12VAC30-70-50. Hospital reimbursement system.
The reimbursement system for hospitals includes the following components:
A. Hospitals were grouped by classes according to number of beds and urban versus rural. (Three groupings for rural - 0 to 100 beds, 101 to 170 beds, and over 170 beds; four groupings for urban - 0 to 100, 101 to 400, 401 to 600, and over 600 beds.) Groupings are similar to those used by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) in determining routine cost limitations.
B. Prospective reimbursement ceilings on allowable operating costs were established as of July 1, 1982, for each grouping. Hospitals with a fiscal year end after June 30, 1982, were subject to the new reimbursement ceilings.
1. The calculation of the initial group ceilings as of July 1, 1982, was based on available, allowable cost data for hospitals in calendar year 1981. Individual hospital operating costs were advanced by a reimbursement escalator from the hospital's year end to July 1, 1982. After this advancement, the operating costs were standardized using SMSA wage indices, and a median was determined for each group. These medians were readjusted by the wage index to set an actual cost ceiling for each SMSA. Therefore, each hospital grouping has a series of ceilings representing one of each SMSA area. The wage index is based on those used by HCFA in computing its Market Basket Index for routine cost limitations.
2. Effective July 1, 1986, and until June 30, 1988, providers subject to the prospective payment system of reimbursement had their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling computed using a new methodology. This method uses an allowance for inflation based on the percent of change in the quarterly average of the Medical Care Index of the Chase Econometrics - Standard Forecast determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began.
3. The prospective operating cost rate is based on the provider's allowable cost from the most recent filed cost report, plus the inflation percentage add-on.
4. The prospective operating cost ceiling is determined by using the base that was in effect for the provider's fiscal year that began between July 1, 1985, and June 1, 1986. The allowance for inflation percent of change for the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began is added to this base to determine the new operating cost ceiling. This new ceiling was effective for all providers on July 1, 1986. For subsequent cost reporting periods beginning on or after July 1, 1986, the last prospective operating rate ceiling determined under this new methodology will become the base for computing the next prospective year ceiling.
5. Effective on and after July 1, 1988, and until June 30, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the moving average of the Data Resources, Incorporated Health Care Cost HCFA-Type Hospital Market Basket determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1988, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.
6. Effective on or after July 1, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the moving average of the Health Care Cost HCFA-Type Hospital Market Basket, adjusted for Virginia, as developed by Data Resources, Incorporated, determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1989, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.
7. Effective on and after July 1, 1992, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation, as described above, which became effective on July 1, 1989, shall be converted to an escalation factor by adding two percentage points, (200 basis points) to the then current allowance for inflation. Effective July 1, 2009, the additional two percentage points shall no longer be included in the escalation factor. The escalation factor shall be applied in accordance with the inpatient hospital reimbursement methodology in effect on June 30, 1992. On July 1, 1992, the conversion to the new escalation factor shall be accomplished by a transition methodology which, for non-June 30 year end hospitals, applies the escalation factor to escalate their payment rates for the months between July 1, 1992, and their next fiscal year ending on or before May 31, 1993.
Effective July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2012, the escalation factor shall be zero. In addition, ceilings shall remain at the same level as the ceilings for long stay hospitals with fiscal year's end of June 30, 2010.
8. The new method will still require comparison of the prospective operating cost rate to the prospective operating ceiling. The provider is allowed the lower of the two amounts subject to the lower of cost or charges principles.
C. Subsequent to June 30, 1992, the group ceilings shall not be recalculated on allowable costs, but shall be updated by the escalator factor.
D. Prospective rates for each hospital shall be based upon the hospital's allowable costs plus the escalator factor, or the appropriate ceilings, or charges; whichever is lower. Except to eliminate costs that are found to be unallowable, no retrospective adjustment shall be made to prospective rates.
Depreciation, capital interest, and education costs approved pursuant to PRM-15 (§ 400), shall be considered as pass throughs and not part of the calculation. Capital interest is reimbursed the percentage of allowable cost specified in 12VAC30-70-271.
E. An incentive plan should be established whereby a hospital
will be paid on a sliding scale, percentage for percentage, up to
of the difference between allowable operating costs and the appropriate per
diem group ceiling when the operating costs are below the ceilings. The
incentive should be calculated based on the annual cost report. The table below presents three examples under the new plan:
F. There will be special consideration for exception to the median operating cost limits in those instances where extensive neonatal care is provided.
