the land or placed on a surface disposal site shall be collected and analyzed.

1. Raw sewage or sludge samples are to be collected prior to the treatment process unit operations.

2. Final treated samples are to be taken at a point following appropriate unit operations in the treatment process. An evaluation of biosolids treatment may require monitoring of fecal coliform levels in treated biosolids.

3. Composite samples shall be collected in accordance with the treatment works operation and maintenance manual.

B. Liquid sludge biosolids. In the case of digesters and liquid storage holding tanks, a representative sample shall be composed of at least four grab samples obtained during daily operations at the facility or land application site. Samples of liquid biosolids obtained under pressure or vacuum should be obtained shortly after the beginning, during and at the end of the time period that the biosolids are produced at the sampling point.

C. Biosolids storage facilities. Equal volumes of biosolids should shall be withdrawn from random locations across the width and throughout the length of the storage facility at the surface, mid-depth and near the bottom of the lagoon at each grab sample location. These grab samples should shall be added to form a composite mix. A range of the recommended minimum number of grab samples that should be obtained from various sizes of sludge lagoons biosolids storage facilities in order to obtain a representative composite sample is presented in Table 1 of this section:

TABLE 1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF GRAB SAMPLES FROM STORAGE FACILITIES

Lagoon Surface Area (Acres)

Minimum Number of Grab Samples

Depth less than 4 feet

Depth greater than 4 feet

1 to 9.99

4 to 5

6 to 8

10 or more

6 to 8

9 to 11

D. Dewatered sludge biosolids. Small, equally sized grab samples of the dewatered sludge stream may be taken at equally spaced intervals over the period of operation of the dewatering unit. Centrifuged sludge biosolids samples may be taken from a belt conveyor or receiving hopper. Filter cake sludge biosolids samples may be taken from a belt conveyor or a portion of the cake may be removed as it leaves the unit. The smaller grab samples should be combined to form a representative composite sample. A composite sample can be obtained over the daily operational period at the land application site.

E. Compost sampling. Composite Collect composite samples are preferred composed of at least three grab samples of 1 kilogram or more so that a representative average level of compost characteristics can be obtained from analytical testing. Although the compost material has been subjected to premixing, some variation in quality may exist and at least three grab samples of one kilogram or more should be taken of each mixture and combined to form a composite sample of that mixture. This mixture should be used for analytical testing or for combination with other composites to obtain a total composite sample representing a fixed period of operation. Compost samples may be taken with a scoop or shovel and placed in flexible bags that can be thoroughly shaken to mix grab samples.

F. Analysis and preservation of samples. In general, sludge samples should be refrigerated at approximately 4°C immediately after collection, which provides adequate preservation for most types of sludge physical and chemical analysis for a period up to seven days. Exact sample analysis and preservation techniques should be submitted in the sludge management plan. Analytical procedures should be updated as needed. Biosolids samples shall be preserved and analyzed in accordance with methods listed in 40 CFR Part 136 (2007) and methods identified in 9VAC25-31-490. Calculation procedures in the methods shall be used to calculate the percent volatile solids reduction for biosolids. Any other acceptable test procedure not listed in 40 CFR Part 136 (2007) shall be specified in the VPA permit.

9VAC25-32-460

9VAC25-32-460. Soils monitoring and reporting.

A. Soil should shall be sampled and analyzed prior to sludge biosolids application [ to determine site suitability and to provide background data ]. After the land application program is underway, it may be necessary to continue monitoring possible changes in the soil characteristics of the application site.No sample analysis used to determine application rates shall be more than three years old at the time of biosolids land application. ] Soil shall be sampled and analyzed in accordance with Table 1 of this section.Reduced monitoring will usually may apply for typical agricultural utilization projects where biosolids are applied to farmland at or below agronomic rates or on an infrequent basis (see Table 5) (Table 1). ] Reduced monitoring may also apply to one time sludge biosolids applications to forest or reclaimed lands. For background analysis, random composite soil samples from the zone of incorporation is required for infrequent applications and frequent applications at less than agronomic rates (total less than 15 dry tons per acre).

 

TABLE 1
SOIL TEST PARAMETERS FOR LAND APPLICATION SITES1

 

 

Biosolids Application

Storage

 

Parameter

Infrequent2

Frequent Below Agronomic Rates2

Frequent at Agronomic Rates2

Supernatant4

 

Soil pH (Std. Units)

*

*

*

*

 

Nitrate nitrogen (ppm)3

 

 

*

 

 

Available phosphorus (ppm)5

*

*

*

*

 

Extractable potassium (ppm)

*

*

*

*

 

Extractable sodium (mg/100g)

6

6

6

6*

 

Extractable calcium (mg/100g)

 

 

*

*

 

Extractable magnesium (mg/100g)

*

 

*

*

 

Zinc (ppm)

*

*

*

*

 

Manganese (ppm)

*

*

*

 

 

Hydraulic conductivity (cm/sec)

 

 

 

*

 

1Note: Unless otherwise stated, analyses shall be reported on a dry weight basis (*).

2See 9VAC25-32-560 B 3.

3Only used as a supplemental fertilizer for side-dressing corn.

4Liquid biosolids derived from biosolids use facilities.

5Available P shall be analyzed using one of the following methods: Mehlich I, Mehlich III, or Bray.

6Extractable sodium shall be analyzed only where biosolids known to be high in sodium will be land applied.

 

Parameter

 

Soil pH (Std. Units)

 

Available phosphorus (ppm)2

 

Extractable potassium (ppm)

 

Extractable sodium (mg/100g)3

 

Extractable calcium (mg/100g)

 

Extractable magnesium (mg/100g)

 

Zinc (ppm)

 

Manganese (ppm)

 

1Note: Unless otherwise stated, analyses shall be reported on a dry weight basis.

2Available P shall be analyzed using one of the following methods: Mehlich I or Mehlich III.

3Extractable sodium shall be analyzed only where biosolids known to be high in sodium will be land applied. ]

Generally, one subsample per acre should be taken for application sites of 10 acres or more receiving frequent applications. For frequent land application sites greater than 50 acres, a controlled area of approximately 10 acres in size may be provided that is representative of site loading and soil characteristics. The control area should be sampled through random collection of approximately 20 subsamples taken according to standard agricultural practices. Records of soil analysis must be maintained by the owner and submitted as required.

B. The permit applicant or permit holder may be required to conduct soil testing and analysis of additional parameters, as determined by the department, based on site-specific history or conditions.

C. Samples shall be collected in accordance with § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC25-32-480

9VAC25-32-480. [ Groundwater Ground water ] monitoring and reporting.

A. Monitoring wells may be required by the board as recommended by the department for land treatment sites, sludge lagoons, or sludge holding biosolids land application sites, or biosolids storage facilities to monitor [ groundwater ground water ] quality. The wells should be designed and located to meet specific geologic and hydrologic conditions at each site. Existing wells or springs may be approved for use as monitoring wells if they can be shown to provide a representative sample of groundwater conditions. The monitoring well should be constructed so as to sample the shallowest occurrence of groundwater that can reliably be obtained. The wells must be deep enough to penetrate the water table, and the screened interval must be in the saturated zone. The well construction should include PVC casing and screen with a bottom end plug or cap. The casing joints should be of the threaded, split ring or some other type that does not require adhesive. The screened interval should be backfilled with washed porous media (sand/gravel) and a bentonite or other impermeable seal placed at least two feet above the screen. The remainder of the well may be backfilled with clean native materials. A concrete surface seal should slope away from the well. Locking caps are recommended. Upon well completion, a driller's log shall be submitted to the department.

B. Sampling procedures must assure maintenance of sample integrity. Samples should be collected in clean sample containers and with an uncontaminated sampling device. In order to obtain a representative sample, standing water in the well must be evacuated prior to sampling. At a minimum, at least three times the volume of water standing in the borehole should be removed prior to taking a sample for analysis to assure movement of formation water into the well and eliminate false readings that would be obtained from water that has stratified in the well. Samples may be obtained by pumping, bailing or pressure methods (e.g., Bar Cad samplers). The state does not endorse any one particular method or manufacturer, but each method has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered prior to final selection. Sampling methodology should be submitted for initial review. To obtain sufficient background groundwater quality data, three to six monthly samples should be collected from each observation well prior to placing the land application site or other facility into operation. Sampling should account for seasonal groundwater table fluctuations. Groundwater samples shall be collected and analyzed on a quarterly basis during operation of the site or facility. Table 6 lists typical parameters for groundwater monitoring. Additional test parameters may be required on a case-by-case basis. Ifground water groundwater ] monitoring is required, aground water groundwater ] monitoring plan shall be submitted to the department for approval that includes at a minimum:

1. Geologic and hydrologic conditions at the site;

2. Monitoring well design, placement, and construction;

3. Sampling frequency;

4. Sampling procedures, including quality assurance and quality control; and

5. Collection of background samples.

C. Sample analysis and preservation techniques should be in accordance with the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

TABLE 2
PARAMETERS FOR BIOSOLIDS ANALYSIS(1)

A. Suggested minimum

Source of sludge

Type of sludge (lime stabilized, aerobically digested, etc.)

Percent solids (%)

Volatile solids (%)

pH (standard units)

Total kjeldahl nitrogen (%)

Ammonia nitrogen (%)

Nitrates (mg/kg)

Total phosphorus (%)

Total potassium (%)

Alkalinity as CaCO3 (mg/kg)(2)

Arsenic (mg/kg)

Cadmium (mg/kg)

Copper (mg/kg)

Lead (mg/kg)

Mercury (mg/kg)

Molybdenum (mg/kg)

Nickel (mg/kg)

Selenium (mg/kg)

Zinc (mg/kg)

(1)Values reported on a dry weight basis unless indicated.

(2)Lime treated sludges (10% or more lime by dry weight) should be analyzed for percent CaCO3.

B. Additional parameters such as the organic chemicals listed in Table 12 may be required for screening purposes as well as aluminum (mg/kg), water soluble boron (mg/kg), calcium (mg/kg), chlorides (mg/l), manganese (mg/kg), sulfates (mg/kg), and those pollutants for which removal credits are granted.

C. Microbiological testing may be necessary to document the sludge treatment classification (Table 3). Microbiological standards shall be verified by the log mean of the analytical results from testing of nine or more samples of the sludge source. Sampling events shall be separated by an appropriate period of time so as to be representative of the random and cyclic variations in sewage characteristics.

TABLE 3
STANDARDS FOR DOCUMENTATION OF PATHOGEN CONTROL AND VECTOR ATTRACTION REDUCTION LEVELS FOR BIOSOLIDS

A. Pathogen control standards (dry weight of sludge solids basis).

1. Class I treatment for Class A pathogen control.

a.(1) Composting or other acceptable time-temperature treatment* shall result in a biosolids content equal to or less than either 1,000 fecal coliform per gram or three salmonella per four grams of total solids in treated sludge prior to removal for use or preparation for distribution.

b. Stabilization**(2) Verify a biosolids content less than either 1,000 MPN fecal coliform per gram of total solids, or three salmonella, or one virus (PFU), or one helminth egg, per four grams of total sludge solids and provide that vector attraction reduction requirements will be met upon use.

2. Class II treatment for Class B pathogen control.

a.(1) When the influent sludge stream to the stabilization unit operation contains more than 6 log10 fecal coliform per gram of total solids, a reduction of 1.5 log10 of fecal coliform or more may be required for stabilization.

b. Stabilization(2). Verify biosolids content maximum of 6.3 log10 of fecal coliform per gram of total solids in sludges subjected to adequate treatment and provide that vector attraction reduction requirements will be met upon use.

B. Vector attraction reduction requirements (must satisfy one of the following for approval of land application of biosolids).

1. Thirty-eight percent volatile solids (VS) reduction by digestion processes, or:

a. Less than 38% reduction by anaerobic digestion if additional treatment (additional 40 days or more at 32°C or more) results in less than 17% additional VS reduction:

Additional VS Reduction = VSD1-VSD2 / VSD1-(VSD1)(VSD2)

D1 = Initial conventional digestion period

D2 = Additional 40-day digestion period

b. Less than 38% reduction by aerobic digestion if the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of sludge is 1.5 or less milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total sludge solids (dry weight basis) at a temperature of 20°C.

c. Less than 38% reduction by aerobic digestion if additional treatment (additional 30 days or more at 20°C or more) results in less than 15% additional VS reduction.

d. Less than 38% reduction if treated in an adequately aerated unit operation for 14 days or more at a temperature exceeding 40°C and the average sludge temperature exceeds 45°C.

2. Sludge pH is 12 or more (alkaline addition) for two consecutive hours and remains at 11.5 or higher for 22 additional hours (no further alkaline additions), or

3. Seventy-five percent or more total solids in treated sludge if no untreated primary sludge is included, or 90% total solids if unstabilized primary sludge is included, prior to any mixing with other materials, or

4. Either incorporation of treated sludge into the soil within six hours of surface application, or direct injection below the surface of the land so that no evidence of any significant amounts of sludge is present on the land surface within one hour of injection.

5. For land application of biosolids receiving Class I treatment:

a. For surface application: apply to land within eight hours of final treatment and incorporate below the surface within six hours of application, or achieve one of the appropriate vector attraction reduction requirements by treatment.

b. For subsurface application: inject within eight hours of final treatment or achieve one of the appropriate vector attraction reduction requirements by treatment.

C. Documentation statement for submission of treatment, or quality, verification reports:

I have submitted the proper documentation to verify that the necessary levels of pathogen reduction and vector attraction reduction have been achieved for all sludge to be land applied in accordance with the permit requirements. These determinations have been made under my direction and supervision in accordance with approved procedures developed to ensure that qualified personnel obtain and evaluate the information necessary to ensure permit compliance. Also, the sludge quality characteristics are suitable for land application in accordance with permit requirements (if appropriate).

Signed by Responsible Person in Charge

(Title if appropriate) Date

(1)Note: Refers to an acceptable method of treatment with established operational controls capable of treating sludge to produce the required microbiological standards (see Article 3 (9VAC25-32-490 et seq.) of this part.

