Agencies | Governor
Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

Action:
Conforming to Code on remote supervision
Stage: Final
18VAC60-21-10

Part I
General Provisions

18VAC60-21-10. Definitions.

A. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings ascribed to them in § 54.1-2700 of the Code of Virginia:

"Board"

"Dental hygiene"

"Dental hygienist"

"Dentist"

"Dentistry"

"License"

"Maxillofacial"

"Oral and maxillofacial surgeon"

B. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"AAOMS" means the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

"ADA" means the American Dental Association.

"Advertising" means a representation or other notice given to the public or members thereof, directly or indirectly, by a dentist on behalf of himself, his facility, his partner or associate, or any dentist affiliated with the dentist or his facility by any means or method for the purpose of inducing purchase, sale, or use of dental methods, services, treatments, operations, procedures, or products, or to promote continued or increased use of such dental methods, treatments, operations, procedures, or products.

"CODA" means the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association.

"Code" means the Code of Virginia.

"Dental assistant I" means any unlicensed person under the direction of a dentist or a dental hygienist who renders assistance for services provided to the patient as authorized under this chapter but shall not include an individual serving in purely an administrative, secretarial, or clerical capacity.

"Dental assistant II" means a person under the direction and direct supervision of a dentist who is registered by the board to perform reversible, intraoral procedures as specified in 18VAC60-21-150 and 18VAC60-21-160.

"Mobile dental facility" means a self-contained unit in which dentistry is practiced that is not confined to a single building and can be transported from one location to another.

"Nonsurgical laser" means a laser that is not capable of cutting or removing hard tissue, soft tissue, or tooth structure.

"Portable dental operation" means a nonfacility in which dental equipment used in the practice of dentistry is transported to and utilized on a temporary basis at an out-of-office location, including patients' homes, schools, nursing homes, or other institutions.

"Radiographs" means intraoral and extraoral radiographic images of hard and soft tissues used for purposes of diagnosis.

C. The following words and terms relating to supervision as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Direct supervision" means that the dentist examines the patient and records diagnostic findings prior to delegating restorative or prosthetic treatment and related services to a dental assistant II for completion the same day or at a later date. The dentist prepares the tooth or teeth to be restored and remains immediately available in the office to the dental assistant II for guidance or assistance during the delivery of treatment and related services. The dentist examines the patient to evaluate the treatment and services before the patient is dismissed.

"Direction" means the level of supervision (i.e., immediate, direct, indirect, or general) that a dentist is required to exercise with a dental hygienist, a dental assistant I, or a dental assistant II or that a dental hygienist is required to exercise with a dental assistant to direct and oversee the delivery of treatment and related services.

"General supervision" means that a dentist completes a periodic comprehensive examination of the patient and issues a written order for hygiene treatment that states the specific services to be provided by a dental hygienist during one or more subsequent appointments when the dentist may or may not be present. Issuance of the order authorizes the dental hygienist to supervise a dental assistant performing duties delegable to dental assistants I.

"Immediate supervision" means the dentist is in the operatory to supervise the administration of sedation or provision of treatment.

"Indirect supervision" means the dentist examines the patient at some point during the appointment and is continuously present in the office to advise and assist a dental hygienist or a dental assistant who is (i) delivering hygiene treatment, (ii) preparing the patient for examination or treatment by the dentist, or (iii) preparing the patient for dismissal following treatment.

"Remote supervision" means that a supervising dentist is accessible and available for communication and consultation with a dental hygienist employed by such dentist during the delivery of dental hygiene services but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided. For the purpose of practice by a public health dental hygienist, "remote supervision" means that a public health dentist has regular, periodic communications with a public health dental hygienist regarding patient treatment, but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided.

D. The following words and terms relating to sedation or anesthesia as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Analgesia" means the diminution or elimination of pain.

"Conscious/moderate sedation" or "moderate sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness, during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

"Deep sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients may require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

"Enteral" means any technique of administration in which the agent is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or oral mucosa (i.e., oral, rectal, sublingual).

"General anesthesia" means a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilator function is often impaired. Patients often require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and positive pressure ventilation may be required because of depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug-induced depression of neuromuscular function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired.

"Inhalation" means a technique of administration in which a gaseous or volatile agent, including nitrous oxide, is introduced into the pulmonary tree and whose primary effect is due to absorption through the pulmonary bed.

"Inhalation analgesia" means the inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen to produce a state of reduced sensation of pain with minimal alteration of consciousness.

"Local anesthesia" means the elimination of sensation, especially pain, in one part of the body by the topical application or regional injection of a drug.

"Minimal sedation" means a drug-induced state during which patients respond normally to verbal commands. Although cognitive function and physical coordination may be impaired, airway reflexes, and ventilator and cardiovascular functions are unaffected. Minimal sedation includes "anxiolysis" (the diminution or elimination of anxiety through the use of pharmacological agents in a dosage that does not cause depression of consciousness) and includes "inhalation analgesia" when used in combination with any anxiolytic agent administered prior to or during a procedure.

"Moderate sedation" (see the definition of conscious/moderate sedation).

"Monitoring" means to observe, interpret, assess, and record appropriate physiologic functions of the body during sedative procedures and general anesthesia appropriate to the level of sedation as provided in Part VI (18VAC60-21-260 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Parenteral" means a technique of administration in which the drug bypasses the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., intramuscular, intravenous, intranasal, submucosal, subcutaneous, or intraocular).

