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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

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Action:
Administration of sedation and anesthesia
Stage: Proposed

Part I
General Provisions

18VAC60-21-10. Definitions.

A. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings ascribed to them in § 54.1-2700 of the Code of Virginia:

"Board"

"Dental hygiene"

"Dental hygienist"

"Dentist"

"Dentistry"

"License"

"Maxillofacial"

"Oral and maxillofacial surgeon"

B. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"AAOMS" means the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

"ADA" means the American Dental Association.

"Advertising" means a representation or other notice given to the public or members thereof, directly or indirectly, by a dentist on behalf of himself, his facility, his partner or associate, or any dentist affiliated with the dentist or his facility by any means or method for the purpose of inducing purchase, sale, or use of dental methods, services, treatments, operations, procedures, or products, or to promote continued or increased use of such dental methods, treatments, operations, procedures, or products.

"CODA" means the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association.

"Code" means the Code of Virginia.

"Dental assistant I" means any unlicensed person under the direction of a dentist or a dental hygienist who renders assistance for services provided to the patient as authorized under this chapter but shall not include an individual serving in purely an administrative, secretarial, or clerical capacity.

"Dental assistant II" means a person under the direction and direct supervision of a dentist who is registered by the board to perform reversible, intraoral procedures as specified in 18VAC60-21-150 and 18VAC60-21-160.

"Mobile dental facility" means a self-contained unit in which dentistry is practiced that is not confined to a single building and can be transported from one location to another.

"Nonsurgical laser" means a laser that is not capable of cutting or removing hard tissue, soft tissue, or tooth structure.

"Portable dental operation" means a nonfacility in which dental equipment used in the practice of dentistry is transported to and utilized on a temporary basis at an out-of-office location, including patients' homes, schools, nursing homes, or other institutions.

"Radiographs" means intraoral and extraoral radiographic images of hard and soft tissues used for purposes of diagnosis.

C. The following words and terms relating to supervision as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Direct supervision" means that the dentist examines the patient and records diagnostic findings prior to delegating restorative or prosthetic treatment and related services to a dental assistant II for completion the same day or at a later date. The dentist prepares the tooth or teeth to be restored and remains immediately available in the office to the dental assistant II for guidance or assistance during the delivery of treatment and related services. The dentist examines the patient to evaluate the treatment and services before the patient is dismissed.

"Direction" means the level of supervision (i.e., immediate, direct, indirect, or general) that a dentist is required to exercise with a dental hygienist, a dental assistant I, or a dental assistant II, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist or the level of supervision that a dental hygienist is required to exercise with a dental assistant to direct and oversee the delivery of treatment and related services.

"General supervision" means that a dentist completes a periodic comprehensive examination of the patient and issues a written order for hygiene treatment that states the specific services to be provided by a dental hygienist during one or more subsequent appointments when the dentist may or may not be present. Issuance of the order authorizes the dental hygienist to supervise a dental assistant performing duties delegable to dental assistants I.

"Immediate supervision" means the dentist is in the operatory to supervise the administration of sedation or provision of treatment.

"Indirect supervision" means the dentist examines the patient at some point during the appointment and is continuously present in the office to advise and assist a dental hygienist, or a dental assistant, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist who is (i) delivering hygiene treatment, (ii) preparing the patient for examination or treatment by the dentist, or (iii) preparing the patient for dismissal following treatment, or (iv) administering topical local anesthetic, sedation or anesthesia, as authorized by law or regulation.

"Remote supervision" means that a supervising dentist is accessible and available for communication and consultation with a dental hygienist during the delivery of dental hygiene services but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided. For the purpose of practice by a public health dental hygienist, "remote supervision" means that a public health dentist has regular, periodic communications with a public health dental hygienist regarding patient treatment, but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided.

D. The following words and terms relating to sedation or anesthesia as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Analgesia" means the diminution or elimination of pain.

 "Continual" or "continually" means repeated regularly and frequently in a steady succession.

"Continuous" or "continuously" means prolonged without any interruption at any time.