(2)Refers to testing standards.

TABLE 4
EXAMPLE OF REPORT FOR SUBMISSION TO FIELD OFFICES

FIELD REPORT

PROJECT/PERMITTEE:______________________

PERMIT NO./FIELD NO:___________

(LAND OWNER/FARMER:)___________________

FIELD ACRES:__________________

APPLICATION MODE:

DATE AS OF:___________________

GALLONS, WET TONS OR CUBIC YARDS APPLIED:

Month to Date __________

Year to Date ___________

DRY TONS/ACRE APPLIED:

Month to Date __________

Year to Date ___________

 

 

Lifetime to Date ________

CROP/YIELD _______________

SOIL pH ______________

LBS. APPLIED/ACRE

SLUDGE PARAMETER

MONTH TO DATE

YEAR TO DATE

LIFETIME TO DATE

P.A.N.

 

 

N/A

CaCO3

 

 

N/A

P.

 

 

N/A

K

 

 

N/A

As

 

 

 

Cd

 

 

 

Cu

 

 

 

Mo

 

 

 

Ni

 

 

 

Pb

 

 

 

Se

 

 

 

Zn

 

 

 

Other:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DAILY LOADING FIELD SHEET

DATE

SOLIDS

GALLONS, WET TONS OR CUBIC YARDS

DRY TONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTALS

 

 

 

(If nuisance problems of odors or problems with uniform applications develop, the appropriate regional offices of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality shall be notified.)

Upon such notification, were any operational changes made? Yes* __No __

*Specify the methods utilized to comply with treatment/application requirements on a separate attachment.

TABLE 5
RECOMMENDED SOIL TEST PARAMETERS FOR LAND APPLICATION SITES(1)

 

BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION

STORAGE

Parameter

Infrequent(2)

Frequent Below Agronomic Rates(2)

Frequent at Agronomic(2) (3)

Supernatant(4)

Soil organic matter (%)

 

 

*

*

Soil pH (Std. Units)

*

*

*

*

Cation exchange capacity (me/100g)

 

 

*

 

Total nitrogen (ppm)

 

 

*

*

Organic nitrogen (ppm)

 

 

*

*

Ammonia nitrogen (ppm)

 

 

*

 

Available phosphorus (ppm)

*

*

*

*

Exchangeable potassium (ppm)

*

*

*

 

Exchangeable sodium (mg/100g)

 

 

*

*

Exchangeable calcium (mg/100g)

 

 

*

*

Exchangeable magnesium (mg/100g)

*

 

*

*

Copper (ppm)

 

 

*

*

Nickel (ppm)

 

 

*

*

Zinc (ppm)

 

 

*

*

Cadmium (ppm)

 

 

*

*

Lead (ppm)

 

 

*

*

Manganese (ppm)

 

 

*

 

Molybdenum (ppm)

 

 

*

 

Selenium (ppm)

 

 

*

 

Particle size analysis or USDA Textural estimate (%)

 

 

*

*

Hydraulic conductivity (in/hr)

 

 

 

*

(1)Note: Unless otherwise stated, analyses shall be reported on a dry weight basis(*).

(2)See 9VAC25-32-560 B 3.

(3)Testing requirements to be adjusted in accordance with prior analytical test results. Heavy metal analyses are not required but once every three years before application.

(4)Liquid biosolids derived from biosolids use facilities.

 

 

TABLE 6
SUGGESTED GROUNDWATER MONITORING PARAMETERS AND MONITORING FREQUENCY

 

Annual Monitoring

Quarterly Monitoring

 

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen

Nitrate Nitrogen

 

Ammonia Nitrogen

pH

 

Phosphorus

Conductivity

 

Sodium

Chlorides

 

Boron

Static Water Level

 

Copper

 

 

Lead

 

 

Nickel

 

 

Cadmium

 

 

Zinc

 

 

Hardness

 

 

Alkalinity

 

 

COD (TOC)

 

 

Pathogen Indicator Organism

 

9VAC25-32-490

Article 3
Biosolids Use Standards and Practices

9VAC25-32-490. Compliance with biosolids use practices of this chapter.

Guidelines set forth in [ 9VAC25-32-500 9VAC25-32-515 ] through [ 9VAC25-32-660 9VAC25-32-580 ] of this regulation specify minimum standards for biosolids use for land application, marketing and distribution, including biosolids quality and site specific management practices. Compliance with this chapter will not be required for facilities not including land application, distribution, or marketing, which have received the approval of the Commissioner of the State Department of Health and the State Water Control Board and for which operation has commenced as of January 1, 2008. Such operation of facilities is deemed to be commenced upon issuance of a certificate to operate in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790). However, the board may impose standards and requirements that are more stringent than those contained in this regulation [ when required to protect public health or prevent nuisance conditions from developing either within critical areas, or when special conditions develop prior to or during biosolids use operations according to the provisions of 9VAC25-32-100 E, 9VAC25-32-315, and 9VAC25-32-560 B 3 ]. Conformance to local land use zoning and planning should be resolved between the local government and the facility owner or permit holder. Applications submitted for facilities must demonstrate that the facility and biosolids use management practices will adequately safeguard public health and will comply with the certificate and permit requirements, as appropriate. Submissions that are in substantial compliance with this regulation and comply with any additional requirements as noted above will be approved. Justification for [ biosolid biosolids ] use proposals may be required for those portions of the submitted proposal that differ from these criteria. The owner or owner's agent shall identify and justify noncompliance with specific standards or "shall" criteria that the department identifies, or the applicant, in his judgment, believes to be substantial in nature. The department may request changes in designs that are not in substantial compliance with this regulation and that are not adequately justified by the applicant. The fact that significant work was accomplished on a specific permit application prior to adoption of this regulation shall be a consideration when evaluating applications.

9VAC25-32-500

9VAC25-32-500. [ Sludge Biosolids management. (Repealed.) ]

A. Sludge Biosolids management activities shall be described in a sludge biosolids operations management plan or a management practices plan submitted by the owner or the owner's agent to the department for review and approval in accordance with this section at the time of permit application. Before sludge is utilized or disposed of, its potential effects on the land and state waters should be evaluated. Land application and facilities for biosolids use shall not result in flooding or pose a hazard to public health, wildlife, water quality, or other environmental resources as a result of biosolids transport due to flooding and subsequent runoff. Treatment works owners involved in biosolids use management practices may need to require pretreatment of industrial waste for control of contaminants of concern in order to comply with this regulation.

B. The scope and purpose, requirements, and submission and approval of sludge management plans or management practices plans are described in this subsection.

1. The general purpose of these plans is to facilitate a determination by the board that the sludge management plan or management practices plan developed by the owner presents the necessary technical guidance and regulatory requirements to facilitate the proper management of sewage sludge including use of biosolids for both normal conditions and generally anticipated adverse conditions. The plan should be developed as a reference document, being as brief as possible while presenting the information in a clear, concise and readily accessible manner. The plan should be directed toward the management option(s) for biosolids use selected for the treatment works. The plan shall address methods of controlling and monitoring the quality of sludge by the owner and the means of use of biosolids developed from that sludge by the owner or his agent (9VAC25-32-670 and 9VAC25-32-680).

2. Complete sludge management plans or management practices plans shall be submitted for all biosolids use activities, by the owner, or owner's agent. The plan shall contain the elements required by applicable sections of this regulation (9VAC25-32-670 and 9VAC25-32-680).

3. Submission and approval of sludge management plans or management practices plans involving the land application of biosolids shall be at the time of permit application as follows:

a. Three copies of the final sludge management plan or management practices plan shall be submitted to the appropriate regional office. The technical evaluation of the plan will not commence until the applicant has submitted all necessary information.

b. Upon receipt of comments or no response by contacted agencies the department will complete the evaluation of the plan and the board will approve or disapprove the plan as technically adequate.

c. The board will approve the plan if it is determined that biosolids use will be in compliance with Article 2 (9VAC25-32-360 et seq.) of this part. If the board determines that substantial revision to the plan is required, the department shall send a letter to the owner and plan preparer, outlining the necessary revision and requesting submission of a revised plan within 60 days. A revised plan constitutes a resubmittal.

B. The biosolids operations management plan developed by the owner shall contain the necessary technical requirements to facilitate the proper management of sewage sludge and biosolids including use of biosolids for both normal conditions and generally anticipated adverse conditions. The plan shall be directed toward the management option or options for biosolids use selected for the treatment works. The plan shall address methods of controlling and monitoring the quality of sludge by the owner and the means of use of biosolids developed from that sludge by the owner or his agent (9VAC25-32-60 F).

C. A complete biosolids operations management plan shall be submitted for all biosolids use activities, by the owner or owner's agent. The plan shall contain the elements required by applicable sections of this regulation (9VAC25-32-60 F and 9VAC25-32-410). ]

9VAC25-32-510

9VAC25-32-510. General biosolids use standards. (Repealed.)

A. 9VAC25-32-510 and 9VAC25-32-550 provide minimum criteria that will be used for reviewing sludge management plans and management practices plans. Each plan shall address site-specific management practices involving use of biosolids. Final disposition of sludge may involve use or disposal. For the purpose of 9VAC25-32-510 and 9VAC25-32-550, "use" shall include resource recovery, recycling or deriving beneficial use from the material. "Disposal" shall involve the final disposition of a waste material without resource recovery, recycling or deriving beneficial use from the material.

B. All practical use options should be evaluated before disposal options are evaluated or selected. Biosolids use practices include land application for agricultural, nonagricultural and silvicultural use and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids. Sludge disposal methods include incineration, landfill codisposal, surface disposal, and other dedicated disposal practices, such as burial on dedicated disposal sites.

C. Water quality protection and monitoring provisions shall be included in all sludge management plans and management practices plans, except for those land application practices designed for limited loadings (amounts per area per time period) within defined field areas in agricultural use. Groundwater monitoring requirements shall be evaluated by the board for annual application of biosolids to specific sites, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands and application to forest land (silviculture). Submittal of site-specific (soils and other) information for each identified separate field area shall be required for issuance of permits. For information regarding handling and disposal of septage, refer to the Sewage Handling and Disposal Regulations, 12VAC5-610. Septage treated and managed in accordance with standards contained in this regulation is defined as either sewage sludge or as biosolids as appropriate.

D. Conformance of biosolids use to local land use zoning and planning should be resolved between the local government and the permit applicant. The permit applicant shall attempt to notify land owners of property within 200 feet and 1,000 feet of the boundaries of sites proposed for frequent use and dedicated sites, respectively, and furnish the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located with acceptable documentation of such notifications (i.e., intent to land-apply biosolids on the proposed locations). Relevant concerns of adjacent landowners will be considered in the evaluation of site suitability.

E. The requirements for processing approvals of sludge management plans and management practices plans are included in 9VAC25-32-500 B as well as (i) requirements for notification of applications, hearings and meetings, and (ii) minimum information required for completion of a sludge management plan for land application (9VAC25-32-670 and 9VAC 25-32-680).

F. At least 100 days prior to commencing land application of biosolids at a permitted site, the permit holder shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification that is substantially in compliance with this section to the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located. This requirement may be satisfied by providing a list of available permitted sites in the locality at least 100 days prior to commencing the application at any site on the list. If the site is located in more than one county, the information shall be provided to all jurisdictions where the site is located. Sufficiency of such notices shall be determined by the department.

G. The notification required by this section shall include the following:

1. The name, address and telephone number of the permit holder, including the name of a representative knowledgeable of the permit;

2. Identification by tax map number and farm service agency (FSA) farm tract number of parcels on which land application is to take place;

3. A map indicating haul routes to each site where land application is to take place;

4. The name or title, and telephone number of at least one individual designated by the permit holder to respond to questions and complaints related to the land application project;

5. The approximate dates on which land application is to begin and end at the site;

6. The name and telephone number of the person or persons at the Virginia Department of Health to be contacted in connection with the permit; and

7. The name, address, and telephone number of the wastewater treatment facility, or facilities, from which the biosolids will originate, including the name or title of a representative of the treatment facility that is knowledgeable about the land application operation.

H. The permit holder shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department as least 14 days prior to commencing land application of sewage sludge at a permitted site. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the sewage sludge to be applied to the site.

I. Within 24 hours of receiving notification of a complaint, the permit holder shall commence investigation of said complaint. The permit holder shall confirm receipt of a complaint by phone, email or facsimile to the department, the chief executive officer or designee for the local government of the jurisdiction in which the complaint originates, and the owner of the treatment facility from which the biosolids originated within 24 hours after receiving the complaint. Complaints and responses thereto shall be documented by the permit holder and submitted with monthly land application reports to department and copied to the chief executive officer or designee for the local government and the owner of the treatment facility from which the biosolids originated.

Localities receiving complaints concerning land application of sewage sludge shall notify the department and the permit holder.

9VAC25-32-515

9VAC25-32-515. Notification of land application activity.

A. Written notification.

1. At least 100 days prior to commencingthe first ] land application of biosolids at a permitted site, the permit holder shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located. This requirement may be satisfied bythe department's notice to the local government at the time of receiving the permit application if all necessary information is included in the notice or by ] providing a list of available permitted sites in the locality at least 100 days prior to commencing the application at any site on the list. If the site is located in more than one county, the information shall be provided to all jurisdictions where the site is located.

2. At least 14 days prior to commencing land application of biosolids at a permitted site, the permit holder shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is locatedunless they request in writing not to receive the notice. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the biosolids to be applied to the site ].The notice shall include the following:

a. The name, address, and telephone number of the permit holder, including the name of a representative knowledgeable of the permit;

b. Identification by tax map number and the DEQ control number for sites on which land application is to take place;

c. A map indicating haul routes to each site where land application is to take place;

d. The name or title and telephone number of at least one individual designated by the permit holder to respond to questions and complaints related to the land application project;

e. The approximate dates on which land application is to begin and end at the site;

f. The name and telephone number of the person or persons at the department to be contacted in connection with the permit; and

g. The name, address, and telephone number of the wastewater treatment facility, or facilities, from which the biosolids will originate, including the name or title of a representative of the treatment facility that is knowledgeable about the land application operation.

