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12VAC5-381-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Activities of daily living (ADLs)" means bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, bowel control, bladder control and eating/feeding. A person''s degree of independence in performing these activities is part of determining the appropriate level of care and services. A need for assistance exists when the client is unable to complete an activity due to cognitive impairment, functional disability, physical health problems, or safety. The client''s functional level is based on the client''s need for assistance most or all of the time to perform personal care tasks in order to live independently.

"Administer" means the direct application of a controlled substance, whether by injection, inhalation, ingestion or any other means, to the body of a client by (i) a practitioner or by his authorized agent and under his direction or (ii) the client at the direction and in the presence of the practitioner as defined in §54.1-3401 of the Code of Virginia.

"Administrator" means a person designated in writing by the governing body as having the necessary authority for the day-to-day management of the organization. The administrator must be an employee of the organization. The administrator, the director of nursing, or other clinical director may be the same individual if that individual is dually qualified.

"Available at all times during operating hours" means an individual is readily available on the premises or by telecommunications.

"Barrier crimes" means certain offenses, specified in §32.1-162.9:1 of the Code of Virginia, that automatically bar an individual convicted of those offenses from employment with a home care organization.

"Chore services" means assistance with nonroutine, heavy home maintenance for persons unable to perform such tasks. Chore services include minor repair work on furniture and appliances; carrying coal, wood and water; chopping wood; removing snow; yard maintenance; and painting.

"Client record" means the centralized location for documenting information about the client and the care and services provided to the client by the organization. A client record is a continuous and accurate account of care or services, whether hard copy or electronic, provided to a client, including information that has been dated and signed by the individuals who prescribed or delivered the care or service.

"Client''s residence" means the place where the individual or client makes his home such as his own apartment or house, a relative''s home or an assisted living facility, but does not include a hospital, nursing facility or other extended care facility.

"Commissioner" means the State Health Commissioner.

"Companion services" means assisting persons unable to care for themselves without assistance. Companion services include transportation, meal preparation, shopping, light housekeeping, companionship, and household management.

"Contract services" means services provided through agreement with another agency, organization, or individual on behalf of the organization. The agreement specifies the services or personnel to be provided on behalf of the organization and the fees to provide these services or personnel.

"Criminal record report" means the statement issued by the Central Criminal Record Exchange, Virginia Department of State Police.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Health.

"Discharge or termination summary" means a final written summary filed in a closed client record of the service delivered, goals achieved and final disposition at the time of client''s discharge or termination from service.

"Dispense" means to deliver a drug to an ultimate user by or pursuant to the lawful order of a practitioner, including the prescribing and administering, packaging, labeling or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for that delivery.

"Drop site" means a location that HCO staff use in the performance of daily tasks such as obtaining supplies, using fax and copy machines, charting notes on care or services provided, and storing client records. These locations may also be called charting stations, workstations, or convenience sites.

"Employee" means an individual who has the status of an employee as defined by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.

"Functional limitations" means the level of a client''s need for assistance based on an assessment conducted by the supervising nurse. There are three criteria to assessing functional status: (i) the client''s impairment level and need for personal assistance, (ii) the client''s lack of capacity, and (iii) how the client usually performed the activity over a period of time. If a person is mentally and physically free of impairment, there is not a safety risk to the individual, or the person chooses not to complete an activity due to personal preference or choice, then that person does not need assistance.

"Governing body" means the individual, group or governmental agency that has legal responsibility and authority over the operation of the home care organization.

"Home attendant" means a nonlicensed individual performing skilled, pharmaceutical and personal care services, under the supervision of the appropriate health professional, to a client in the client''s residence. Home attendants are also known as certified nurse aides or CNAs, home care aides, home health aides, or personal care aides.

"Home care organization" or "HCO" means a public or private entity providing an organized program of home health, pharmaceutical or personal care services, according to §32.1-162.1 of the Code of Virginia in the residence of a client or individual to maintain the client''s health and safety in his home. A home care organization does not include any family members, relatives or friends providing caregiving services to persons who need assistance to remain independent and in their own homes.

"Home health agency" means a public or private agency or organization, or part of an agency or organization, that meets the requirements for participation in Medicare under 42 CFR 440.70 (d), by providing skilled nursing services and at least one other therapeutic service, e.g., physical, speech or occupational therapy; medical social services; or home health aide services, and also meets the capitalization requirements under 42 CFR 489.28.