"Deep sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients may require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

"General anesthesia" means a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilator function is often impaired. Patients often require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and positive pressure ventilation may be required because of depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug-induced depression of neuromuscular function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired.

"Inhalation" means a technique of administration in which a gaseous or volatile agent, including nitrous oxide, is introduced into the pulmonary tree and whose primary effect is due to absorption through the pulmonary bed.

"Inhalation analgesia" means the inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen to produce a state of reduced sensation of pain with minimal alteration of consciousness.

"Local anesthesia" means the elimination of sensation, especially pain, in one part of the body by the topical application or regional injection of a drug.

"Minimal sedation" means a drug-induced state during which patients respond normally to verbal commands. Although cognitive function and physical coordination may be impaired, airway reflexes, and ventilator and cardiovascular functions are unaffected. Minimal sedation includes "anxiolysis" (the the diminution or elimination of anxiety through the use of pharmacological agents in a dosage that does not cause depression of consciousness) consciousness and includes "inhalation analgesia" when used in combination with any anxiolytic such sedating agent administered prior to or during a procedure.

"Moderate sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness, during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

"Monitoring" means to observe, interpret, assess, and record appropriate physiologic functions of the body during sedative procedures and general anesthesia appropriate to the level of sedation as provided in Part VI (18VAC60-21-260 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Parenteral" means a technique of administration in which the drug bypasses the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., intramuscular, intravenous, intranasal, submucosal, subcutaneous, or intraocular).

"Provide" means, in the context of regulations for moderate sedation or deep sedation/general anesthesia, to supply, give, or issue sedating medications. A dentist who does not hold the applicable permit cannot be the provider of  moderate sedation or deep sedation/general anesthesia.

"Titration" means the incremental increase in drug dosage to a level that provides the optimal therapeutic effect of sedation.

"Topical oral anesthetic" means any drug, available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, or jellies, that can be used orally for the purpose of rendering the oral cavity insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness.

Part VI
Controlled Substances, Sedation, and Anesthesia

18VAC60-21-260. General provisions.

A.   Application of Part VI. Part VI of this chapter:

1. This part applies Applies to prescribing, dispensing, and administering controlled substances in dental offices, mobile dental facilities, and portable dental operations and shall not apply to administration by a dentist practicing in (i) a licensed hospital as defined in § 32.1-123 of the Code, (ii) a state-operated hospital, or (iii) a facility directly maintained or operated by the federal government.

2.  Addresses the minimum requirements for administration to patients of any age.  Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients During and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures, issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, should be consulted when practicing pediatric dentistry.

B. Registration required. Any dentist who prescribes, administers, or dispenses Schedules II through V controlled drugs substances must hold a current registration with the federal Drug Enforcement Administration.

C. Patient evaluation required.

1. An appropriate medical history and patient evaluation including medication use and a focused physical exam shall be performed before the decision to administer controlled substances for dental treatment is made. The decision to administer controlled drugs substances for dental treatment must be based on a documented evaluation of the health history and current medical condition of the patient in accordance with the Class I through V risk category classifications of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) in effect at the time of treatment. The findings of the evaluation, the ASA risk assessment class assigned, and any special considerations must be recorded in the patient's record.

2. Any level of sedation and general anesthesia may be provided for a patient who is ASA Class I and Class II.

3. A patient in ASA Class III shall only be provided minimal sedation, moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia by:

a. A dentist after he has documented a consultation with the patient's primary care physician or other medical specialist regarding potential risks and special monitoring requirements that may be necessary;

b. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon who has performed a physical evaluation and documented the findings and the ASA risk assessment category of the patient and any special monitoring requirements that may be necessary; or

c. A person licensed under Chapter 29 (§ 54.1-2900 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code who has a specialty in anesthesia.

4. Minimal sedation may only be provided for a patient who is in ASA Class IV by:

a. A dentist after he has documented a consultation with the patient's primary care physician or other medical specialist regarding potential risks and special monitoring requirements that may be necessary; or

b. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon who has performed a physical evaluation and documented the findings and the ASA risk assessment category of the patient and any special monitoring requirements that may be necessary.

5. Moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia shall not be provided in a dental office for patients in ASA Class IV and Class V.

D. Additional requirements for patient information and records. In addition to the record requirements in 18VAC60-21-90, when moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia is administered, the patient record shall also include:

1. Notation of the patient's American Society of Anesthesiologists classification;

2. Review of medical history and current conditions, including the patient's weight and height or, if appropriate, the body mass index;

3. Written informed consent for administration of sedation and anesthesia and for the dental procedure to be performed;

4. Preoperative vital signs;

5. A record of the name, dose, and strength of drugs and route of administration including the administration of local anesthetics with notations of the time sedation and anesthesia were administered;

6. Monitoring records of all required vital signs and physiological measures recorded every five minutes continually; and

7. A list of staff participating in the administration, treatment, and monitoring including name, position, and assigned duties.

E. Pediatric patients. No sedating medication shall be prescribed for administration or administered to a patient 12 years of age or younger prior to his arrival at the dentist office or treatment facility.

F. Informed written consent. Prior to administration of any level of sedation or general anesthesia, the dentist shall discuss the nature and objectives of the planned level of sedation or general anesthesia along with the risks, benefits, and alternatives and shall obtain informed, written consent from the patient or other responsible party for the administration and for the treatment to be provided. The written consent must be maintained in the patient record.

G. Level of sedation. The determinant for the application of the rules for any level of sedation or for general anesthesia shall be the degree of sedation or consciousness level of a patient that should reasonably be expected to result from the type, strength, and dosage of medication, the method of administration, and the individual characteristics of the patient as documented in the patient's record. The drugs and techniques used must carry a margin of safety wide enough to render the unintended reduction of or loss of consciousness unlikely, factoring in titration and the patient's age, weight, and ability to metabolize drugs.

H. Emergency management.

1. If a patient enters a deeper level of sedation than the dentist is qualified and prepared to provide, the dentist shall stop the dental procedure until the patient returns to and is stable at the intended level of sedation.

2. A dentist in whose office sedation or anesthesia is administered shall have written basic emergency procedures established and staff trained to carry out such procedures.

I. Ancillary personnel. Dentists who employ unlicensed, ancillary personnel to assist in the administration and monitoring of any form of minimal sedation, moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia shall maintain documentation that such personnel have:

1. Training and hold current certification in basic resuscitation techniques with hands-on airway training for health care providers, such as Basic Cardiac Life Support for Health Professionals or a clinically oriented course devoted primarily to responding to clinical emergencies offered by an approved provider of continuing education as set forth in 18VAC60-21-250 C; or

2. Current certification as a certified anesthesia assistant (CAA) by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons or the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA).

J. Assisting in administration. A dentist, consistent with the planned level of administration (i.e., local anesthesia, minimal sedation, moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia) and appropriate to his education, training, and experience, may utilize the services of a dentist, anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, dental hygienist, dental assistant, or nurse to perform functions appropriate to such practitioner's education, training, and experience and consistent with that practitioner's respective scope of practice.

K. Patient monitoring.

1. A dentist may delegate monitoring of a patient to a dental hygienist, dental assistant, or nurse who is under his direction or to another dentist, anesthesiologist, or certified registered nurse anesthetist. The person assigned to monitor the patient shall be continuously in the presence of the patient in the office, operatory, and recovery area (i) before administration is initiated or immediately upon arrival if the patient self-administered a sedative agent, (ii) throughout the administration of drugs, (iii) throughout the treatment of the patient, and (iv) throughout recovery until the patient is discharged by the dentist.

2. The person monitoring the patient shall:

a. Have the patient's entire body in sight;

b. Be in close proximity so as to speak with the patient;

c. Converse with the patient to assess the patient's ability to respond in order to determine the patient's level of sedation;

d. Closely observe the patient for coloring, breathing, level of physical activity, facial expressions, eye movement, and bodily gestures in order to immediately recognize and bring any changes in the patient's condition to the attention of the treating dentist; and

e. Read, report, and record the patient's vital signs and physiological measures.