If multiple sites are included in the notification, the permit holder shall make a good faith effort to identify the most probable order that land application will commence. ]

3.The Not more than 24 hours prior to commencing land application activities, including delivery of biosolids at a permitted site, the ] permittee shalldeliver or cause to be delivered daily notification to notify in writing ] the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is locatedprior to commencing planned land application activities. unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. This notification shall include identification of the biosolids source and shall include only sites where land application activities will commence within 24 hours or where biosolids will be staged within 24 hours. ]

B. Posting signs.

1. At least five business days prior to delivery of biosolids for land application on any site permitted under this regulation, the permit holder shall post signs at the site that comply with this section, are visible and legible from the public right-of-way in both directions of travel, and conform to the specifications herein. The sign shall remain in place for at least five business days after land application has been completed at the site.The permit holder shall not remove the signs until at least 30 days after land application has been completed at the site. ]

a.A sign shall be posted at or near the intersection of the public right-of-way and the main site access road or driveway to the site used by the biosolids transport vehicles.

b. ] If thesite field ] is located adjacent to a public right-of-way,signs at least one sign ] shall be posted along eachpublic ] road frontage beside the field to be land applied.

b. If the site is not located adjacent to a public right-of-way, the sign shall be posted at or near the intersection of the public right-of-way and the main site access road or driveway to the site. ]

c. The department may grant a waiver to the requirements in this section, or require alternative posting options due to extenuating circumstances orto be consistent where requirements conflict ] with local government ordinances and other requirements regulating the use of signs.

2. Upon the posting of signs at a land application site prior to commencing land application, the permittee shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. Notification shall be delivered to the department within 24 hours of the posting of signs. The notice shall include the following:

a. The name and telephone number of the permit holder, including the name of a representative knowledgeable of the permit;

b. Identification by tax map number and the DEQ control number for sites on which land application is to take place;

c. The name or title and telephone number of at least one individual designated by the permit holder to respond to questions and complaints related to the land application project if not the permit holder identified in 9VAC25-32-515 B 2 a;

d. The approximate dates on which land application is to begin and end at the site; and

e. The name, address, and telephone number of the wastewater treatment facility or facilities from which the biosolids will originate, including the name or title of a representative of the treatment facility who is knowledgeable about the land application operation.

2. 3. ] The sign shall be made of weather-resistant materials and shall be sturdily mounted so as to be capable of remaining in place and legible throughout the period that the sign is required at the site. Signs required by this section shall be temporary, nonilluminated, and four square feet or more in area, and only contain the following information:

a. A statement that biosolids are being land-applied at the site;

b. The nameand telephone number ] of the permit holderand the name or title and;

c. The ] telephone number of an individual designated by the permit holder to respond to complaints and inquiries; and

c. d. ] Contact information for the department, including a telephone number for complaints and inquiries.

3. 4. ] The permit holder shall make a good faith effort to replace or repair any sign that has been removed from a land application site or that has been damaged so as to render any of its required information illegible prior to five business days after completion of land application.

C. Handling of complaints.

1. Within 24 hours of receiving notification of a complaint, the permit holder shall commence investigation of said complaint and shall determine whether the complaint is substantive. The permit holder shall confirm receipt of all substantive complaints by phone, email, or facsimile to the department, the chief executive officer or his designee for the local government of the jurisdiction in which the complaint originates, and the owner of the treatment facility from which the biosolids originated within 24 hours after receiving the complaint.

2. For the purposes of this section, a substantive complaint shall be deemed to be any complaint alleging a violation of these regulations, state law, or local ordinance; a release of biosolids to state waters or to a public right-of-way or to any location not authorized in the permit; or failure to comply with the nutrient management plan for the land application site.

3. Localities receiving complaints concerning land application of biosolids shall notify the department and the permit holder within 24 hours of receiving the complaint.

9VAC25-32-520

9VAC25-32-520. Sludge quality and composition. (Repealed.)

A. Sampling and testing sludge. Samples shall be collected so as to provide a representative composition of the sludge. Analytical testing shall be performed by a laboratory capable of testing in accordance with current EPA-approved methods or other accepted methods. The operational section of this regulation establishes the minimum constituents that shall be analyzed and the sampling and preservation procedures that should be utilized. The sludge management plan or management practices plan shall detail both the sampling and testing methods used to characterize the sludge.

B. Nonhazardous declaration. Regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60) identify listed hazardous wastes and hazardous waste characteristics. Municipal wastewater or sewage sludge is neither excluded nor specifically listed as hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes as established through RCRA and appropriate state regulations are not managed under this regulation. The owner shall monitor sludge characteristics as required to determine if it is hazardous or nonhazardous and declare to the department that the sludge generated at his facility is nonhazardous.

C. Sludge treatment. Sludges shall be subjected to a treatment process sequence designed to reduce both the pathogen content and the solids content to the appropriate level for the selected method of management, such as land application. For such use options, the sludge treatment provided shall minimize the potential for vector attraction and prevent objectionable odor problems from developing during management. Acceptable levels of pathogen reduction may be achieved by various established conventional treatment methods including Class I treatment to accomplish Class A pathogen control and Class II treatment to accomplish Class B pathogen control 9VAC25-32-610. The level of pathogen control achieved by nonconventional treatment must be verified by microbiological monitoring (Table 3).

For land application, Class B pathogen, or better, shall be achieved. Such Class I or II treatment may involve either: anaerobic or aerobic digestion, high or low temperature composting, heat treatment, air drying, or chemical treatment processes utilizing alkaline additives or chlorine. For use of treated sludge or sludge products involving a high potential for public contact, it may be necessary to achieve further pathogen reduction (Class A) beyond that attained by the above processes. Such Class I treatment may be accomplished by (i) heat treatment and drying, (ii) thermophilic composting, (iii) alkaline treatment. A three-log reduction or more (a thousand-fold reduction) in pathogenic bacteria and viral microorganisms to meet conventional treatment standards. Raw sludge levels of pathogenic bacteria and viral microorganisms can be effectively reduced to safe levels by conventional Class I treatment methods.

Properly treated sludges can be safely utilized and should not create any nuisance problems when managed in accordance with approved sludge management or management practices plans. A sludge that receives Class I or II treatment for adequate pathogen control and is treated or managed to properly reduce vector attraction and pollutants within acceptable levels (Table 7-A) is referred to as "biosolids." A Class I treated sludge with approved control of vector attraction and acceptable levels of pollutants (Table 7-A) is referred to as "exceptional quality biosolids."

D. Sludge composition. The characterization of sludge properties is a necessary first step in the design of a use/disposal system. Monitoring and testing for certain pollutants shall be achieved prior to specific use or disposal practices. For the purposes of this regulation, sludge management and testing methods shall account for moisture content including (i) liquid sludge defined as sludges with less than 15% total solids, (ii) dewatered sludge normally defined as sludges with 15% to 30% total solids; or (iii) dried sludge normally defined as sludges with more than 30% total solids.

9VAC25-32-530

9VAC25-32-530. Land acquisition and management control.

A. When an application to permit land application of sludge biosolids is proposed, submitted to the department, the permit applicant shall ensure the continued availability of the land and protection from improper concurrent use during the utilization period shall be assured. A written agreement shall be established between the landowner and owner to be submitted with the permit application, whereby the landowner, among other things, shall consent to apply sewage sludge on his property. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the party who is the holder of the permit. Site management controls shall include access limitations relative to the level of pathogen control achieved during treatment. In addition, agricultural use of sludge in accordance with this regulation is not to result in harm to threatened or endangered species of plant, fish, or wildlife, nor result in the destruction or adverse modification of the critical habitat of a threatened or endangered species. Site-specific information shall be provided as part of the sludge management or management practices plan.

B. Land acquisition requirements.

1. Permit holders shall use a unique control number assigned by the department as an identifier for fields permitted for land application.

2. A written agreement shall be established between the landowner and permit applicant or permit holderto be submitted with the permit application ], whereby the landowner shall consent to apply biosolids on his propertyand certify that no concurrent agreements exist for the fields to be permitted ]. The landowner agreement shall includean acknowledgment by the landowner of any site restrictions identified in the permit. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the permit holder. The written agreement shall be submitted to the department with the permit application.:

(a) A statement certifying that the landowner is the sole owner or one of multiple owners of the property or properties identified on the landowner agreement;

(b) A statement certifying that no concurrent agreements are in effect for the fields to be permitted for biosolids application;

(c) An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee when land is sold or ownership transferred;

(d) An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee if any conditions change such that any component of the landowner agreement becomes invalid;

(e) Permission to allow department staff on the landowner's property to conduct inspections;

(f) An acknowledgement by the landowner of any site restrictions identified in the regulation;

(g) An acknowledgement that the landowner has received a biosolids fact sheet approved by the department; and

(h) An acknowledgement that the landowner shall not remove notification signs placed by the permit holder. ]

3. New landowner agreementsusing the most current form provided by the board ] shall be submitted to the departmentwith for proposed land application sites identified in ] each application for issuance or reissuance of a permit or the modification to add land to an existing permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids.

4. For permits modified in order to incorporate changes to this regulation, the permit holder shall, within 60 days of the effective date of the permit modification, advise the landowner by certified letter of the requirement to provide a new landowner agreement. The letter shall include instructions to the landowner for signing and returning the new landowner agreement, and shall advise the landowner that the permit holder's receipt of such new landowner agreement is required prior to application of biosolids to the landowner's property.

5. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the permit holder. The written agreement shall be submitted to the department with the permit application. ]

B. At least 48 hours prior to delivery of biosolids for land application on any site permitted under this regulation, the permit holder shall post a sign at the site that substantially complies with this section, is visible and legible from the public right-of-way, and conforms to the specifications herein. If the site is not located adjacent to a public right-of-way, the sign shall be posted at or near the intersection of the public right-of-way and the main site access road or driveway to the site. The department may grant a waiver to this or any other requirement, or require alternative posting options due to extenuating circumstances. The sign shall remain in place for at least 48 hours after land application has been completed at the site.

C. The sign shall be made of weather-resistant materials and shall be sturdily mounted so as to be capable of remaining in place and legible throughout the period that the sign is required at the site. Signs required by this section shall be temporary, nonilluminated, four square feet or more in area and shall only contain the following information:

1. A statement that biosolids are being land-applied at the site;

2. The name and telephone number of the permit holder as well as the name or title, and telephone number of an individual designated by the permit holder to respond to complaints and inquiries; and

3. Contact information for the Virginia Department of Health, including a telephone number for complaints and inquiries.

D. The permit holder shall promptly replace or repair any sign that has been removed from a land application site prior to 48 hours after completion of land application or that has been damaged so as to render any of its required information illegible.

9VAC25-32-540

9VAC25-32-540. Transport.

A. Transport routes should follow primary highways, should shall avoid residential areas when possible, and should shall comply with all Virginia Department of Transportation requirements and standards. Transport vehicles shall be sufficiently sealed to prevent leakage and spillage of sludge biosolids. For sludges biosolids with a solids content of less than 15%, totally closed watertight transport vehicles with rigid tops shall be provided to prevent spillage unless adequate justification is provided to demonstrate that such controls are unnecessary. The board may also require certain dewatered sludges biosolids exceeding 15% solids content to be handled as liquid sludges biosolids. The minimum information for sludge biosolids transport that shall be supplied in the sludge biosolidsoperations ] management plan is listed in 9VAC25-32-670 and 9VAC25-32-680 9VAC25-32-60 F.

B. The permit holder shall be responsible for the prompt cleanup and removal of biosolids spilled during transport to the land application site or to or from a storage facility. The operations manual shall include a plan for the prevention of spills during transport and for the cleanup and removal of spills. The permit holder shall ensure that its personnel, subcontractors or the drivers of vehicles transporting biosolids for land application shall be properly trained in procedures for spill removal and cleanup.

C. The permit holder shall take appropriate steps to prevent drag-out and track-out of dirt and debris or biosolids from land application sites onto public roads. Where material is transported onto a paved or public road surface, the road surface shall be cleaned thoroughly as soon as practicable, but no later than the end of each day.

D. The permit holder shall promptly report offsite spills to the [ Virginia Department of Health Environmental Quality department ], the chief executive officer or designee for the local government and the owner of the facility generating the biosolids. The report shall be made verbally as soon as possible, but no later than 24 hours after the discovery of the spill. After business hours notification may be provided by voicemail, facsimile or email.

E. A written report, which shall include a description of measures taken in response to the spill, shall be submitted by the permit holder to the Virginia Department of Health department, the chief executive officer or designee for the local government, and the owner of the facility generating the biosolids within five working days of the spill. The report may be sent by first class mail, facsimile or email, or it may be hand delivered.

9VAC25-32-545

9VAC25-32-545. Staging of biosolids for land application.

A. Stagingof biosolids shall not commence unless the field meets the requirements for land application is the placement of biosolids on a permitted land application field, within the land application area, in preparation for commencing land application or during an ongoing application, at the field or an adjacent permitted field. Staging is not considered storage and shall not take the place of storage ].