"Homemaker services" means assistance to persons with the inability to perform one or more instrumental activities of daily living. Homemaker services may also include assistance with bathing areas the client cannot reach, fastening client''s clothing, combing hair, brushing dentures, shaving with an electric razor, and providing stabilization to a client while walking. Homemaker services do not include feeding, bed baths, transferring, lifting, putting on braces or other supports, cutting nails or shaving with a blade.

"Infusion therapy" means the procedures or processes that involve the administration of injectable medications to clients via the intravenous, subcutaneous, epidural, or intrathecal routes. Infusion therapy does not include oral, enteral, or topical medications.

"Instrumental activities of daily living" means meal preparation, housekeeping/light housework, shopping for personal items, laundry, or using the telephone. A client''s degree of independence in performing these activities is part of determining the appropriate level of care and services.

"Licensed practical nurse" means a person who holds a current license issued by the Virginia Board of Nursing or a current multistate licensure privilege to practice nursing in Virginia as a licensed practical nurse.

"Licensee" means a licensed home care provider.

"Medical plan of care" means a written plan of services, and items needed to treat a client''s medical condition, that is prescribed, signed and periodically reviewed by the client''s primary care physician.

"Nursing services" means client care services, including, but not limited to, the curative, restorative, or preventive aspects of nursing that are performed or supervised by a registered nurse according to a medical plan of care.

"OLC" means the Office of Licensure and Certification of the Virginia Department of Health.

"Operator" means any individual, partnership, association, trust, corporation, municipality, county, local government agency or any other legal or commercial entity that is responsible for the day-to-day administrative management and operation of the organization.

"Organization" means a home care organization.

"Person" means any individual, partnership, association, trust, corporation, municipality, county, local government agency or any other legal or commercial entity that operates a home care organization.

"Personal care services" means the provision of nonskilled services, including assistance in the activities of daily living, and may include instrumental activities of daily living, related to the needs of the client, who has or is at risk of an illness, injury or disabling condition. A need for assistance exists when the client is unable to complete an activity due to cognitive impairment, functional disability, physical health problems, or safety. The client''s functional level is based on the client''s need for assistance most or all of the time to perform the tasks of daily living in order to live independently.

"Primary care physician" means a physician licensed in Virginia, according to Chapter 29 (§54.1-2900 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia, or licensed in an adjacent state and identified by the client as having the primary responsibility in determining the delivery of the client''s medical care. The responsibility of physicians contained in this chapter may be implemented by nurse practitioners or physician assistants as assigned by the supervising physician and within the parameters of professional licensing.

"Qualified" means meeting current legal requirements of licensure, registration or certification in Virginia or having appropriate training, including competency testing, and experience commensurate with assigned responsibilities.

"Quality improvement" means ongoing activities designed to objectively and systematically evaluate the quality of client care and services, pursue opportunities to improve client care and services, and resolve identified problems. Quality improvement is an approach to the ongoing study and improvement of the processes of providing health care services to meet the needs of clients and others.

"Registered nurse" means a person who holds a current license issued by the Virginia Board of Nursing or a current multistate licensure privilege to practice nursing in Virginia as a registered nurse.

"Service area" means a clearly delineated geographic area in which the organization arranges for the provision of home care services, personal care services, or pharmaceutical services to be available and readily accessible to persons.

"Skilled services" means the provision of the home health services listed in 12VAC5-381-300.

"Supervision" means the ongoing process of monitoring the skills, competencies and performance of the individual supervised and providing regular, documented, face-to-face guidance and instruction.

"Surety bond" means a consumer safeguard that directly protects clients from injuries and losses resulting from the negligent or criminal acts of contractors of the home care organization that are not covered under the organization''s liability insurance. A fidelity type of surety bond, which covers dishonest acts such as larceny, theft, embezzlement, forgery, misappropriation, wrongful abstraction or willful misapplication, will meet the requirements of surety bond coverage for the purposes of this chapter.

"Sworn disclosure statement" means a document disclosing an applicant''s criminal convictions and pending criminal charges occurring in Virginia or any other state.

"The center" means the Center for Quality Health Care Services and Consumer Protection of the Virginia Department of Health.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-20. License.

A. A license to operate a home care organization is issued to a person. Persons planning to seek federal certification or national accreditation pursuant to §32.1-162.8 of the Code of Virginia must first obtain state licensure.