L. A dentist who allows the administration of general anesthesia, deep sedation, or moderate sedation in his dental office is responsible for assuring that:

1. The equipment for administration and monitoring, as required in subsection B of 18VAC60-21-291 or subsection C of 18VAC60-21-301, is readily available and in good working order prior to performing dental treatment with anesthesia or sedation. The equipment shall either be maintained by the dentist in his office or provided by the anesthesia or sedation provider; and

2. The person administering the anesthesia or sedation is appropriately licensed and the staff monitoring the patient is qualified.

M.  Special needs patients.  

If a patient is mentally or physically challenged, and it is not possible to have a comprehensive physical examination or appropriate laboratory tests prior to administering care, the dentist is responsible for documenting in the patient record the reasons preventing the recommended preoperative management. In selected circumstances, sedation or general anesthesia may be utilized without establishing an intravenous line.  These selected circumstances include very brief procedures or periods of time, which may occur in some patients; or the establishment of intravenous access after deep sedation or general anesthesia has been induced because of poor patient cooperation.

18VAC60-21-270. Administration of local anesthesia.

A dentist may administer or use the services of the following personnel to administer local anesthesia:

1. A dentist;

2. An anesthesiologist;

3. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under his medical direction and indirect supervision;

4. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older under his indirect supervision;

5. A dental hygienist to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics under indirect supervision or under his order for such treatment under general supervision; or

6. A dental assistant or a registered or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics under indirect supervision.

18VAC60-21-279. Administration of only inhalation analgesia (nitrous oxide) oxide only).

A. Education and training requirements. A dentist who utilizes nitrous oxide shall have training in and knowledge of:

1. The appropriate use and physiological effects of nitrous oxide, the potential complications of administration, the indicators for complications, and the interventions to address the complications.

2. The use and maintenance of the equipment required in subsection D of this section.

B. No sedating medication shall be prescribed for administration or administered to a patient 12 years of age or younger prior to his arrival at the dental office or treatment facility.

C. Delegation of administration.

1. A qualified dentist may administer or use the services of the following personnel to administer nitrous oxide:

a. A dentist;

b. An anesthesiologist;

c. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under his medical direction and indirect supervision;

d. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 B and under indirect supervision; or

e. A registered nurse upon his direct instruction and under immediate supervision.

2. Preceding the administration of nitrous oxide, a dentist may use the services of the following personnel working under indirect supervision to administer local anesthesia to numb an injection or treatment site:

a. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older; or

b. A dental hygienist, dental assistant, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics.

D. Equipment requirements. A dentist who utilizes nitrous oxide only or who directs the administration by another licensed health professional as permitted in subsection C of this section shall maintain the following equipment in working order and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover:

1. Blood pressure monitoring equipment;

2. Source of delivery of oxygen under controlled positive pressure;

3. Mechanical (hand) respiratory bag; and

4. Suction apparatus; and

5. Oxygen saturation with pulse oximeter, unless extenuating circumstances exist and are documented in the patient's record.

E. Required staffing. When only nitrous oxide/oxygen is administered, a second person in the operatory is not required. Either the dentist or qualified dental hygienist under the indirect supervision of a dentist may administer the nitrous oxide/oxygen and treat and monitor the patient.

F. Monitoring requirements.

1. Baseline vital signs, to include blood pressure and heart rate, shall be taken and recorded prior to administration of nitrous oxide analgesia, intraoperatively as necessary, and prior to discharge, unless extenuating circumstances exist and are documented in the patient's record.

2. Continual clinical observation of the patient's responsiveness, color, respiratory rate, and depth of ventilation shall be performed.

3. Once the administration of nitrous oxide has begun, the dentist shall ensure that a licensed health care professional or a person qualified in accordance with 18VAC60-21-260 I monitors the patient at all times until discharged as required in subsection G of this section.