B. Staging requirements.

1.Biosolids that have been staged for greater than seven days shall be spread as soon as field conditions become favorable for land application or removed from the field; Staging of biosolids shall not commence unless the field meets the requirements for land application in accordance with Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this regulation and field conditions are favorable for land application; ]

2.No liner or cover is required under or over staged biosolids if spread within 14 days; Biosolids may be staged for up to seven days from the first day biosolids are offloaded onto the staging area, with the following exceptions:

a. In areas of Karst topography, biosolids offloaded at a permitted land application field shall be land applied by the end of the business day;

b. In areas identified in the USDA soil survey as frequently flooded, biosolids offloaded at a permitted land application field shall be land applied by the end of the business day; or

c. Biosolids shall not be staged overnight on sites that have on-site storage; ]

3.Staged If staged ] biosolidsthat ] cannot be spreadwithin 14 days shall be covered to prevent contact with precipitation; by the end of the seventh day of staging, the permittee shall take the following actions:

a. Biosolids shall be covered to prevent contact with precipitation;

b. The permittee shall notify the department in writing within 24 hours. Notification shall include the biosolids source or sources and amounts, location of the site, and reason for staging biosolids longer than seven days; and

c. Biosolids that have been staged for greater than seven days shall be spread or removed from the field as soon as field conditions become favorable for land application; ]

4. The certified land applier shall notify the department within 24 hours when it is necessary to stage biosolids for land application. Notification shall include source or sources, location, amounts, and reason for staging;

5. 4. ] Staging shall be limited to the amount of biosolids specified in the nutrient management plan to be applied at the intended field;

6. 5. ] Biosolids will be staged within the land application area of the field in which the biosolids will be applied or in a permitted field adjacent to the subject field, in a location selected to prevent runoff to waterways and drainage ditches;

7. 6. ] Biosolids shall not be staged in thebuffer zones setback areas ];

7. Biosolids shall not be staged overnight within 400 feet of an occupied dwelling unless reduced or waived through written consent of the occupant and landowner;

8. Biosolids shall not be staged overnight within 200 feet of a property line unless reduced or waived through written consent of the landowner;

8. 9. ] Management practices, as described in theoperations manual biosolids management plan ], shall be utilized as appropriate to prevent pollution of state waters by staged biosolids;

9. 10. ] Staged biosolids are to be inspected by the certified land applierat least every seven days and after daily. After ] precipitation events of 0.1 inches or greaterto inspections shall ] ensure that runoff controls are in good working order. Observed excessive slumping, erosion, or movement of biosolids is to be corrected within 24 hours. Any pondingor malodor ] at the site is to be correctedand any malodor shall be addressed in accordance with the odor control plan ]. The certified land applier shall maintain documentation of the inspections of staged biosolids;and ]

10. Staging shall be prohibited in areas identified in the USDA soil survey as frequently flooded;

11. No staging shall take place in areas of karst topography;

12. 11. ] Staged biosolids shall be managed so as to prevent adverse impacts to water quality or public health; and

13. Biosolids shall not be staged on sites that have on-site storage ].

9VAC25-32-550

9VAC25-32-550. Storage facilities.

A. No person shall apply to the Department of Environmental Quality department for a permit, a variance, or a permit modification authorizing storage of sewage sludge biosolids without first complying with all requirements adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 R of the Code of Virginia.

B. Three Two types of storage may be integrated into a complete sludge biosolidsoperations ] management plan including (i) "emergency storage" involving immediate implementation of storage for any sludge that becomes necessary due to unforeseen circumstances, (ii) "temporary storage" involving the provision of storage of stabilized sludges at the land application site that becomes necessary due to unforeseen climatic events that preclude land application of biosolids in the day that it is transported from the generator, or (iii) "routine storage" involving the storage of biosolids as necessary for all nonapplication periods of the year. Only routine storage facilities shall be considered a facility under this regulation.:

1. On-site storage, or

2. Routine storage. Only routine storage facilities shall be considered a facility under this regulation.

C. Emergency storage. The owner shall notify the department upon implementation of any emergency storage. Approval of such storage and subsequent processing of the sludge and supernatant will be considered as a contingency plan integrated into the sludge management plan. Only emergency storage shall be used for storage of unstabilized sludges. Further processing utilization and disposal shall be conducted in accordance with the approved sludge management plan. Design and implementation of facilities used for emergency storage shall not result in water quality, public health or nuisance problems.

D. Temporary storage. The owner shall notify the department whenever it is necessary to implement temporary storage. Temporary storage may be utilized at the land application site due to unforeseen climatic factors that preclude application of sludge (either offloaded at the site or in transport to the site) to permitted sites within the same working day. Temporary storage is not to be used as a substitute for routine storage and is restricted as follows:

1. Sludge stored at the site shall be land applied prior to additional offloading of sludge at the same site;

2. The owner shall be restricted to storing a daily maximum amount of 100 wet tons per operational site;

3. The stored sludge shall be land applied within 30 days from the initiation of storage or moved to a routine sludge facility;

4. Approval of plans for temporary storage will be considered as part of the overall sludge management plan;

5. Temporary storage shall not occur in areas prone to flooding at a 25-year or less frequency interval;

6. A synthetic liner shall be required for placement under and over sludge stored in this manner with one exception: where sludge is stockpiled for less than seven days, a liner placed under the stored sludge is not required. Surface water diversions and other best management provisions (BMP) should be utilized as appropriate; and

7. Temporary storage shall not result in water quality, public health or nuisance problems.

C.All on-site storage and routine storage facilities shall comply with the requirements of this section by12 months from the effective date of this regulation ].

D. ] On-site storage. On-site storage is the short-term storage of biosolidson a constructed surface ] within a site approved for land applicationon a constructed surface ] at a location preapproved by the department. These stored biosolids shall be applied only to sites under the operational control of the same owner or operator of the site where the on-site storage is located. Requirements for on-site storage include the following:

1. The certified land applier shall notify the department within the same working day whenever it is necessary to implement on-site storage. Notification shall include the source or sources, location, and amounts;

2. A surface shall be constructed with sufficient strength to support operational equipment and with a maximum permeability of 10-7 cm/sec;

3. Storage shall be limited to the amount of biosolids specified in the nutrient management plan to be applied at sites under the operational control of the same owner or operator of the site where the on-site storage is located;

4. If malodors related to the stored biosolids are verified by the department at any occupied dwelling on surrounding property, the problem must be corrected within 48 hours. If the problem is not corrected within 48 hours, the biosolids must be removed from the storage site;

5. All biosolids stored on the on-site storage pad shall be land applied by the 45th day from the first day of on-site storage;

6. Biosolids storage shall be located to provide minimum visibilityfrom adjacent properties ];

7. Best management practices shall be utilized as appropriate to prevent contact with storm water run on or runoff;

8. Stored biosolids are to be inspected by the certified land applier at least every seven days and after precipitation events of 0.1 inches or greater to ensure that runoff controls are in good working order. Observed excessive slumping, erosion, or movement of biosolids is to be corrected within 24 hours. Any ponding or malodor at thestorage ] site is to be corrected. The certified land applier shall maintain documentation of inspections of stored biosolids;

9. The department may prohibit or require additional restrictions for on-site storage in areas ofkarst Karst ] topography and environmentally sensitive sites;and ]

10.Biosolids shall not be stockpiled on sites that have on-site storage; and

11. Biosolids shall not result in Storage of biosolids shall be managed so as to prevent adverse impacts to ] water qualityor ] public health, or nuisance problems ].

[ E. D. ] Routine storage. Routine storage is the long-term storage of biosolids at a facilitynot located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant, ] preapproved by the department and constructed specifically for the storage of biosolids to be applied at anypermitted ] siteincluded in permits held by the permit holder of the storage facility ]. Routine storage facilities shall be provided for all land application projects if no alternative means of management is available during nonapplication periods. No person shall apply to the department for a permit, a variance, or a permit modification authorizing storage of biosolids without first complying with all requirements adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 A 5 of the Code of Virginia. Plans and specifications for any surface storage facilities (pits, ponds, lagoons) or aboveground facilities (tanks, pads) shall be submitted as part of the minimum information requirements. The minimum information requirements include:

1. Location.

a. The facility shall be located at an elevation that is not subject to, or is otherwise protected against, inundation produced by the 100-year flood/wave action as defined by U.S. Geological Survey or equivalent information.

b. Storage facilities should be located to provide minimum visibility.

c. All storage facilities with a capacity in excess of 100 wet tons and located offsite of property owned by the generator shall be provided with a minimum 750-feet [ buffer zone setback area ]. The length of the [ buffer zone setback area ] considered will be the distance measured from the perimeter of the storage facility. Residential uses, high-density human activities and activities involving food preparation are prohibited within the [ buffer zone setback area ]. The board may [ consider a reduction of up to half of the above buffer reduce the setback ] requirements based on [ site-specific factors, ] such [ facts ] as [ lagoon area facility size ], topography, prevailing wind direction, and the inclusion of an effective windbreak in the overall design.

2. Design capacity.

a. The design capacity for storage of liquid biosolids shall be sufficient to store a minimum volume equivalent to 60 days or more average production of biosolids and the incidental wastewater generated by operation of the treatment works plus sufficient capacity necessary for: (i) the 25 year-24 hour design storm (incident rainfall and any runoff as may be present); (ii) net precipitation excess during the storage period; and (iii) an additional one foot freeboard from the maximum water level (attributed to the sum of the above factors) to the top berm elevation. Storage capacity of less than that specified above will be considered on a case-by-case basis only if sufficient justification warrants such a reduction.

b. If alternative methods of management cannot be adequately verified, contractors [ should shall ] provide for a minimum of 30 days of in-state routine storage capacity for the average quantity of sludge biosolids transported into Virginia from out-of-state treatment works generating at least a Class [ II level treated B ] sludge biosolids.

3. [ Construction Facility design ].

a. All drawings and specifications shall be submitted in accordance with 9VAC25-790-160.

b. ] The biosolids shall be stored on an engineered surface with a maximum permeability of 10-7 cm/sec and of sufficient strength to support operational equipment.

b. c. ] Storage facilities designed to hold dewatered biosolids shall be constructed with a cover to prevent contact with precipitation.

c. d. Existing facilities permitted as routine storage facilities and designed to contain liquid biosolids may be used to store dewatered biosolids. The supernatant shall be managed as liquid biosolids in accordance with 9VAC25-32-550 E 5 d. Freeboard shall be maintained in accordance with 9VAC25-32-550 E 5 c. The department may require additional monitoring prior to land application.

e. ] Storage facilities shall be of uniform shape (round, square, rectangular) with no narrow or elongated portions. The facilities shall be lined in accordance with the requirements contained in sewerage regulations or certificate.

d. f. ] The facilities shall also be designed to permit access of equipment necessary for loading and unloading biosolids, and should shall be designed with receiving facilities to allow for even distribution of sludge biosolids into the facility.

e. g. ] Design should The design shall also provide for truck cleaning facilities as may be necessary. Storage facilities with a capacity of 100 wet tons or less shall comply with the provision for temporary storage as a minimum.

4. Monitoring. All sludge biosolids storage facilities [ in excess of 100-wet ton capacity ] shall be monitored in accordance with the requirements of this regulation. Plans and specifications shall be provided for such a monitoring program in accordance with the minimum information specified in Article 4 (9VAC25-32-670 et seq.) of this part 9VAC25-32-60 F and 9VAC25-32-410.

5. Operation.

a. Only biosolids suitable for land application (Class A or B biosolids) shall be placed into permitted routine storage facilities.

b. Storage of biosolids located offsite or remote from the wastewater treatment works during the summer months shall be avoided whenever possible so that the routine storage facility remains as empty as possible during the summer months.

c. Storage facilities should shall be operated in a manner such that sufficient freeboard is provided to ensure that the maximum anticipated high water elevation due to any and all design storm inputs is not less than one foot below the top berm elevation.

d. Complete plans for supernatant disposal shall be provided in accordance with Article 4 (9VAC25-32-670 et seq.) of this part 9VAC25-32-60 F. Plans for supernatant disposal may include transport to the sewage treatment works, mixing with the biosolids for land application or land application separately. However, separate land application of supernatant will be regulated as liquid sludge biosolids; additional testing, monitoring and treatment (disinfection) may be required.

e. The facility site shall be fenced to a minimum height of five feet; gates and locks shall be provided to control access. The fence should shall be posted with signs identifying the facility. The fence should shall not be constructed closer than 10 feet to the outside edge of the facility or appurtenances, to allow adequate accessibility.

f. If malodors related to the stored biosolids are verified byDEQ the department ] at any occupied dwelling on surrounding property, the malodor must be corrected within 48 hours.

6. Closure. An appropriate plan of closure or abandonment shall be developed by the permittee when the facility ceases to be utilized and approved by the board. Such plans may also be reviewed by the Department of Health.

7. Recordkeeping. A manifest system shall be developed, implemented and maintained and be available for inspection during operations as part of the overall daily recordkeeping for the project Article 4 (9VAC25-32-670 et seq.) of this part (9VAC25-32-60 F).

9VAC25-32-560

9VAC25-32-560. Biosolids utilization methods.

A. Requirements applicable to land application of biosolids.

1. All biosolids application rates, application times and other site management operations shall be restricted as specified in the [ approved operations biosolids ] management practices plan. The [ operations biosolids ] management practices plan shall include a nutrient management plan as required by 9VAC25-32-680 9VAC25-32-410 and prepared by a certified nutrient management planner as stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

a. A nutrient management plan shall be developed for all application sites prior to biosolids application.

b. All nutrient management plans shall account for all sources of nutrients to be applied to the site and include at a minimum the following information:

(1) A site map indicating the location of any waste storage facilities and the fields where biosolids or animal waste will be applied;

(2) Site evaluation and assessment of soil types and potential productivities;

(3) Nutrient management sampling including soil monitoring;

(4) Biosolids or animal waste application rates based on the overall nutrient requirements of the proposed crop and soil monitoring results; and

(5) Biosolids and other nutrient source application schedules and land area requirements.

c. The nutrient management plan shall be available for review by the department at the land application site during biosolids land application.

d. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the nutrient management plan to the department, the farm operator of the site, the Department of Conservation and Recreation regional office, and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government, unless they request in writing not to receive the nutrient management plan.

e. The nutrient management plan must be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to land application for application sites where the soil test phosphorus levels exceed the values in Table 1 of this section. For purposes of approval, permittees should submit the nutrient management plan to the Department of Conservation and Recreation at least 30 days prior to the anticipated date of land application to ensure adequate time for the approval process.