B. The commissioner shall issue or renew a license to establish or operate a home care organization if the commissioner finds that the home care organization is in compliance with the law and this regulation.

C. A separate license shall be required for home care organizations maintained at separate locations, even though they are owned or are operated under the same management.

D. Every home care organization shall be designated by an appropriate name. The name shall not be changed without first notifying the center OLC.

E. Licenses shall not be transferred or assigned.

F. Any person establishing, conducting, maintaining, or operating a home care organization without a license shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony according to §32.1-162.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-30. Exemption from licensure.

A. This chapter is not applicable to those individuals and home care organizations listed in §32.1-162.8 of the Code of Virginia. Organizations planning to seek federal certification as a home health agency or national accreditation must first obtain state licensure and provide services to clients before applying for national accreditation or federal certification.

In addition, this chapter is not applicable to those providers of only homemaker, chore or companion services as defined in 12VAC5-381-10.

B. A licensed organization requesting exemption must file a written request and pay the required fee stated in 12VAC5-381-70 D.

C. The home care organization shall be notified in writing if the exemption from licensure has been granted. The basis for the exemption approval will be stated and the organization will be advised to contact the center OLC to request licensure should it no longer meet the requirement for exemption.

D. Exempted organizations are subject to complaint investigations in keeping with state law.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-40. License application; initial and renewal.

A. The center OLC provides prelicensure consultation and technical assistance regarding the licensure process. The purpose of such consultation is to explain the regulation and the survey process. Prelicensure consultations are arranged after a completed initial application is on file with the center OLC.

B. Licensure applications are obtained from the center OLC. The center OLC shall consider an application complete when all requested information and the appropriate fee, stated in 12VAC5-381-70, is submitted. If the center OLC finds the application incomplete, the applicant will be notified in writing.

C. The activities and services of each applicant and licensee shall be subject to an inspection by the center OLC to determine if the organization is in compliance with the provisions of this chapter and state law.

D. A completed application for initial licensure must be submitted at least 60 days prior to the organization''s planned opening date to allow the center OLC time to process the application. An incomplete application shall become inactive six months after it is received by the center OLC. Applicants must then reapply for licensure with a completed application and application fee. An application for a license may be withdrawn at any time.

E. Licenses are renewed annually. The center OLC shall make renewal applications available at least 60 days prior to the expiration date of the current license.

F. It is the home care organization''s responsibility to complete and return a renewal application to assure timely processing. Should a current license expire before a new license is issued, the current license shall remain in effect provided a complete and accurate application was filed on time.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-60. Changes to or reissue of a license.

A. It is the responsibility of the organization''s governing body to maintain a current and accurate license. Licenses that are misplaced or lost must be replaced.

B. An organization shall give written notification 30 working days in advance of any proposed changes that may require the reissuance of a license. Notices shall be sent to the attention of the Director director of the Center for Quality Health Care Services and Consumer Protection OLC.

The following changes require the reissuance of a license and payment of a fee:

1. Operator;

2. Organization name; or

3. Address.

C. The center OLC will evaluate written information about any planned changes in operation that affect the terms of the license or the continuing eligibility for a license. A licensing representative may inspect the organization during the process of evaluating a proposed change.

D. The organization will be notified in writing whether a new application is needed.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-70. Fees.

A. The Center OLC shall collect a fee of $500 for each initial and renewal license application. Fees shall accompany the licensure application and are not refundable.

B. An additional late fee of $50 shall be collected for an organization''s failure to file a renewal application by the date specified.

C. A processing fee of $250 shall be collected for each reissuance or replacement of a license and shall accompany the written request for reissuance or replacement.

D. A one time processing fee of $75 for exemption from licensure shall accompany the written exemption request.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-80. On-site inspections.

A. A center An OLC representative shall make periodic unannounced on-site inspections of each home care organization as necessary but not less often than biennially. The organization shall be responsible for correcting any deficiencies found during any on-site inspection. Compliance with all standards will be determined by the center OLC according to applicable law.

B. The home care organization shall make available to the center''s OLC's representative any necessary records and shall allow access to interview the agents, employees, contractors, and any person under the organization''s control, direction or supervision.

C. After the on-site inspection, the center''s OLC's representative shall discuss the findings of the inspection with the administrator or his designee.