4. Monitoring shall include making the proper adjustments of nitrous oxide/oxygen machines at the request of or by the dentist or by another qualified licensed health professional identified in subsection C of this section. Only the dentist or another qualified licensed health professional identified in subsection C of this section may turn the nitrous oxide/oxygen machines on or off.

5. Upon completion of nitrous oxide administration, the patient shall be administered 100% oxygen for a minimum of five minutes to minimize the risk of diffusion hypoxia.

G. Discharge requirements.

1. The dentist shall not discharge a patient until he exhibits baseline responses in a post-operative evaluation of the level of consciousness. Vital signs, to include blood pressure and heart rate, shall be taken and recorded prior to discharge, unless extenuating circumstances exist and are documented in the patient's record.

2. Post-operative instructions shall be given verbally and in writing. The written instructions shall include a 24-hour emergency telephone number.

3. Pediatric patients shall be discharged with a responsible individual who has been instructed with regard to the patient's care.

18VAC60-21-280. Administration of minimal sedation.

A. Education and training requirements. A dentist who utilizes minimal sedation shall have training in and knowledge of:

1. The medications used, the appropriate dosages, the potential complications of administration, the indicators for complications, and the interventions to address the complications.

2. The physiological effects of minimal sedation, the potential complications of administration, the indicators for complications, and the interventions to address the complications.

3. The use and maintenance of the equipment required in subsection D of this section.

B. No sedating medication shall be prescribed for administration or administered to a patient 12 years of age or younger prior to his arrival at the dental office or treatment facility.

C. Delegation of administration.

1. A qualified dentist may administer or use the services of the following personnel to administer minimal sedation:

a. A dentist;

b. An anesthesiologist;

c. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under his medical direction and indirect supervision;

d. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C B only for administration of nitrous oxide/oxygen with the dentist present in the operatory under indirect supervision; or

e. A registered nurse upon his direct instruction and under immediate supervision.

2. Preceding the administration of minimal sedation, a dentist may use the services of the following personnel working under indirect supervision to administer local anesthesia to numb an injection or treatment site:

a. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older; or

b. A dental hygienist, dental assistant, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics.

3. If minimal sedation is self-administered by or to a patient 13 years of age or older before arrival at the dental office or treatment facility, the dentist may only use the personnel listed in subdivision 1 of this subsection to administer local anesthesia.

D. Equipment requirements. A dentist who utilizes minimal sedation or who directs the administration by another licensed health professional as permitted in subsection C of this section shall maintain the following equipment in working order and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover:

1. Blood pressure monitoring equipment;

2. Source of delivery of oxygen under controlled positive pressure;

3. Mechanical (hand) respiratory bag;

4. Suction apparatus; and

5. Pulse oximeter.

E. Required staffing. The treatment team for minimal sedation shall consist of the dentist and a second person in the operatory with the patient to assist the dentist and monitor the patient. The second person shall be a licensed health care professional or a person qualified in accordance with 18VAC60-21-260 I.

F. Monitoring requirements.

1. Baseline vital signs to include blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate, and oxygen saturation shall be taken and recorded prior to administration of sedation and prior to discharge.

2. Blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and pulse shall be monitored continuously continually during the procedure unless extenuating circumstances exist and are documented in the patient's record.

3. Once the administration of minimal sedation has begun by any route of administration, the dentist shall ensure that a licensed health care professional or a person qualified in accordance with 18VAC60-21-260 I monitors the patient at all times until discharged as required in subsection G of this section.

4. If nitrous Nitrous oxide/oxygen is may be used in addition to any with one other pharmacological agent in the recommended dosage for minimal sedation. , monitoring shall include making the proper adjustments of nitrous oxide/oxygen machines at the request of or by the dentist or by another qualified licensed health professional identified in subsection C of this section. Only the dentist or another qualified licensed health professional identified in subsection C of this section may turn the nitrous oxide/oxygen machines on or off If deeper levels of sedation are produced, the regulations for the induced level shall be followed. The administration of one drug in excess of the maximum recommended dose or of two or more drugs, with or without nitrous oxide, exceeds minimal sedation and requires compliance with the regulations for the level of sedation induced.