 

TABLE 1
SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS REQUIRING NMP APPROVAL

 

Region

Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Test (Mehlich I)*

 

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain

135

 

Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont

136

 

Ridge and Valley

162

 

*If results are from another laboratory, the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used. ]

2. Biosolids shall be treated to meet standards for land application as required by Part IX (9VAC25-32-310 et seq.) (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter prior to delivery at the land application site. No person shall alter the composition of biosolids at a site approved for land application of biosolids under a Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit. Any person who engages in the alteration of such biosolids shall be subject to the penalties provided in Article 6 (§ 62.1-44.31 et seq.) of Chapter 3.1 of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. The addition of lime or deodorants to biosolids that have been treated to meet standards for land application as required by Part IX (9VAC25-32-310 et seq.) (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter shall not constitute alteration of the composition of biosolids. The board may authorize public institutions of higher education to conduct scientific research on the composition of biosolids that may be applied to land.

B. Agricultural use. Agricultural use of sewage sludge biosolids is the land application of biosolids (Table 7) to cropland or pasture land to obtain agronomic benefits as a plant nutrient source and soil conditioner. This use shall require a system design that ensures that the land application procedures are performed in accordance with sound agronomic principles.

1. Sludge Biosolids treatment. As a minimum, biosolids that are applied to the land or incorporated into the soil shall be treated by a Class II pathogen treatment process and shall be treated or managed to provide an acceptable level of vector attraction reduction.

2. Site soils. Soils best suited for agricultural use should possess good tilth and drainage capabilities, have moderate to high surface infiltration rates and moderate to slow subsoil permeability. Depth to bedrock or restrictive layers should be a minimum of 18 inches. Depth to the seasonal water table should exceed 18 inches as defined by the Soil Conservation Service soil survey. If such information is not available the water table depth may be determined by soil characteristics or water table observations. If the soil survey or such evidence indicates that the seasonal water table can be less than 18 inches below the average ground surface, soil borings shall be utilized within seven days prior to land application operations during periods of high water table for the soil series present, to verify that the 18-inch depth restriction is complied with during field operations. The use of soil borings and water table depth verification may be required for such sites from November to May (during seasonal high water table elevations) of each year depending on soil type. Constructed channels (agricultural drainage ditch) may be utilized to remove surface water and lower the water table as necessary for crop productions and site management.

a. Depth to bedrock or restrictive layers shall be a minimum of 18 inches.

b. Biosolids application shall not be made during times when the seasonal high water table of the soil is within 18 inches of the ground surface. If Natural Resources Conservation Service soil survey information regarding depth of seasonal water table is not available, the water table depth shall be determined by soil characteristics or water table observations. If the soil survey or such evidence indicates that the seasonal water table can be less than 18 inches below the average ground surface, soil borings shall be conducted within seven days prior to land application operations during periods of high water table for the soil series present to verify the actual water table depth. The use of soil borings and water table depth verification may be required for such sites from November to May (during seasonal high water table elevations) of each year depending on soil type. Constructed channels (agricultural drainage ditches) may be utilized to remove surface water and lower the water table as necessary for crop production and site management.

c. The pH of the biosolids and soil mixture shall be 6.0 or greater at the time of each biosolids application if the biosolids cadmium concentration is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg. The soil pH must be properly tested and recorded prior to land application operations during which a pH change of one-half unit or more may occur within the zone of incorporation (i.e., use of biosolids containing lime or other alkaline additives at 10% or more of dry solid weight).

d.Soil When soil ] test pHmust be greater then or equal to is less than ] 5.5at the time of each S.U., the land shall be supplemented with lime at the recommended agronomic rate prior to or during ] biosolids application if the biosolids to be land applied have not been alkaline stabilized.

e. Soil When soil ] test potassium levelsmust be greater than or equal to are less than ] 38 parts per million (Mehlich I analytical procedure or equivalent)at the time of each, the land shall be supplemented with potash at the recommended agronomic rate prior to or during ] biosolids application.

3. Management practices.

a. Application rates and requirements. Process design considerations shall include sludge composition, soil characteristics, climate, vegetation, cropping practices, and other pertinent factors in determining application rates. Site specific application rates should be proposed using pertinent biosolids plant available nitrogen (PAN) and crop nutrient needs (agronomic rate listed in Table 10) and shall not exceed the rates established in the nutrient management plan nor result in exceedance of the cumulative trace element loading rates (Table 8) specified in 9VAC25-32-356Table 2 Table 3 ]. Lime amended biosolids shall be applied at rates that are not expected to result in a target soil pH in the plow layer above a pH of 6.5 for soils located in the coastal plain and above a pH of 6.8 in other areas of the state. Agricultural use of treated septage shall be in accordance with these requirements (Table 12). The biosolids application rate, application timing and all other site management practices shall be restricted to the following criteria in accordance with the approved management practices plan including the nutrient management plan that may prescribe more restrictive site management practices than the following criteria:

b. Agricultural use of stabilized septage shall be in accordance with the same requirements as biosolids.

c. Crops. For proposed use of crops or plant available nitrogen (PAN) rates (lbs/A) not stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia, adequate yield and PAN data are to be submitted in accordance with 9VAC25-32-60 F.

(1) Soybeans. Allowable PAN rates are equivalent to the PAN recommendation for corn stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia. For double-crop or late beans planted after June 21 (of any year) allowable PAN rates are equivalent to the PAN recommendation for corn stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia, minus 20 lbs PAN.

(2) Tallgrass hay. Application of the full PAN rate stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia may only be applied between March 1 and September 30 in any year. Application of up to 50% of the listed PAN rate may be applied between October 1 of any year and February 28 of the following year, with remaining PAN applied after March 1 of that following year.

(3) Warm season grasses and alfalfa. From July 1 through September 14, applications to warm season grass hay and alfalfa shall only be applied at 50% of the rate stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia. No biosolids applications shall be made to warm season grass and alfalfa between September 15 and March 15.

d. c. ] Application frequency.

(1) ] For infrequent applications, Infrequent. If biosolids are applied to a field only once in a three-year period, biosolids may be applied such that the total crop needs for nitrogen (Table 10 Agronomic Rate) is not exceeded (in order to minimize the amount of nitrogen that passes below the crop root zone to actually or potentially pollute groundwater), during a one-year crop rotation period including the production and harvesting of two crops in succession within a consecutive 12-month growing season. However, the total application of biosolids shall not exceed a computed maximum loading of 15 dry tons per acre, unless a higher loading can be justified in relation to both the biosolids and the site characteristics, including the biosolids nutrient and dry solids content and the site slopes. No further applications of biosolids shall be allowed for a period of three years from the date that the agronomic rate is achieved for the crop or crops grown in the following 12 months. The infrequent application rate may be restricted (i) down to 10% of the maximum cumulative loading rate(9VAC25-32-356 Table 2) (9VAC25-32-356 Table 3) ] for cadmium and lead or (ii) to account for all sources of nutrients applied to the site, including existing residuals.

(2) The infrequent application rate may be restricted: (i) down to 10% of the maximum cumulative loading rate (Table 8) for cadmium and lead (i.e., 2.0 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) for cadmium); or (ii) to account for all sources of nutrients applied to the site, including existing residuals.

(3) The infrequent application rate may also be restricted by the lime content of the biosolids.

(4) For systems designed for frequent application of biosolids (application of the PAN requirement for a normal crop rotation more frequently than once in every three years), the previous year's applied biosolids nitrogen and mineralization rates (Table 11) and soil phosphorus levels, shall be considered in the design and proposed subsequent application rates. Acceptable nutrient management requirements shall be included in the management practices plan for all sites proposed for frequent at-agronomic application rates (9VAC25-32-680).

(5)(2) Frequent. Frequent below-agronomic application rate involves frequent applications of biosolids on permanent pasture or hay at less than the PAN requirement listed in Table 10. regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia. Frequent below-agronomic application rates shall be calculated using one of the following options: A maximum of 70% of the nitrogen requirement of the permanent pasture or hay crop can be applied on an annual basis. The 70% application rate shall be calculated after accounting for residual nitrogen. For systems designed for frequent below-agronomic rates, surface and ground water monitoring shall not be required. ]

(a) A maximum of 70% of the nitrogen requirement of the permanent pasture or hay crop can be applied on an annual basis. The 70% application rate shall be calculated after accounting for the previous two years' applied biosolids nitrogen mineralization rates.

(b) A maximum of 50% of the nitrogen requirement of the permanent pasture or hay crop can be applied on an annual basis. It is not necessary to account for the previous two years' applied biosolids nitrogen mineralization rates under this option.

For systems designed for frequent below-agronomic rates, surface and groundwater monitoring shall not be required. Soil phosphorus levels shall be considered in the design of proposed subsequent application rates. No application shall be made between September 15 and March 15 on warm-season grasses and alfalfa.

b. Standard slopes and topography. Management practices specifying uniform application of biosolids at approved rates should be established in accordance with standard slopes. Agronomic practices and crop growth on sites with slope of not greater than 7.0% will provide acceptable protection of surface water quality during the active growing season. If biosolids are applied to site slopes greater than 7.0% during the period of November 16 of one year to March 15 of the following year certain best management practices (BMP's) should be utilized (see subdivision 3 c (1) of this subsection). Biosolids should be directly injected into soils on sites exhibiting erosion potential unless other best management practices are utilized to minimize soil erosion and the potential of nonpoint runoff. Biosolids shall not be applied to site slopes exceeding 15%. Biosolids shall be directly injected or incorporated (mixed within the normal plow layer within 48 hours) if: (i) applied on sites with less than 60% uniform residue cover (stalks, vines, stubble, etc.) within any portion of the site; or (ii) applied to soils during periods of time soils may be subject to frequent flooding as defined by soil survey information.

c.e. d. ] Operations.

(1) Field management. The application rate of all application equipment shall be routinely measured as described in [ an approved a ] sludgeoperations biosolids ] management plan and every effort shall be made to ensure uniform application of biosolids within sites in accordance with approved maximum design loading rates. Liquid sludges biosolids shall not be applied at rates exceeding 14,000 gallons per acre, per application. Sufficient drying times shall be allowed between subsequent applications. Application vehicles should shall be suitable for use on agricultural land. Pasture and hay fields should shall be grazed or clipped to a height of approximately four and six inches, respectively, prior to biosolids application unless the biosolids can be uniformly applied so as not to mat down the vegetative cover so that the site vegetation can be clipped to a height of approximately four inches within one week of the biosolids application. Biosolids shall be applied such that uniform application is achieved. If application methods do not result in a uniform distribution of biosolids, additional operational methods shall be employed following application such as dragging with a pasture harrow, followed by clipping if required, to achieve a uniform distribution of the applied biosolids.

(2) Surface incorporation may be required on cropland by the department, or the local monitor with approval of the department, to mitigate [ excessive odors malodors ] when incorporation is practicable and compatible with a soil conservation plan [ or contract ] meeting the standards and specifications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.

(3) Slopes above 15%. Biosolids shall not be applied to site slopes exceeding 15%.This restriction may be waived by the department for the establishment and maintenance of perennial vegetation or based on site specific criteria and BMPs in place in the field. ]

(4) Biosolids application timing and slope restrictions shall conform to criteria contained in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

In accordance with the management practices plan, when biosolids are applied to site slopes greater than 7.0% between the period of November 16 of one year, and March 15 of the following year, one of the following practices shall be used to prevent runoff and soil loss:

(a) Biosolids are surface applied or subsurface injected beneath an established living crop such as hay, pasture, or timely planted small grain or cover crop;

(b) Biosolids are surface applied or subsurface injected so that immediately after application the crop residue still provides at least 60% soil surface coverage; or

(c) Biosolids are applied by surface application or subsurface injection and the site is operated in compliance with an existing soil conservation plan approved by the U.S.D.A. Natural Resource Conservation Service and will remain in compliance after any subsequent tillage operation to incorporate the biosolids.

In accordance with the management practices plan if site slopes exceed 5.0% up to 7.0%, biosolids can be applied by surface application or subsurface injection followed by: (i) incorporation within 48 hours of application if crop residue still provides at least 30% soil surface coverage immediately following incorporation, or (ii) ridge tilling or chisel plowing within 48 hours of application; during the period of November 16 to March 15 of the following year. The site should be chisel plowed or ridge tilled predominately along the contour so that uniform parallel ridges of four inches or greater are created that will improve soil roughness and reduce runoff. Consideration should also be given to the use of similar practices on slopes of 5.0% or less when feasible for applications during the late fall and winter

(2) Restrictions. (5) Snow. Biosolids application shall not be made during times when the seasonal high water table of the soil is within 18 inches of the ground surface. Biosolids may only be applied to snow-covered ground if the snow cover does not exceed one inch and the snow and biosolids are immediately incorporated within 24 hours of application. If snow melts during biosolids application, incorporation is not necessary. Liquid sludges may not be applied to frozen ground. Dry or dewatered sludges may be applied to frozen ground only if (i) site slopes are 5.0% or less; (ii) a 200-foot vegetative (i.e., at least 60% uniformly covered by stalks or other vegetation) buffer is maintained from surface water courses; and (iii) the entire application site has uniform soil coverage of at least 60% with stalks, vines, stubble, or other vegetation and (iv) the site soils are characterized as well drained.

In accordance with the management practices plan, when biosolids are land applied between March 15 and September 1, crop planting following biosolids application should occur within a 30-day period. When biosolids are applied to sites between September 1 and November 16, an agronomically justified crop capable of trapping plant available nitrogen such as small grain shall be planted within 45 days of the application of biosolids or prior to November 16, whichever comes first, or an established cool season grass sod or timely planted small grain crop shall be present. The crop planted should be capable of germination and significant growth before the onset of winter so the plant is able to use available nitrogen released by the biosolids.