D. The administrator shall submit, within 15 working days of receipt of the inspection report, an acceptable plan for correcting any deficiencies found. The plan of correction shall contain:

1. A description of the corrective action or actions to be taken and the personnel to implement the corrective action;

2. The expected correction date;

3. A description of the measures implemented to prevent a recurrence of the violation; and

4. The signature of the person responsible for the validity of the report.

E. The administrator will be notified whenever any item in the plan of correction is determined to be unacceptable.

F. The administrator shall be responsible for assuring the plan of correction is implemented and monitored so that compliance is maintained.

G. Completion of corrective actions shall not exceed 45 working days from the last day of the inspection.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-90. Home visits.

A. As part of any inspection, a center an OLC representative may conduct home visits.

B. The home care organization shall be responsible for arranging in-home visits with clients, family members, and caregivers for the center''s OLC representative.

C. The organization shall explain clearly to the client, family or caretaker that the permission for the representative''s home visit is voluntary and that consent to the home visit will not affect the client''s care or other health benefits.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-100. Complaint investigations conducted by the center OLC.

A. The center OLC has the responsibility to investigate any complaints regarding alleged violations of this chapter and applicable law.

B. Complaints may be received in writing or orally and may be anonymous.

C. When the investigation is complete, the licensee and the complainant, if known, will be notified of the findings of the investigation.

D. As applicable, the administrator shall submit, within 15 working days of receipt of the complaint report, an acceptable plan of correction for any deficiencies found during a complaint investigation. The plan of correction shall contain:

1. A description of the corrective action or actions to be taken and the personnel to implement the corrective action;

2. The expected correction date;

3. A description of the measures implemented to prevent a recurrence of the violation; and

4. The signature of the person responsible for the validity of the report.

E. The administrator will be notified in writing whenever any item in the plan of correction is determined to be unacceptable.

F. The administrator shall be responsible for assuring the plan of correction is implemented and monitored so that compliance is maintained.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-120. Variances.

A. The center OLC can authorize variances only to its own licensing regulations, not to regulations of another agency or to any requirements in federal, state, or local laws.

B. A home care organization may request a variance to a particular regulation or requirement contained in this chapter when the standard or requirement poses a special hardship and when a variance to it would not endanger the safety or well-being of clients. The request for a variance must describe how compliance with the current regulation is economically burdensome and constitutes a special hardship to the home care organization and to the clients it serves. When applicable, the request should include proposed alternatives to meet the purpose of the requirements that will ensure the protection and well-being of clients. At no time shall a variance approved for one individual be extended to general applicability. The home care organization may at any time withdraw a request for a variance.

C. The center OLC shall have the authority to waive, either temporarily or permanently, the enforcement of one or more of these regulations provided safety, client care and services are not adversely affected.

D. The center OLC may rescind or modify a variance if (i) conditions change; (ii) additional information becomes known that alters the basis for the original decision; (iii) the organization fails to meet any conditions attached to the variance; or (iv) results of the variance jeopardize the safety, comfort, or well-being of clients.

E. Consideration of a variance is initiated when a written request is submitted to the Director, Center for Quality Health Care Services and Consumer Protection OLC. The center OLC shall notify the home care organization in writing of the receipt of the request for a variance. The center OLC may attach conditions to a variance to protect the safety and well-being of the client.

F. The licensee shall be notified in writing if the requested variance is denied.

G. If a variance is denied, expires, or is rescinded, routine enforcement of the regulation or portion of the regulation shall be resumed.

H. The home care organization shall develop procedures for monitoring the implementation of any approved variances to assure the ongoing collection of any data relevant to the variance and the presentation of any later report concerning the variance as requested by the center OLC.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; Errata, 22:4 VA.R. 659 October 31, 2005; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-140. Return of a license.

A. Circumstances under which a license must be returned include, but are not limited to (i) transfer of ownership and (ii) discontinuation of services.

B. The licensee shall notify its clients and the center OLC, in writing, 30 days before discontinuing services.

C. If the organization is no longer operational, or the license has been suspended or revoked, the license shall be returned to the center OLC within five working days. The licensee shall notify its clients and the center OLC where all home care records will be located.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

Part II

Administrative Services

12VAC5-381-150. Management and administration.

A. No person shall establish or operate a home care organization, as defined in §32.1-162.7 of the Code of Virginia, without having obtained a license.

B. The organization must comply with:

1. This chapter (12VAC5-381);

2. Other applicable federal, state or local laws and regulations; and

3. The organization''s own policies and procedures.

C. The organization shall submit or make available reports and information necessary to establish compliance with this chapter and applicable law.