5. Monitoring shall include making the proper adjustments of nitrous oxide/oxygen machines at the request of or by the dentist or by another qualified licensed health professional identified in subsection C of this section. Only the dentist or another qualified licensed health professional identified in subsection C of this section may turn the nitrous oxide/oxygen machines on or off.

5.6. If any other pharmacological agent is used in addition to nitrous oxide/oxygen and a local anesthetic, requirements for the induced level of sedation must be met.

G. Discharge requirements.

1. The dentist shall not discharge a patient until he exhibits baseline responses in a post-operative evaluation of the level of consciousness. Vital signs, to include blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate, and oxygen saturation shall be taken and recorded prior to discharge unless extenuating circumstances exist and are documented in the patient's record.

2. Post-operative instructions shall be given verbally and in writing. The written instructions shall include a 24-hour emergency telephone number.

3. Pediatric patients shall be discharged with a responsible individual who has been instructed with regard to the patient's care.

18VAC60-21-290. Requirements for a moderate sedation permit.

A. No dentist may employ or use provide or administer moderate sedation in a dental office unless he has been issued a permit by the board. The requirement for a permit shall not apply to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon who maintains membership in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) and who provides the board with reports that result from the periodic office examinations required by AAOMS. Such an oral and maxillofacial surgeon shall be required to post a certificate issued by AAOMS.

B. Automatic qualification. Dentists who hold a current permit to administer deep sedation and general anesthesia may administer moderate sedation.

C. To determine eligibility for a moderate sedation permit, a dentist shall submit the following:

1. A completed application form;

2. The application fee as specified in 18VAC60-21-40;

3. A copy of a transcript, certification, or other documentation of training content that meets the educational and training qualifications as specified in subsection D of this section; and

4. A copy of current certification in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) or pediatric advanced life support (PALS) as required in subsection E of this section.

D. Education requirements for a permit to administer moderate sedation. A dentist may be issued a moderate sedation permit to administer by any method by meeting one of the following criteria:

1. Completion of training for this treatment modality according to the ADA's Guidelines for Teaching Pain Control and Sedation to Dentists and Dental Students in effect at the time the training occurred, while enrolled in an accredited dental program or while enrolled in a post-doctoral university or teaching hospital program; or

2. Completion of a continuing education course that meets the requirements of 18VAC60-21-250 and consists of (i) 60 hours of didactic instruction plus the management of at least 20 patients per participant, (ii) demonstration of competency and clinical experience in moderate sedation, and (iii) management of a compromised airway. The course content shall be consistent with the ADA's Guidelines for Teaching Pain Control and Sedation to Dentists and Dental Students in effect at the time the training occurred.

E. Additional training required. Dentists who administer moderate sedation shall:

1. Hold current certification in advanced resuscitation techniques with hands-on simulated airway and megacode training for health care providers, such as ACLS or PALS as evidenced by a certificate of completion posted with the dental license; and

2. Have current training in the use and maintenance of the equipment required in 18VAC60-21-291.

18VAC60-21-291. Requirements for administration of moderate sedation.

A. Delegation of administration.

1. A dentist who does not hold a permit to provide or administer moderate sedation shall only use utilize the services of a qualified dentist or an anesthesiologist to administer such sedation in a dental office. In a licensed outpatient surgery center, a dentist who does not hold a permit to provide or administer moderate sedation shall use utilize a qualified dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist to administer such sedation.

2. A dentist who holds a permit may administer or use the services of the following personnel to administer moderate sedation:

a. A dentist with the training required by 18VAC60-21-290 D to administer by any method and who holds a moderate sedation permit;

b. An anesthesiologist;

c. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under the medical direction and indirect supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-290 D and holds a moderate sedation permit or under the supervision of a doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine; or

d. A registered nurse upon his direct instruction and under the immediate supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-290 D and holds a moderate sedation permit.