On sites with a high leaching index (greater than 10) as defined by the Department of Conservation and Recreation, an established cool season grass or timely planted small grain crop should be present when biosolids are applied to such sites between November 16 and December 21 in accordance with the nutrient management plan. Biosolids should not be applied any earlier than 30 days prior to spring planting on environmentally sensitive sites in accordance with the nutrient management plan.

d.f. Buffer zones. e. Setback distances. ]

(1) Setback distances. If slopes are greater than 7.0% and biosolids will be applied between November 16 and March 15, setback distances to perennial streams and other surface water bodies shall be doubled. The [ location of ] land application of biosolids shall not occur within the following minimum [ buffer zone setback distance ] requirements (Table1 2 ] of this section):

 

TABLE 2:
MINIMUM BUFFER ZONE REQUIREMENTS

 

 

Minimum Distances (Feet) to Land Application Area

Adjacent Features

Surface Application1

Incorporation

Winter25

Occupied dwellings

200 ft.2,3,4

2002,3,4

2002,3,4

Water supply wells or springs

100 ft.

100

100

Water supply reservoirs5

400

400

400

All streams and tributaries designated as a PWS under the WQS

100

100

100

Property lines, w/o the presence of an "occupied dwelling"

50

50

50

Property lines, with the presence of an "occupied dwelling"6

100 ft.3

50 100

100

Perennial streams and other surface waters except intermittent streams

50 ft.

35

100

Intermittent streams/drainage ditches

25 ft.

25

50

All improved roadways

10 ft.

5

10

Rock outcrops and sinkholes

25 ft.

25

25

Limestone rock outcrops and sinkholes

50

50

50

Agricultural drainage ditches with slopes equal to or less than 2.0%

10 ft.

5

10

 

1Note: Not plowed or disced disked to incorporate within 48 hours.

2The buffer to occupied dwellings may be reduced or waived upon written consent of the occupant of the dwelling.

3Buffer may be extended by the department based on documented site specific conditions.

4Buffer may exceed 400 feet where an evaluation by the Virginia Department of Health determines that a buffer in excess of 400 feet is necessary to prevent specific and immediate injury to the health of an individual.

25Application occurs on average site slope greater than 7.0% during the time between November 16 of one year and March 15 of the following year.

6Property line buffers may be reduced or waived upon written consent of the adjacent property resident or landowner.

 

 

TABLE 1:

MINIMUM SETBACK DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

 

Adjacent Feature

Minimum Setback Distance (Feet) to Land Application Area

 

Occupied dwelling

2001,2,3

 

Odor sensitive receptors (without injection or same day incorporation)

4003

 

Odor sensitive receptors (with injection or same day incorporation)

200

 

Property lines

1002,4

 

Property lines of publicly accessible sites5

200

 

Water supply wells or springs

100

 

Public water supply reservoirs

400

 

All segments of streams and tributaries designated as a Public Water Supply under the Water Quality Standards

100

 

Surface waters without a vegetated buffer

100

 

Surface waters with a 35-foot vegetated buffer

35

 

Agricultural drainage ditches

10

 

All improved roadways

10

 

Rock outcrops

25

 

Open sinkholes

100

 

Limestone rock outcrops and closed sinkholes6

50

 

1The setback distance to occupied dwellings may be reduced or waived upon written consent of the occupant and landowner of the dwelling.

2The department shall grant to any landowner or resident in the vicinity of a biosolids land application site an extended setback of up to 200 feet from their property line and up to 400 feet from their occupied dwelling upon request from their physician based on medical reasons. In order for an extended setback request to be granted, the request must be submitted to the department in writing on a form provided by the department. A request must be received by the department no later than 48 hours before land application commences on the field affected by the extended setback, and communicated to the permittee no later than 24 hours before land application commences on the field affected by the extended setback. The department may extend a setback distance within 48 hours of land application if requested by the Virginia Department of Health in connection with the landowner or resident's physician.

3Setback distances may be extended beyond 400 feet where an evaluation by the Virginia Department of Health determines that a setback in excess of 400 feet is necessary to prevent specific and immediate injury to the health of an individual.

4The setback distance to property lines may be reduced or waived upon written consent of the landowner.

5Publicly accessible sites are open to the general public and routinely accommodate pedestrians and include, but are not limited to, schools, churches, hospitals, parks, nature trails, businesses open to the public, and sidewalks. Temporary structures, public roads or similar thoroughfares are not considered publicly accessible.

6A closed sinkhole does not have an open conduit to groundwater. The setback from a closed sinkhole may be reduced or waived by the department upon evaluation by a professional soil scientist. ]

(2)Reduced buffer setback distances. The stated buffer zones to adjacent property boundaries and drainage ditches constructed for agricultural operations may be reduced by 50% for subsurface application (includes same day incorporation) unless state or federal regulations provide more stringent requirements. ] Written consent of affected landowners is required to reduce buffer distances from property lines and dwellings. In cases where more than one [ buffer setback ] distance is involved, the most restrictive distance governs. Buffer requirements may be increased or decreased based on either site specific features, such as agricultural drainage features and site slopes, or on biosolids application procedures demonstrating precise placement methods.

(3) Waivers. Waivers from adjacent property residents and landowners may only be used to reducebuffer setback ] distances from occupied dwellings and property lines.

(2) (4) Extended [ buffer ] setback distances. The department may increasebuffer setback ] requirements based on site specific features, such as agricultural drainage features and site slopes.For applications where surface applied biosolids are not incorporated, the department (or the local monitor with approval of the department) may require as a site-specific permit condition, extended buffer zone setback distances when necessary to protect odor sensitive receptors. ] When necessary, buffer zone setback distances from odor sensitive receptors may be extended to 400 feet or more and no biosolids shall be applied within such extended buffer zones. In accordance with 9VAC25-32-100 and 9VAC25-32-490, the board may impose standards and requirements that are more stringent when required to protect public health and the environment, or prevent nuisance conditions from developing, either prior to or during biosolids use operations.

e. Monitoring and testing. Groundwater and surface water and soils monitoring and testing may be required by the department, or the local monitor with approval of the department for any frequent application sites (reach agronomic rate more than once in three years) for which a potential environmental or public health concern is identified by the board in accordance with this regulation (9VAC25-32-400). Groundwater monitoring and testing should not be required for infrequent application of biosolids.

h. f. ] Voluntary extensions ofbuffer setback ] distances. If a permit holder negotiates a voluntary agreement with a landowner or resident to extendbuffer setback ] distances or add other more restrictive criteria than required by this regulation, the permit holder shall document the agreement in writing and provide the agreement to the department. Voluntarybuffer setback ] increases or other management criteria will not become an enforceable part of the land application permit unless the permit holder modifies theoperations biosolids ] management plan to include the additional restriction.

i. g. ] Extension ofbuffer setback ] distances with phosphorus index. If the application rate included in a nutrient management plan for a biosolids land application site is dependent upon an extended setback distance calculated using the phosphorus index, the phosphorus index calculations shall be included in the nutrient management plan. The extended setback distance shall be an enforceable part of the permit.

C. Forestland (Silviculture). Silvicultural use includes application of biosolids to [ commercial ] timber and fiber production land, as well as federal and state forests. The forestland may be recently cleared and planted, young plantations (two-year-old to five-year-old trees), or established forest stands.

1. Sludge Biosolids standards. Refer to [ 9VAC25-32-590 the standards ] and 9VAC25-32-660 of this Article article.

2. Site suitability.

a. Site suitability requirements should shall conform to subdivision A 2 of this section the requirements contained in subdivision B 2 of this section.

b. The Notwithstanding the requirements ofsubsection subdivision ] B 2 of this section the soil pH should shall be managed at the natural soil pH for the types of trees proposed for growth.

c. Notwithstanding the requirements ofsubsection subdivision ] B 2 of this section the soil test potassium level is not required to be at a minimum level at the time of biosolids application.

3. Management practices.

a. Application rates. Biosolids application rates shall be in accordance with the [ operations biosolids ] management [ practices ] plan and. Theoperations biosolids ] management plan shall include information provided by the Virginia Department of Forestry.

b. Operations.

(1) Field management.

(a) High pressure spray shall not be utilized if public activity is occurring within 1,500 feet downwind of the application site. Public access to the site shall be adequately limited or controlled following application (Article 3 (9VAC25-32-490 et seq.) of this part) in accordance with Article 3 (9VAC25-32-490 et seq.) of this part.

(b) The operations should only proceed when the wind velocity is less than or equal to 15 miles per hour. When high pressure spray is used windless conditions are preferred for such operations.

(c) (b) Biosolids application vehicles should shall have adequate ground clearance to be suitable for silvicultural field use.

(d) (c) Application scheduling should included in theoperations biosolids ] managementpractices ] plan shall take into account high rainfall periods and periods of freezing conditions.

(e) (d) Monitoring requirements shall be site specific and may include [ groundwater ground water ], surface water or soils, for frequent application sites.

(2) [ Buffer zones. Buffer zones Setbacks. Setbacks ] should shall conform to those for agricultural utilization. Refer to [ Table 2 Table 1 ] of this section.

D. Reclamation of disturbed land. Biosolids applied at rates exceeding the agronomic rate may reclaim disturbed land in one or more of the following ways: (i) surface or underground mining operations, (ii) the deposition of ore processing wastes, (iii) deposition of dredge spoils or fly ash in construction areas such as roads and borrow pits. Reclamation of disturbed land is within the jurisdiction of the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. That department should be contacted concerning issuance of a permit for these operations. The land reclamation management practices plan should be prepared with the assistance of the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Soil Conservation Service and the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service.

1. Sludge Biosolids standards. Refer to the standards of this article.

2. Site suitability. Site suitability requirements should shall conform to subdivision A 2 of this section the requirements contained in subdivision B 2 of this section. Exceptions may be considered on a case-by-case basis.

3. Management practices.

a. Application rates. The biosolids application rates shall be established in the [ nutrient biosolids ] management practices plan through recommendations provided by appropriate agencies including in consultation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy [ and, ] the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation., and the ] appropriate faculty of the [ Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. ] The nutrient management plan shall be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to permit issuancewhere land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates ].

b. Vegetation selection. The land should shall be seeded with grass and legumes even when reforested in order to help prevent erosion and utilize available plant nitrogen. The [ biosolids ] management [ practices ] plan should shall include information on the seeding mixture and a detailed seeding schedule.

c. Operations.

(1) The soil pH should shall be maintained at 6.0 or above if the cadmium level in the biosolids applied is at or above 21 mg/kg. during the first year after the initial application. Soil samples should be analyzed by a qualified laboratory. The application rate shall be limited by the most restrictive cumulative trace element loading (Table 8)(Table 2 of this section). (9VAC25-32-356 Table 3). ]

(2) Surface material should shall be turned or worked prior to the surface application of liquid biosolids, to minimize potential for runoff, since solids in liquid sludge can clog soil surface pores.

(3) Unless the applied biosolids are determined to be Class A or have been documented as subjected to Class I treatment, crops intended for direct human consumption shall not be grown for a period of three years following the date of the last sludge biosolids application unless the crop is tested to verify that the crop is not contaminated. No animals whose products are intended for human consumption may graze the site or obtain feed from the site for a period of six months following the date of the last biosolids application, unless representative samples of the animal products are tested after grazing and prior to marketing to verify that they are not contaminated.

9VAC25-32-570

9VAC25-32-570. Distribution and marketing.

A. Exceptional quality. Distribution or marketing provides for the sale or distribution of exceptional quality biosolids or mixtures of Class I treated exceptional quality biosolids with other materials such that the mixture achieves the Class A pathogen control standard, vector attraction reduction and pollutant control standards. Distribution or marketing of Class I treated Class A biosolids that have been mixed with inert materials may be approved on a case-by-case basis. Inert materials shall not contain pathogens or attract vectors. Use of such mixtures for agricultural purposes should shall be evaluated through proper testing or research programs designed to access assess the suitability of the material for such use. Exceptional quality biosolids marketed as fertilizers or soil conditioners must be registered with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The permit applicant shall obtain such registration prior to issuance of a permit by the board for residential, agricultural, reclamation or silvicultural use. meet the following conditions:

1. The biosolids product must be registered with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in accordance withregulations promulgated under § 3.2-3601 the provisions of § 3.2-3607 ] of the Code of Virginia.The permit applicant shall obtain such registration prior to issuance of a permit by the board. ]

1. Because of the high potential for public contact with distributed and marketed sludge or sludge products, only

2. The biosolids product must be processed to meet criteria specified for Class I treatment process sequences designed to eliminate or further reduce pathogens (PFRP) shall be sold or given away for application to land Class A pathogen requirements as specified in 9VAC25-32-675 A. In addition, the biosolids must meet vector attraction reduction requirements, and other quality standards (Table 8) as required for the intended use.

3. The biosolids product must meet one of the vector attraction reduction requirements as specified in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

4. The biosolids product must meet the ceiling concentrations specified in 9VAC25-32-356 -Table 1 Table 2 ].

5. The biosolids product must meet the pollutant concentrations specified in 9VAC25-32-356 -Table 3 Table 4 ].

6. Additional parametersmay be required for screening purposes ] such asthe ] organic chemicalslisted in Table 1 of this section may be required for screening purposes as well as:, ] aluminum (mg/kg), water soluble boron (mg/kg), calcium (mg/kg), chlorides (mg/l), manganese (mg/kg),sulfates sulfur ] (mg/kg), and those pollutants for which removal credits are granted. 

 

TABLE 1
ORGANIC CHEMICAL TESTING MAY BE REQUIRED TO IDENTIFY AN EXCEPTIONAL QUALITY BIOSOLIDS

 

Organic chemicals

 

Aldrin/dieldrin (total)

 

Benzo (a) pyrene

 

Chlordane

 

DDT/DDE/DDD (total)*

 

Dimethyl nitrosamine

 

Heptachlor

 

Hexachlorobenzene

 

Hexachlorobutadiene

 

Lindane

 

Polychlorinated biphenols

 

Toxaphene

 

Trichloroethylene

 

*Note:

DDT 2,2 - Bis (chlorophenyl) - 1,1,1 - Trichloroethane

DDE 1,1 - Bis (chlorophenyl) - 2,2 - Dichloroethane

DDD 1,1 - Bis (chlorophenyl) - 2,2 - Dichloroethane ]

2. B. Bulk distribution. Exceptional quality biosolids may be distributed and marketed in either bulk amounts (unpacked) or as a bagged product. For purposes of this regulation, a bulk use quantity of biosolids will be defined as a volume of that sludge product containing 15 dry tons or more of sewage sludge. Application of bulk use quantities of exceptional quality biosolids to home vegetable gardens shall not exceed an equivalent annual loading rate of approximately one pound dry weight of biosolids per square foot (garden products may constitute a significant portion of a family diet and the amount of applied biosolids cannot be specifically controlled as in agricultural use). Exceptional quality biosolids can ideally be used as soil amendments for horticulture and landscaping purposes such as The following requirements shall apply to distribution and marketing of biosolids products:

a. Use in potting soil mixes;

b. Use for seed beds, for establishment of grass and other vegetation and for topdressing of existing lawns and landscape vegetation.