G. Disproportionate share hospitals defined. The following criteria shall be met before a hospital is determined to be eligible for a disproportionate share payment adjustment.
a. A Medicaid inpatient utilization rate in excess of
10.5% for hospitals receiving Medicaid payments in the Commonwealth, or
a low-income patient utilization rate exceeding 25% (as defined in the Omnibus
Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and as amended by the Medicare Catastrophic
Coverage Act of 1988); and
b. At least two obstetricians with staff privileges at the hospital who have agreed to provide obstetric services to individuals entitled to such services under a State Medicaid plan. In the case of a hospital located in a rural area (that is, an area outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Executive Office of Management and Budget), the term "obstetrician" includes any physician with staff privileges at the hospital to perform nonemergency obstetric procedures.
c. Subdivision 1 b of this subsection does not apply to a hospital:
(1) At which the inpatients are predominantly individuals under 18 years of age; or
(2) Which does not offer nonemergency obstetric services as of December 21, 1987.
2. Payment adjustment.
a. Hospitals which have a disproportionately higher level of
Medicaid patients shall be allowed a disproportionate share payment adjustment
based on the type of hospital and on the individual hospital's Medicaid
utilization. There shall be two types of hospitals: (i) Type One, consisting of
state-owned teaching hospitals, and (ii) Type Two, consisting of all other
hospitals. The Medicaid utilization shall be determined by dividing the number
of utilization Medicaid inpatient days by the total number of inpatient days.
Each hospital with a Medicaid utilization of over
shall receive a disproportionate share payment adjustment.
b. For Type One hospitals, the disproportionate share payment
adjustment shall be equal to the product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid
utilization in excess of
8.0% 10.5%, times 11, times (ii) the
lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling. For Type Two
hospitals, the disproportionate share payment adjustment shall be equal to the
product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid utilization in excess of 8.0% 10.5%
times (ii) the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling.
c. No payments made under subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection shall exceed any applicable limitations upon such payments established by federal law or regulations.
H. Outlier adjustments.
1. DMAS shall pay to all enrolled hospitals an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally high costs for individuals under one year of age.
2. DMAS shall pay to disproportionate share hospitals (as
paragraph subsection G above of this section)
an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient
hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally
high costs for individuals under six years of age.
3. The outlier adjustment calculation.
a. Each eligible hospital which desires to be considered for the adjustment shall submit a log which contains the information necessary to compute the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above. This log shall contain all Medicaid claims for such individuals, including, but not limited to: (i) the patient's name and Medicaid identification number; (ii) dates of service; (iii) the remittance date paid; (iv) the number of covered days; and (v) total charges for the length of stay. Each hospital shall then calculate the per diem operating cost (which excludes capital and education) of treating such patients by multiplying the charge for each patient by the Medicaid operating cost-to-charge ratio determined from its annual cost report.
b. Each eligible hospital shall calculate the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above. Any hospital which qualifies for the extensive neonatal care provision (as governed by paragraph F, above) shall calculate a separate mean for the cost of providing extensive neonatal care to individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above.
c. Each eligible hospital shall calculate its threshold for payment of the adjustment, at a level equal to two and one-half standard deviations above the mean or means calculated in subdivision H 3 (ii) above.
d. DMAS shall pay as an outlier adjustment to each eligible hospital all per diem operating costs which exceed the applicable threshold or thresholds for that hospital.
4. Pursuant to 12VAC30-50-100, there is no limit on length of time for medically necessary stays for individuals under six years of age. This section provides that consistent with 42 CFR 441.57, payment of medical assistance services shall be made on behalf of individuals under 21 years of age, who are Medicaid eligible, for medically necessary stays in acute care facilities in excess of 21 days per admission when such services are rendered for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment of health conditions identified through a physical examination. Medical documentation justifying admission and the continued length of stay must be attached to or written on the invoice for review by medical staff to determine medical necessity. Medically unjustified days in such admissions will be denied.
12VAC30-80-20. Services that are reimbursed on a cost basis.