3. If minimal sedation is self-administered by or to a patient 13 years of age or older before arrival at the dental office, the dentist may only use the personnel listed in subdivision 2 of this subsection to administer local anesthesia. No sedating medication shall be prescribed for administration or administered to a patient 12 years of age or younger prior to his arrival at the dentist office or treatment facility.

4. Preceding the administration of moderate sedation, a permitted dentist may use the services of the following personnel under indirect supervision to administer local anesthesia to anesthetize the injection or treatment site:

a. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older; or

b. A dental hygienist, dental assistant, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics.

5. A dentist who delegates administration of moderate sedation shall ensure that:

a. All equipment required in subsection B of this section is present, in good working order, and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover; and

b. Qualified staff is on site to monitor patients in accordance with requirements of subsection D of this section.

B. Equipment requirements. A dentist who provides or administers or who utilizes a qualified anesthesia provider to administer moderate sedation shall have available the following equipment in sizes for adults or children as appropriate for the patient being treated and shall maintain it in working order and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover:

1. Full face mask or masks;

2. Oral and nasopharyngeal airway management adjuncts;

3. Endotracheal tubes with appropriate connectors or other appropriate airway management adjunct such as a laryngeal mask airway;

4. A laryngoscope with reserve batteries and bulbs and appropri­ately sized laryngoscope blades;

5. Pulse oximetry;

6. Blood pressure monitoring equipment;

7. Pharmacologic antagonist agents;

8. Source of delivery of oxygen under controlled positive pressure;

9. Mechanical (hand) respiratory bag;

10. Appropriate emergency drugs for patient resuscitation;

11. Electrocardiographic monitor if a patient is receiving parenteral administration of sedation or if the dentist is using titration;

12. Defibrillator;

13. Suction apparatus;

14. Temperature measuring device;

15. Throat pack Airway protective device;

16. Precordial or pretracheal stethoscope; and

17. An end-tidal carbon dioxide monitor (capnograph); and

18. Equipment necessary to establish intravenous or intraosseous access.

C. Required staffing. At a minimum, there shall be a two-person three-person treatment team for moderate sedation. The team shall include the operating dentist and a second , one person to monitor the patient as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 K, and one person to assist the operating dentist as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 J, both all of whom shall be in the operatory with the patient throughout the dental procedure. If the second person is a dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist who administers the drugs as permitted in subsection A of this section, such person may monitor the patient.

D. Monitoring requirements.

1. Baseline vital signs to include blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and heart rate shall be taken and recorded prior to administration of any controlled drug at the facility and prior to discharge.

2. Blood pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and end-tidal carbon dioxide, and pulse shall be monitored continually during the administration and recorded every five minutes unless precluded or invalidated by the nature of the patient, procedure or equipment.

3. Monitoring of the patient under moderate sedation is to begin prior to administration of sedation or, if pre-medication is self-administered by the patient, immediately upon the patient's arrival at the dental facility and shall take place continuously during the dental procedure and recovery from sedation. The person who administers the sedation or another licensed practitioner qualified to administer the same level of sedation must remain on the premises of the dental facility until the patient is evaluated and is discharged.

E. Discharge requirements.

1. The patient shall not be discharged until the responsible licensed practitioner determines that the patient's level of consciousness, oxygenation, ventilation, and circulation blood pressure and heart rate are satisfactory for discharge and vital signs have been taken and recorded.

2. Post-operative instructions shall be given verbally and in writing. The written instructions shall include a 24-hour emergency telephone number.

3. The patient shall be discharged with a responsible individual who has been instructed with regard to the patient's care.

4. If a separate recovery area is utilized, oxygen and suction equipment shall be immediately available in that area.

5. Since re-sedation may occur once the effects of the reversal agent have waned, the patient shall be monitored for a longer period than usual when a pharmacological reversal agent has been administered before discharge criteria have been met. 

F. Emergency management. The dentist shall be proficient in handling emergencies and complications related to pain control procedures, including the maintenance of respiration and circulation, immediate estab­lishment of an airway, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

18VAC60-21-300. Requirements for a deep sedation/general anesthesia permit.