1. Any permit holder who distributes or markets exceptional quality biosolids shallmaintain records as required by regulations promulgated under § 3.2-3601 of the Code of Virginia and make the records comply with the reporting requirements of §§ 3.2-3609 and 3.2-3610 of the Code of Virginia. The records shall be maintained for five years and made ] available to the department upon request.

2. Bulk quantities of exceptional quality biosolids shall be land applied in accordance with a nutrient management plan prepared by a certified nutrient management planner as stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia, except under the following conditions:

a. The percent solids of the biosolids is equal to or greater than 90% based on moisture content and total solids, or

b.The percent solids of a blended product derived from biosolids is equal to or greater than 40% based on moisture content and total solids and achieves a carbon to nitrogen ratio of at least 25:1 A blended product derived from biosolids is utilized for a purpose other than land application at agricultural operations ].

3. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the plan tothe department, ] thefarmer farm ] operator of the site, ] and the Department of Conservation and Recreationregional office ].

3. C. Approval of biosolids sources. Only exceptional quality biosolids produced from an approved a sludge processing facility approved by the board can be distributed and marketed. Biosolids sold for use as soil amendments or fertilizers must be registered with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Approved sludge processing facilities are those facilities constructed and operated in compliance with required permits. Approved methods of Class I processing for biosolids for distribution or marketing include, but may not be limited to, the methods described in this article.

B. Permits. Any owner who proposes to distribute or market exceptional quality biosolids or materials derived from Class I biosolids (distributor), including soil additives or compost in bulk use quantities, shall be required to obtain a written approval issued by the board. The derived material shall achieve acceptable vector attraction reduction standards and contain acceptable levels of solids and pollutant concentrations in accordance with this regulation. A permit for distribution or marketing is not required provided that an operation permit has been issued for land application of the processed material as part of either an approved sludge management plan (12VAC5-585-140 H) or an approved management practices plan (12VAC5-585-240). Approval of the distribution of bulk use quantities of exceptional quality biosolids is not required for a holder of a valid permit that authorizes distribution in bulk use quantities. All requests for bulk use approval shall be directed initially to the appropriate regional office of the department. The Virginia Department of Health, the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation may participate in the review of such permits involving land application. A permit for distribution of bulk use quantities of biosolids will require the submittal and review of an acceptable distribution information sheet as described in this regulation. The approval of a distribution information sheet for bulk use quantities of exceptional quality biosolids will be issued in the form of a letter of approval of such use by the department's regional offices.

The permittee shall maintain records on the sludge processing facility operation, maintenance and laboratory testing. Records shall be maintained for all samples to include the following: (i) the date and time of sampling, (ii) the sampling methods used, (iii) the date analyses were performed, (iv) the identity of the individual obtaining each sample and the analysts, and (v) the results of all required analyses and measurements. The records shall include all data and calculations used and shall be available to the department for inspections at reasonable times. All required records shall be kept for a minimum of five years.

C. D. Information furnished to all users. Biosolids distributed for public use in Virginia shall have proper identification of the producer and a description of the product including an acceptable statement of quality based on representative analytical testing. This information shall be provided by the owner in either brochures for bulk distribution or by proper labeling on bagged material. Labeling requirements should shall be addressed in [ a an operations biosolids ] management plan or in the operation and maintenance manual for the processing facility. Either a label shall be affixed to the bag or other container in which exceptional quality biosolids is sold or given away for application to the land, or an information sheet shall be provided to the person who receives exceptional quality biosolids. The label or information sheet shall contain the following information:

1. The name and address of the person who prepared the exceptional quality biosolids;

2. A statement that application of the exceptional quality biosolids to the land is prohibited except in accordance with the instructions on the label or information sheet;

3. The annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids that does not cause any of the annual pollutant loading rates inTable 4 Table 5 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 to be exceeded; and

4. Information required in accordance with regulations promulgated under § 3.2-3601 of the Code of Virginiaand with the labeling provisions of § 3.2-3611 of the Code of Virginia ].

Information provided to users of marketed or distributed biosolids should note the following:

(i) the nutrient content,

(ii) the acceptable land application rates,

(iii) the CCE value,

the pH,

(iv) to follow the stated directions for use, and

(v) that for any uses not specified the user should contact the distributor at a listed address or telecommunications number.

D. Distribution information. Distribution information should be maintained by the sludge processing facility owner or holder of a permit for distribution or marketing (distributor) and completed by any single biosolids distributor or user receiving bulk use quantities of marketed or distributed biosolids of more than 50 cubic yards during a period of 24 consecutive hours or less. Copies of this information should be maintained by the sludge processing facility or distributor and be made available upon request by the department. These records should include the following information, as a minimum:

1. Date;

2. Name, address, and phone number of user;

3. Amount of exceptional quality biosolids obtained;  

4. Location and property owner where biosolids are being used;

5. Size of area where biosolids are spread;

6. Proximity of site to closest river or water supply source; and

7. Description of site uses.

Only the information listed in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this subsection shall be necessary for submission by a biosolids distributor.

The department reserves the right to prohibit the distribution of bulk use quantities of biosolids when it appears that such distribution is being accomplished in such a manner so as to circumvent the foregoing requirements.

E. Other uses. The use of a nonhazardous sewage sludge product, such as incinerator ash, will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis as provided for by this regulation.

E. Recordkeeping.

1. The person who prepares exceptional quality biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed inTable 3 Table 4 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 in the biosolids;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, ] under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met.

2. The person who derives the material that meets the criteria of exceptional quality biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed inTable 3 Table 4 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 in the material;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met.

3. If the requirements in 9VAC25-32-356A 4 b B 4 b ] are met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, the person who prepares the biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates inTable 4 Table 5 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 to be exceeded;

b. The concentration of each pollutant listed inTable 4 Table 5 ] of 9VAC25-32-356 in the biosolids;

c. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the managementpractice practices ] in 9VAC25-32-570 E and F, the Class A pathogen requirement in 9VAC25-32-675 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8) ] was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

d. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met; and

e. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met.

F. An annual report shall be submitted to the department that includes the following information:

1. Total amount in dry tons of exceptional quality biosolids distributed in a bag or other container per year;

2. Total amount in dry tons of exceptional quality biosolids distributed in bulk; and

3. Total amount in dry tons of exceptional quality biosolids distributed from each approved source.

9VAC25-32-580

9VAC25-32-580. Sludge disposal.

Permits for sludge disposal practices will be issued through other state and federal regulations and are not subject to this regulation. Such practices may include:

1. Incineration. Emission quality control requirements will be established in accordance with state and federal regulations. The generated ash is required to be properly managed in accordance with local, state and federal regulations. Applicable regulatory requirements in addition to this regulation may involve permits issued by the appropriate state and federal agencies. [ Buffer separation Setback distance ] requirements will be established on a site specific basis in accordance with the applicable regulations.

2. Landfill. Management of stabilized sludge suitable for topdressing of completed landfill areas will be subject to state and federal regulations. Codisposal of sludge within municipal solid waste landfills is subject to state and federal regulation. Codisposal requirements have included:

a. Stabilization treatment of sludges.

b. Dewatering of sludges by methods designed to achieve a suspended solids level of 20% or more, or a treated sludge sample passes the paint filter test standards for free water.

c. A nonhazardous declaration from the owner.

3. Lagooning (surface disposal). When these facilities are closed by burying the wastes in place, they may be considered to be surface disposal sites. A closure plan shall be provided to the appropriate agencies.

4. Dedicated sites. The primary purpose of surface disposal sites is to allow frequent long-term sludge application at a single location at amounts that exceed agronomic rates but not for the purpose of reclaiming disturbed soils. Sludge disposal operations on dedicated sites will be subject to local, state and federal regulations including site management practices. Permits will be issued through state and federal regulations to protect public health and the quality of state waters. Any dedicated site may be subject to local zoning requirements and may be recorded as a dedicated site in the appropriate circuit court deed book (Table A-1) by filing a Sludge Disposal Site Dedication Form.

9VAC25-32-590

9VAC25-32-590. Standards for agricultural use. (Repealed.)

A. Standards for agricultural use of sewage sludge as biosolids have been established such that the concentrations of sludge contaminants released to the environment will not exceed the human health and environmental quality criterion for the relevant exposure pathways.

B. Agricultural use standards involve regulation of the following:

1. Sludge characteristics as determined from sampling and testing as well as control of sewer use.

2. Sludge treatment (stabilization) in relation to process design and operational controls (Table 3).

3. Site management in relation to land application of biosolids for agronomic use, including (i) operational methods, (ii) access restrictions, and (iii) buffer restrictions.

4. Crop management in relation to land application of biosolids and crop rotation, including (i) application rate determinations, and (ii) crop use restrictions.

5. Standards for biosolids characteristics including (i) nutrient concentrations, (ii) heavy metal concentrations, (iii) organic chemical concentrations, and (iv) lime content/pH characteristics.

6. Standards for processing biosolids involving treatment process sequences for (i) pathogen reduction treatment and (ii) reduction of organic matter to minimize odors and reduce vector attraction.

9VAC25-32-600

9VAC25-32-600. Biosolids characteristics; nutrients; trace elements; organic chemicals. (Repealed.)

A. The primary agronomic value of biosolids, the nutrient content, shall be established prior to agricultural use. The applied nitrogen and phosphorous content of biosolids shall be limited to amounts established to support crop growth. Nitrate nitrogen developed as a result of biosolids application shall be controlled in order not to accumulate in groundwater as a pollutant. Thus, the amount of biosolids applied to land shall be restricted based on the nitrogen requirements of the crop grown on the amended site immediately following application (agronomic rate). In addition, soil erosion and site runoff should not result in phosphorous pollution of surface waters as a result of surface application of biosolids. The results of approved groundwater monitoring programs may be utilized to verify frequent application rates.

B. The heavy metal content of biosolids may restrict the application rate below the agronomic rate. However, municipal biosolids would not normally contain excessive heavy metal concentrations unless a significant amount of a high metal content wastewater without pretreatment is routinely discharged into the municipal system. If a biosolid contains heavy metal concentrations below the ceiling values listed in Table 7, or is processed and evaluated as exceptional quality biosolids, the application rate for agricultural use shall be unrestricted up to the agronomic rate for infrequent applications. The accumulated amount of trace elements can restrict the application rate for frequent applications of biosolids.

C. Municipal biosolids can contain synthetic organic chemicals from industrial wastewater contributions and disposal of household chemicals and pesticides. Municipal biosolids typically contain very low levels of these compounds; however, biosolids may be required to be tested for certain toxic organic compounds prior to agricultural use (Table 12). If performed and validated, these test results shall be utilized to evaluate the maximum allowable annual loading rate for the tested biosolids. If analytical test results verify that biosolids contains levels of organic chemicals exceeding concentration limits incorporated in federal regulations or standards, appropriate restrictions shall be imposed for agricultural use of that biosolid.

9VAC25-32-610

9VAC25-32-610. Biosolids treatment. (Repealed.)

A. Stabilization. Biosolids treatment processes are primarily designed to increase the solids content of the biosolids by separation and removal of liquid and are designed to stabilize the solid fraction through biochemical conversions that inactivate pathogens and reduce vector attraction characteristics and the potential for odor production. Such treatment should be designed to improve the characteristics of the biosolids for a particular use/disposal practice, increase the economic viability of using a particular practice and reduce the potential for public health, environmental and nuisance problems.

B. Class I treatment. Class I treatment may be achieved by process sequences to further reduce (PFRP) or eliminate pathogens, i.e., Class A pathogen control. Class I treatment methods reduce all pathogens potentially contained in biosolids or septage to a level below specified limits (Table 3). Class A microbiological standards and an acceptable solids content shall be achieved at the time biosolids are used or prepared for distribution or marketing in accordance with the appropriate management practices specified in this regulation. Class I treatment processes should include one or more of the following operations:

1. Heat treatment. The temperature of the biosolids that is used or disposed is maintained at a specific value for a specified period of time:

a. When the percent solids of the biosolids is 7.0% or higher, the temperature of the biosolids shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 20 minutes or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation B-1, except when small particles of biosolids are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid.

Equation B-1: D1 = (131,700,000)/ 10(exp 0.1400(t))

Where,

D1 = time in days that biosolids temperature is t or more

t = Biosolids temperature in degrees Celsius (°C).

exp = exponent or power that Base 10 is raised to.

b. When the percent solids of the biosolids is 7.0% or higher and small particles of biosolids are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid, the temperature of the biosolids shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 15 seconds or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation B-1.

c. When the percent solids of the biosolids is less than 7.0% and the time period is at least 15 seconds, but less than 30 minutes, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation B-1.

d. When the percent solids of the biosolids is less than 7.0% the temperature of the biosolids is 50°C or higher; and time period is 30 minutes or longer, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation B-2.

Equation B-2: D2 = (50,070,000)/ 10(exp 0.1400(t))

Where,

D2 = time in days that biosolids temperature is t or more

t = Biosolids temperature in degrees Celsius (°C).

e. The temperature of the biosolids is maintained at 70°C or higher for a time period of 30 minutes or longer (Pasteurization).