D. The organization shall permit representatives from the center OLC to conduct inspections to:

1. Verify application information;

2. Determine compliance with this chapter;

3. Review necessary records and documents; and

4. Investigate complaints.

E. The organization shall notify the center OLC 30 days in advance of changes affecting the organization, including the:

1. Service area;

2. Mailing address of the organization;

3. Ownership;

4. Services provided;

5. Operator;

6. Administrator;

7. Organization name; and

8. Closure of the organization.

F. The current license from the department shall be posted for public inspection.

G. Service providers or community affiliates under contract with the organization must comply with the organization''s policies and this chapter.

H. The organization shall not use any advertising that contains false, misleading or deceptive statements or claims, or false or misleading disclosures of fees and payment for services.

I. The organization shall have regular posted business hours and be fully operational during such business hours. In addition, the organization shall provide or arrange for services to their clients on an on-call basis 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

J. The organization shall accept a client only when the organization can adequately meet that client''s needs in the client''s place of residence.

K. The organization must have a prepared plan for emergency operations in case of inclement weather or natural disaster to include contacting and providing essential care to clients, coordinating with community agencies to assist as needed, and maintaining a current list of clients who would require specialized assistance.

L. The organization shall encourage and facilitate the availability of flu shots for its staff and clients.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-240. Handling complaints received from clients.

A. The organization shall establish and maintain complaint handling procedures that specify the:

1. System for logging receipt, investigation and resolution of complaints; and

2. Format of the written record of the findings of each complaint investigated.

B. The organization shall designate staff responsible for complaint resolution, including:

1. Complaint intake, including acknowledgment of complaints;

2. Investigation of the complaint;

3. Review of the investigation of findings and resolution for the complaint; and

4. Notification to the complainant of the proposed resolution within 30 days from the date of receipt of the complaint.

C. The client or his designee shall be given a copy of the complaint procedures at the time of admission to service. The organization shall provide each client or his designee with the name, mailing address, and telephone number of the:

1. Organization contact person;

2. State Ombudsman; and

3. Center for Quality Health Care Services and Consumer Protection Complaint Unit of the OLC.

D. The organization shall maintain documentation of all complaints received and the status of each complaint from date of receipt through its final resolution. Records shall be maintained from the date of last inspection and for no less than three years.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.

12VAC5-381-280. Client record system.

A. The organization shall maintain an organized client record system according to accepted standards of practice. Written policies and procedures shall specify retention, reproduction, access, storage, content, and completion of the record.

B. The client record information shall be safeguarded against loss or unauthorized use.

C. Client records shall be confidential. Only authorized personnel shall have access as specified by state and federal law.

D. Provisions shall be made for the safe storage of the original record and for accurate and legible reproductions of the original.

E. Policies shall specify arrangements for retention and protection of records if the organization discontinues operation and shall provide for notification to the center OLC and the client of the location of the records.

F. An accurate and complete client record shall be maintained for each client receiving services and shall include, but shall not be limited to:

1. Client identifying information;

2. Identification of the primary care physician;

3. Admitting information, including a client history;

4. Information on the composition of the client''s household, including individuals to be instructed in assisting the client;

5. An initial assessment of client needs to develop a plan of care or services;

6. A plan of care or service that includes the type and frequency of each service to be delivered either by organization personnel or contract services;

7. Documentation of client rights review; and

8. A discharge or termination of service summary.

In addition, client records for skilled and pharmaceutical services shall include:

9. Documentation and results of all medical tests ordered by the physician or other health care professional and performed by the organization''s staff;

10. A medical plan of care including appropriate assessment and pain management;

11. Medication sheets that include the name, dosage, frequency of administration, possible side effects, route of administration, date started, and date changed or discontinued for each medication administered; and

12. Copies of all summary reports sent to the primary care physician.

G. Signed and dated notes on the care or services provided by each individual delivering service shall be written on the day the service is delivered and incorporated in the client record within seven working days.

H. Entries in the client record shall be current, legible, dated and authenticated by the person making the entry. Errors shall be corrected by striking through and initialing.

I. Originals or reproductions of individual client records shall be maintained in their entirety for a minimum of five years following discharge or date of last contact unless otherwise specified by state or federal requirements. Records of minors shall be kept for at least five years after the minor reaches 18 years of age.

Statutory Authority

§§32.1-12 and 32.1-162.12 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. January 1, 2006; amended, Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2008.