"Titration" means the incremental increase in drug dosage to a level that provides the optimal therapeutic effect of sedation.

"Topical oral anesthetic" means any drug, available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, or jellies, that can be used orally for the purpose of rendering the oral cavity insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness.

18VAC60-25-10

Part I
General Provisions

18VAC60-25-10. Definitions.

A. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings ascribed to them in § 54.1-2700 of the Code of Virginia:

"Board"

"Dental hygiene"

"Dental hygienist"

"Dentist"

"Dentistry"

"License"

B. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Active practice" means clinical practice as a dental hygienist for at least 600 hours per year.

"ADA" means the American Dental Association.

"Analgesia" means the diminution or elimination of pain in the conscious patient.

"CDAC" means the Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada.

"CODA" means the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association.

"Code" means the Code of Virginia.

"Dental assistant I" means any unlicensed person under the direction of a dentist or a dental hygienist who renders assistance for services provided to the patient as authorized under this chapter but shall not include an individual serving in purely an administrative, secretarial, or clerical capacity.

"Dental assistant II" means a person under the direction and direct supervision of a dentist who is registered to perform reversible, intraoral procedures as specified in 18VAC60-21-150 and 18VAC60-21-160.

"Direction" means the level of supervision (i.e., direct, indirect, or general) that a dentist is required to exercise with a dental hygienist or that a dental hygienist is required to exercise with a dental assistant to direct and oversee the delivery of treatment and related services.

"General supervision" means that a dentist completes a periodic comprehensive examination of the patient and issues a written order for hygiene treatment that states the specific services to be provided by a dental hygienist during one or more subsequent appointments when the dentist may or may not be present. Issuance of the order authorizes the dental hygienist to supervise a dental assistant performing duties delegable to dental assistants I.

"Indirect supervision" means the dentist examines the patient at some point during the appointment and is continuously present in the office to advise and assist a dental hygienist or a dental assistant who is (i) delivering hygiene treatment, (ii) preparing the patient for examination or treatment by the dentist, or (iii) preparing the patient for dismissal following treatment.

"Inhalation" means a technique of administration in which a gaseous or volatile agent, including nitrous oxide, is introduced into the pulmonary tree and whose primary effect is due to absorption through the pulmonary bed.

"Inhalation analgesia" means the inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen to produce a state of reduced sensibility to pain without the loss of consciousness.

"Local anesthesia" means the elimination of sensation, especially pain, in one part of the body by the topical application or regional injection of a drug.

"Monitoring" means to observe, interpret, assess, and record appropriate physiologic functions of the body during sedative procedures and general anesthesia appropriate to the level of sedation as provided in Part VI (18VAC60-21-260 et seq.) of Regulations Governing the Practice of Dentistry.

"Nonsurgical laser" means a laser that is not capable of cutting or removing hard tissue, soft tissue, or tooth structure.

"Parenteral" means a technique of administration in which the drug bypasses the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., intramuscular, intravenous, intranasal, submucosal, subcutaneous, or intraocular).

"Remote supervision" means that a supervising dentist is accessible and available for communication and consultation with a dental hygienist employed by such dentist during the delivery of dental hygiene services but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided. For the purpose of practice by a public health dental hygienist, "remote supervision" means that a public health dentist has regular, periodic communications with a public health dental hygienist regarding patient treatment, but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided.

"Topical oral anesthetic" means any drug, available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, or jellies, that can be used orally for the purpose of rendering the oral cavity insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness.

18VAC60-25-110

Part III
Standards of Conduct

18VAC60-25-110. Patient records; confidentiality.

A. A dental hygienist shall be responsible for accurate and complete information in patient records for those services provided by a hygienist or a dental assistant under direction to include the following:

1. Patient's name on each page in the patient record;

2. A health history taken at the initial appointment, which is updated when local anesthesia or nitrous oxide/inhalation analgesia is to be administered and when medically indicated and at least annually;

3. Options discussed and oral or written consent for any treatment rendered with the exception of prophylaxis;

4. List of drugs administered and the route of administration, quantity, dose, and strength;

5. Radiographs, digital images, and photographs clearly labeled with the patient's name, date taken, and teeth identified;

6. A notation or documentation of an order required for treatment of a patient by a dental hygienist practicing under general supervision as required in 18VAC60-25-60 C; and

7. Notation of each treatment rendered, date of treatment, and the identity of the dentist and the dental hygienist providing service.

B. A dental hygienist shall comply with the provisions of § 32.1-127.1:03 of the Code related to the confidentiality and disclosure of patient records. A dental hygienist shall not willfully or negligently breach the confidentiality between a practitioner and a patient. A breach of confidentiality that is required or permitted by applicable law or beyond the control of the hygienist shall not be considered negligent or willful.

C. A dental hygienist practicing under remote supervision shall document in the patient record that he has obtained (i) the patient's or the patient's legal representative's signature on a statement disclosing that the delivery of dental hygiene services under remote supervision is not a substitute for the need for regular dental examinations by a dentist and (ii) verbal or written permission of any dentist who has treated the patient in the previous 12 months and can be identified by confirmation from the patient that the patient does not have a dentist of record whom he is seeing regularly.