2. Heat drying. A process wherein dewatered biosolids cake is dried by direct or indirect contact with hot gases and the biosolids moisture content is reduced to 10% or lower. Direct drying is achieved when the biosolids particles reach temperatures of 80°C or higher. Indirect drying may involve the temperature of the gas stream measured at the point where the gas stream leaves the dryer. Indirect drying may be achieved when the wetbulb temperature of the gas stream leaving the dryer is in excess of 80°C or the biosolids particles reach temperatures of 80°C or higher.

3. Thermophilic composting. A process using the within-vessel composting method that maintains a treated biosolids temperature of 55°C or greater for three days. A process using the static aerated pile composting method that maintains a treated biosolids temperature of 55°C or greater for three days. A process using the windrow composting method that maintains a treated biosolids temperature at 55°C or greater for at least 15 days during the composting period, and during the indicated high temperature period, there is a minimum of five turnings of the windrow. Operating temperatures are measured at the depth of 30 cm from the surface of the compost mixture. As thermophilic composting processes are less efficient in destroying pathogens than other disinfection processes an additional storage of processed compost up to 30 days or more may be necessary to achieve an adequate level of vector attraction reduction as verified by testing prior to final disposition (Table 3).

4. Thermophilic aerobic digestion. Liquid biosolids consisting of 50% or more waste biological liquid by dry weight, is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain one mg/l or more dissolved oxygen at mid-depth, during a mean cell residence time of 10 days or more at 55°C or more.

5. Alkaline (PFRP) stabilization. Thorough blending of an alkaline additive to digested biosolids in sufficient quantities to produce a mixture pH of 12 or more for a period of 72 hours or more with one of the following: (i) mixture temperature of 55°C for a minimum period of 12 hours, or (ii) mixture temperature of 70°C or more for a minimum period of 30 minutes or more. Such treatment may be followed by storage for an acceptable period of time to dry the mixture to an adequate dry solids content. Alkaline addition to undigested biosolids will be considered on a case-by-case basis with extensive monitoring used to verify the level of pathogen control achieved.

6. Chlorine oxidation. A process of introducing high doses of chlorine (1,000 mg/l to 3,000 mg/l) into the biosolids stream under low pressure (30 psig or more) producing a biosolids pH of four or less in order to achieve Class A microbiological standards (Table 3), followed by acceptable drying to achieve a suspended solids content of 30% or more.

7. Alternative equivalent stabilization processes. The process operating parameters for alternative equivalent stabilization processes (PFRP) should be addressed, case-by-case, based on department evaluation of the results of adequate monitoring and testing programs (Table 3), with input from the USEPA staff, i.e., the Pathogen Equivalency Committee.

C. Class II treatment. Class II treatment may be achieved by process sequences to significantly reduce pathogens (PSRP), i.e., Class B pathogen control. Class II treatment methods reduce bacteria (fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, enterococci) found in the treated biosolids or septage 1 logs or more (32 fold) below the densities found in the raw biosolids to achieve a density of (6.3 log10 per gram of total solids or less (Table 3)). Class B microbiological standards shall be achieved at the time the biosolids are removed and transported for land application in accordance with the management practices specified. Class II treatment processes may include one or more of the following operations:

1. Anaerobic digestion. A process whereby biosolids are maintained in an anaerobic environment for a mean cell residences period ranging from 60 days at 20°C to 15 days at 35°C.

2. Aerobic digestion. A process of agitating biosolids with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions for a mean cell residence period ranging from 60 days at 15°C to 40 days at 20°C.

3. Low-temperature composting. A process using the within-vessel, aerated static pile or windrow composting methods, whereby the temperature of treated biosolids is maintained at a minimum of 40°C for five days. For four hours during this period the operating temperature of the treated biosolids exceeds 55°C. Additional storage of processed compost for 30 days or more may be necessary to provide the necessary level of vector attraction reduction prior to final disposition.

4. Alkaline (PSRP) stabilization. A process where sufficient alkaline additive is blended with unstabilized biosolids to produce a minimum mixture pH of 12 after two hours of contact and a pH of 11.5 or more for 22 additional hours or more, with storage for a period sufficient to produce an acceptable dry solids content as necessary for the method of final disposition.

5. Air drying. Biosolids treated by methods similar to those listed above, but not meeting Class II treatment standards are dried on sand beds or in basins with underdrains for a minimum period of three months, during which time the ambient daily temperature exceeds 0°C and dried biosolids are produced.

D. Additional treatment methods to provide disinfection of treated biosolids. Pathogen treatment processes may be enhanced by providing additional treatment methods to eliminate parasitic worms and ova (EH process sequence). Any of the processes listed below, if added to stabilization processes described previously, will further lower pathogens. Because these processes when used alone do not reduce nuisance odors and the attraction of vectors, they are considered to be supplementary to typical stabilization and pathogen treatment processes.

1. Beta ray irradiation. A process involving the irradiation of biosolids with beta rays at dosages of at least one megarad at 20°C.

2. Gamma ray irradiation. A process involving the irradiation of biosolids with gamma rays from certain isotopes, such as 60Cobalt and 137Cesium, at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at 20°C.

E. Vector attraction reduction parameters. One of the appropriate vector attraction reduction requirements shall be achieved and Class A or B pathogen control obtained when bulk biosolids are applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, reclamation site, lawn or home gardens. One of the appropriate vector attraction reduction requirements shall be met when Class A biosolids are sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land. The following operational methods will achieve the necessary vector attraction reduction requirements:

1. The mass of volatile solids in the biosolids shall be reduced by a minimum of 38% (see calculation procedures in "Environmental Regulations and Technology-Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage Sludge," EPA-625/R-92/013, July 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268).

2. When the 38% volatile solids reduction cannot be met for an anaerobically digested biosolid, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the originally digested biosolids anaerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 40 additional days at a temperature between 30°C and 37°C. When at the end of the 40 days, the volatile solids in the biosolids at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 17%, adequate vector attraction reduction is considered demonstrated for the originally digested biosolids.

3. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement cannot be met for an aerobically digested biosolid, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the originally digested biosolids that has a percent solids of 2.0% or less aerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 30 additional days at 20°C. When at the end of the 30 days, the volatile solids in the biosolids at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 15%, adequate vector attraction reduction is considered demonstrated for the originally digested biosolids.

4. The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for biosolids treated in a Class II or better aerobic process shall be equal to or less than 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) at a temperature of 20°C.

5. Biosolids shall be treated in a Class II or better aerobic process for 14 days or longer. During that time, the temperature of the biosolids shall be higher than 40°C and the average temperature of the biosolids shall be higher than 45°C.

6. The pH of treated biosolids shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for two hours and then at 11.5 or higher for an additional 22 hours. Alkaline stabilization of untreated biosolids shall be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

7. The percent solids of treated biosolids that does not contain unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 75% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

8. The percent solids of treated biosolids that contains unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 90% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

9. For biosolids that are surface applied and incorporated, or injected, below the surface of the land:

a. No significant amount of the biosolids shall be present on the land surface within one hour after the biosolids are injected.

b. When the biosolids that are injected below the surface of the land are Class A with respect to pathogens, the biosolids shall be injected below the land surface within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

c. Biosolids applied to the land surface shall be incorporated into the soil within six hours after application to or placement on the land.

d. When biosolids that are incorporated into the soil are Class A with respect to pathogens, the biosolids shall be applied to or placed on the land within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

10. The pH of untreated domestic septage applied to land shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes prior to application.

9VAC25-32-620

9VAC25-32-620. Site access time restrictions. (Repealed.)

A. Unrestricted access (UA). Biosolids that have undergone Class I treatment to achieve Class A pathogen control may be applied or incorporated into the soil of agricultural lands and immediate public access is permitted. A waiting period is required up to 30 days following application (to allow adhering biosolids to be washed from the foliar portion of the plants by precipitation). This waiting period is required before (i) crops are harvested for human consumption, or (ii) domestic animals are allowed to graze on the site.

B. Restricted access (RA). Following application or incorporation of biosolids that have undergone Class II treatment to achieve Class B pathogen control public access and crop management shall be restricted as follows: (i) access to any site with a high potential for contact with the ground surface (public use) by the general public shall be controlled for a minimum time period of one year, (ii) access to agricultural sites and other sites with a low potential for public exposure shall be controlled for 30 days, (iii) food crops with harvested parts that touch the biosolids/soil mixture and are not totally above the land surface shall not be harvested for 14 months, (iv) food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 20 months following application, when the biosolids remain on the land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil, (v) food crops with subsurface harvested parts shall not be harvested for 38 months following application, when the biosolids remain on the land surface less than four months prior to incorporation, (vi) feeding of harvested crops to animals shall not take place for a total of one month following surface application (two months for lactating dairy livestock), (vii) grazing by animals whose products will or will not be consumed by humans is prevented for at least 30 days (60 days for lactating dairy livestock), and (viii) harvesting turf grass for placement on land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn is prevented for 12 months.

C. Modified Access (MA). If a biosolids processing sequence is used to treat PSRP or PSLP biosolids that eliminates or inactivates helminth eggs (EH), public use access restrictions are reduced to six and eight months respectively, which shall include two summer months. A summary listing of access restrictions is presented in Table 9.

9VAC25-32-630

9VAC25-32-630. Biosolids management for nitrogen loading. (Repealed.)

A. Crop uptake guidelines. 9VAC25-32-560 B 3 states that application rates shall be approved by the board and that nitrogenous substances are often the limiting factoring determining these application rates. The applicant is responsible for providing site specific biosolids loading rates on a field-by-field basis. In cases where nitrogen is the rate limiting constituent, such rates may be justified by determining the predominant soil type in a field and then correlating the appropriate soil productivity group and nitrogen requirement for the proposed crop. Soil test recommendations developed through the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University or the Virginia Water Conservation, Department of Conservation and Recreation may be used for such purposes. Table 10 summarizes the correlation between nitrogen requirement and productivity class for several crops grown and harvested in Virginia. The applicant may also justify site-specific loading rates by documenting historic crop yield records (average of three highest yields in five years of record) or by written verifications from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, the Cooperative Extension Service or Department of Conservation and Recreation Nutrient Management Specialist. Written verification shall accompany a request for higher yield goals than those posted in Table 10.

B. Application rate calculations. For biosolids application, a nitrogen balance must be evaluated to determine the acceptable loading rate. For frequent biosolids application, the evaluation will require an assessment of biosolids mineralization rates for organic nitrogen present in the biosolids for the year it is applied as well as residual organic nitrogen that will be mineralized from previous years' biosolids application. Table 11 summarizes acceptable organic nitrogen mineralization rates and ammonia volatilization rates for various types of biosolids and should be used in computing acceptable nitrogen loading rates unless information is provided to justify other rates. The nitrogen application rate on sites registered in the conservation reserve plan should be established in accordance with those land use restrictions. The application rates for treated septage shall be developed using equation 1 contained in Table 12-B.

9VAC25-32-640

9VAC25-32-640. Maximum application rates for trace elements. (Repealed.)

The maximum cumulative application of cadmium and other biosolids borne trace elements to soils used for crop production is summarized in Table 8. Parameters other than those listed in Tables 8, 9 and 14 can be used to evaluate the application rate of biosolids in accordance with current EPA technical regulations. Exceptional quality biosolids applied to lawns or home gardens in residential areas shall be of such quality so as to conform with the pollutant levels specified in Table 7-B.

9VAC25-32-650

9VAC25-32-650. Maximum application rates for high lime biosolids. (Repealed.)

Application rates for alkaline stabilized biosolids may be restricted in accordance with the soil pH buffer capacity, as determined by commercial and state soil testing laboratories.  The application of biosolids will affect soil pH. Unless properly controlled, high rates of calcium carbonate equivalence (i.e., CCE, which is a factor that relates the liming potential of biosolids to calcium carbonate limestone) application can have an adverse effect on crop productivity by increasing the soil pH beyond the range optimum for maximum crop production. Agricultural use of biosolids with high CCE content should be controlled to correspond with current agricultural liming practices. Calcium carbonate equivalent loadings should not exceed rates designed to attain soil pH values in the plow layer above 6.5 for soils located in the coastal plain and above 6.8 for soils located in other areas of the state.

9VAC25-32-660

9VAC25-32-660. Maximum application rates for biosolids. (Repealed.)

If soils exhibit very high soil test phosphorus of 55 or more parts per million phosphorus (Mehlich I analytical test procedure or equivalent procedure approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation), the maximum application rates for phosphorus contained in biosolids together with phosphorus contained in other applied nutrient sources to the site and all applicable phosphorus management practices shall be consistent with the nutrient management plan.

TABLE 7
A. RECOMMENDED CEILING LIMITS FOR THE TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT OF BIOSOLIDS ACCEPTABLE FOR LAND APPLICATION

TRACE ELEMENT

CONCENTRATION IN MILLIGRAMS PER KILOGRAMS (DRY WEIGHT)

Arsenic

75

Cadmium

85

Copper

4300

Lead

840

Mercury

57

Molybdenum

75

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

7500

B. MAXIMUM MONTHLY AVERAGE TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS FOR APPLICATION OF EXCEPTIONAL QUALITY BIOSOLIDS TO LAWNS OR HOME GARDENS IN RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS

TRACE ELEMENT

CONCENTRATION IN MILLIGRAMS PER KILOGRAMS (DRY WEIGHT)

Arsenic (1)

41

Cadmium

39

Copper

1500

Lead

300

Mercury

17

Molybdenum (1)

 

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

2800

Note: (1)The monthly average concentration is currently under study by USEPA.

 

TABLE 8
MAXIMUM CUMULATIVE APPLICATION OF BIOSOLIDS TRACE ELEMENTS THAT CAN BE APPLIED TO SOILS USED FOR CROP PRODUCTION(1)

TRACE ELEMENT

Kg/ha

(lbs/AC)

Arsenic (2)

41

(36)

Cadmium

39

(35)

Copper

1,500

(1,340)

Lead

300

(270)

Mercury

17

(16)

Molybdenum(2)

 

 

Nickel

420

(375)

Selenium

100

(89)

Zinc

2,800

(2,500)

Notes: (1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)T