A. Payments for services listed below shall be on the basis of reasonable cost following the standards and principles applicable to the Title XVIII Program with the exception provided for in subdivision D 2 d. The upper limit for reimbursement shall be no higher than payments for Medicare patients on a facility by facility basis in accordance with 42 CFR 447.321 and 42 CFR 447.325. In no instance, however, shall charges for beneficiaries of the program be in excess of charges for private patients receiving services from the provider. The professional component for emergency room physicians shall continue to be uncovered as a component of the payment to the facility.
B. Reasonable costs will be determined from the filing of a uniform cost report by participating providers. The cost reports are due not later than 90 days after the provider's fiscal year end. If a complete cost report is not received within 90 days after the end of the provider's fiscal year, the Program shall take action in accordance with its policies to assure that an overpayment is not being made. The cost report will be judged complete when DMAS has all of the following:
1. Completed cost reporting form(s) provided by DMAS, with signed certification(s);
2. The provider's trial balance showing adjusting journal entries;
3. The provider's financial statements including, but not limited to, a balance sheet, a statement of income and expenses, a statement of retained earnings (or fund balance), and a statement of changes in financial position;
4. Schedules that reconcile financial statements and trial balance to expenses claimed in the cost report;
5. Depreciation schedule or summary;
6. Home office cost report, if applicable; and
7. Such other analytical information or supporting documents requested by DMAS when the cost reporting forms are sent to the provider.
C. Item 398 D of the 1987 Appropriation Act (as amended), effective April 8, 1987, eliminated reimbursement of return on equity capital to proprietary providers.
D. The services that are cost reimbursed are:
1. Inpatient hospital services to persons over 65 years of age in tuberculosis and mental disease hospitals.
2. Outpatient hospital services excluding laboratory.
a. Definitions. The following words and terms when used in this regulation shall have the following meanings when applied to emergency services unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"All-inclusive" means all emergency department and ancillary service charges claimed in association with the emergency room visit, with the exception of laboratory services.
"DMAS" means the Department of Medical Assistance Services consistent with Chapter 10 (§et seq.) of Title 32.1 of the Code of Virginia.
"Emergency hospital services" means services that are necessary to prevent the death or serious impairment of the health of the recipient. The threat to the life or health of the recipient necessitates the use of the most accessible hospital available that is equipped to furnish the services.
"Recent injury" means an injury that has occurred less than 72 hours prior to the emergency department visit.
b. Scope. DMAS shall differentiate, as determined by the attending physician's diagnosis, the kinds of care routinely rendered in emergency departments and reimburse for nonemergency care rendered in emergency departments at a reduced rate.
(1) With the exception of laboratory services, DMAS shall reimburse at a reduced and all-inclusive reimbursement rate for all services, including those obstetric and pediatric procedures contained in 12VAC30-80-160, rendered in emergency departments that DMAS determines were nonemergency care.
(2) Services determined by the attending physician to be emergencies shall be reimbursed under the existing methodologies and at the existing rates.
(3) Services performed by the attending physician that may be emergencies shall be manually reviewed. If such services meet certain criteria, they shall be paid under the methodology for subdivision 2 b (2) of this subsection. Services not meeting certain criteria shall be paid under the methodology of subdivision 2 b (1) of this subsection. Such criteria shall include, but not be limited to:
(a) The initial treatment following a recent obvious injury.
(b) Treatment related to an injury sustained more than 72 hours prior to the visit with the deterioration of the symptoms to the point of requiring medical treatment for stabilization.
(c) The initial treatment for medical emergencies including indications of severe chest pain, dyspnea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, spontaneous abortion, loss of consciousness, status epilepticus, or other conditions considered life threatening.
(d) A visit in which the recipient's condition requires immediate hospital admission or the transfer to another facility for further treatment or a visit in which the recipient dies.
(e) Services provided for acute vital sign changes as specified in the provider manual.
(f) Services provided for severe pain when combined with one or more of the other guidelines.
(4) Payment shall be determined based on ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and necessary supporting documentation.
(5) DMAS shall review on an ongoing basis the effectiveness of this program in achieving its objectives and for its effect on recipients, physicians, and hospitals. Program components may be revised subject to achieving program intent, the accuracy and effectiveness of the ICD-9-CM code designations, and the impact on recipients and providers.
c. Limitation to 80% of allowable cost. Effective for services on and after July 1, 2003, reimbursement of Type Two hospitals for outpatient services shall be at 80% of allowable cost, with cost to be determined as provided in subsections A, B, and C of this section. For hospitals with fiscal years that do not begin on July 1, 2003, outpatient costs, both operating and capital, for the fiscal year in progress on that date shall be apportioned between the time period before and the time period after that date, based on the number of calendar months in the cost reporting period, falling before and after that date. Operating costs apportioned before that date shall be settled according to the principles in effect before that date, and those after at 80% of allowable cost. Capital costs apportioned before that date shall be settled according to the principles in effect before that date, and those after at 80% of allowable cost. Operating and capital costs of Type One hospitals shall continue to be reimbursed at 94.2% and 90% of cost respectively.
d. Outpatient reimbursement methodology prior to July 1, 2003. DMAS shall continue to reimburse for outpatient hospital services, with the exception of direct graduate medical education for interns and residents, at 100% of reasonable costs less a 10% reduction for allowable capital costs and a 5.8% reduction for allowable operating costs. This methodology shall continue to be in effect after July 1, 2003, for Type One hospitals.
e. Payment for direct medical education costs of nursing schools, paramedical programs and graduate medical education for interns and residents.
(1) Direct medical education costs of nursing schools and paramedical programs shall continue to be paid on an allowable cost basis.
(2) Effective with cost reporting periods beginning on or after July 1, 2002, direct graduate medical education (GME) costs for interns and residents shall be reimbursed on a per-resident prospective basis. See 12VAC30-70-281 for prospective payment methodology for graduate medical education for interns and residents.
3. Rehabilitation agencies
operated by community services
boards. For reimbursement methodology applicable to other rehabilitation
agencies, see 12VAC30-80-200. Reimbursement for physical therapy, occupational
therapy, and speech-language therapy services shall not be provided for any
sums that the rehabilitation provider collects, or is entitled to collect, from
the NF or any other available source, and provided further, that this amendment
shall in no way diminish any obligation of the NF to DMAS to provide its
residents such services, as set forth in any applicable provider agreement or
comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities.
a. Effective July 1, 2009, rehabilitation agencies or comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities that are operated by community services boards or state agencies shall be reimbursed their costs. For reimbursement methodology applicable to all other rehabilitation agencies, see 12VAC30-80-200.
4. Rehabilitation hospital outpatient services.
12VAC30-80-200. Prospective reimbursement for rehabilitation agencies or comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities.
A. Rehabilitation agencies or comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facilities.
1. Effective for dates of service on and after July 1,
2009, rehabilitation agencies or comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation
facilities, excluding those operated by community services boards
or state agencies, shall be reimbursed a prospective rate equal to the
lesser of the agency's fee schedule amount or billed charges per procedure. The
agency shall develop a statewide fee schedule based on CPT codes to reimburse
providers what the agency estimates they would have been paid in FY 2010 minus
B. Reimbursement for rehabilitation agencies subject to the new fee schedule methodology.
For providers with 1. Payments for the fiscal years
that do not begin on July 1, 2009, services on or before year ending or
in progress on June 30, 2009, for the fiscal year in progress on that
date shall be settled for private rehabilitation agencies based on
the previous prospective rate methodology and the ceilings in effect for that
fiscal year as of June 30, 2009.
C. Rehabilitation services furnished by community service
boards or state agencies shall be reimbursed costs based on annual cost
reporting methodology and procedures. D. C. Beginning with state fiscal years
beginning on or after July 1, 2010, rates shall be adjusted annually for
inflation using the Virginia-specific nursing home input price index contracted
for by the agency. The agency shall use the percent moving average for the
quarter ending at the midpoint of the rate year from the most recently
available index prior to the beginning of the rate year.
D. Reimbursement for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language therapy services shall not be provided for any sums that the rehabilitation provider collects, or is entitled to collect, from the nursing facility or any other available source, and provided further, that this subsection shall in no way diminish any obligation of the nursing facility to DMAS to provide its residents such services, as set forth in any applicable provider agreement.
E. Effective July 1, 2010, there will be no inflation adjustment for outpatient rehabilitation facilities through June 30, 2012.