A. After March 31, 2013, no No dentist may employ or use provide or administer deep sedation or general anesthesia in a dental office unless he has been issued a permit by the board. The requirement for a permit shall not apply to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon who maintains membership in AAOMS and who provides the board with reports that result from the periodic office examinations required by AAOMS. Such an oral and maxillofacial surgeon shall be required to post a certificate issued by AAOMS.

B. To determine eligibility for a deep sedation/general anesthesia permit, a dentist shall submit the following:

1. A completed application form;

2. The application fee as specified in 18VAC60-21-40;

3. A copy of the certificate of completion of a CODA accredited program or other documentation of training content which meets the educational and training qualifications specified in subsection C of this section; and

4. A copy of current certification in Advanced Cardiac Life Support for Health Professionals (ACLS) or Pediatric Advanced Life Support for Health Professionals (PALS) as required in subsection C of this section.

C. Educational and training qualifications for a deep sedation/general anesthesia permit.

1. Completion of a minimum of one calendar year of advanced training in anesthesiology and related academic subjects beyond the undergraduate dental school level in a training program in conformity with the ADA's Guidelines for Teaching the Comprehensive Control of Anxiety and Pain in Dentistry in effect at the time the training occurred; or

2. Completion of an CODA accredited residency in any dental specialty that incorporates into its curriculum a minimum of one calendar year of full-time training in clinical anesthesia and related clinical medical subjects (i.e., medical evaluation and management of patients) comparable to those set forth in the ADA's Guidelines for Graduate and Postgraduate Training in Anesthesia in effect at the time the training occurred; and

3. Current certification in advanced resuscitative techniques with hands-on simulated airway and megacode training for health care providers, including basic electrocardiographic interpretations, such as courses in ACLS or PALS; and

4. Current training in the use and maintenance of the equipment required in 18VAC60-21-301.

18VAC60-21-301. Requirements for administration of deep sedation or general anesthesia.

A. Preoperative requirements. Prior to the appointment for treatment under deep sedation or general anesthesia the patient shall:

1. Be informed about the personnel and procedures used to deliver the sedative or anesthetic drugs to assure informed consent as required by 18VAC60-21-260 F.

2. Have a physical evaluation as required by 18VAC60-21-260 C.

3. Be given preoperative verbal and written instructions including any dietary or medication restrictions.

B. Delegation of administration.

1. A dentist who does not meet the requirements of 18VAC60-21-300 shall only use utilize the services of a dentist who does meet those requirements or an anesthesiologist to administer deep sedation or general anesthesia in a dental office. In a licensed outpatient surgery center, a dentist shall use utilize either a dentist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-21-300, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist to administer deep sedation or general anesthesia.

2. A dentist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-21-300 may administer or use utilize the services of the following personnel to administer deep sedation or general anesthesia:

a. A dentist with the training required by 18VAC60-21-300 C;

b. An anesthesiologist; or

c. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under the medical direction and indirect supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-300 C or under the supervision of a doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine.

3. Preceding the administration of deep sedation or general anesthesia, a dentist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-21-300 may use utilize the services of the following personnel under indirect supervision to administer local anesthesia to anesthetize the injection or treatment site:

a. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older; or

b. A dental hygienist, dental assistant, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics.

C. Equipment requirements. A dentist who administers or utilizes the services of a qualified anesthesia provider to administer deep sedation or general anesthesia shall have available the following equipment in sizes appropriate for the patient being treated and shall maintain it in working order and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover:

1. Full face mask or masks;

2. Oral and nasopharyngeal airway management adjuncts;

3. Endotracheal tubes with appropriate connectors or other appropriate airway management adjunct such as a laryngeal mask airway;

4. A laryngoscope with reserve batteries and bulbs and appropriately sized laryngoscope blades;

5. Source of delivery of oxygen under controlled positive pressure;

6. Mechanical (hand) respiratory bag;

7. Pulse oximetry and blood pressure monitoring equipment available and used in the treatment room;

8. Blood pressure monitoring equipment;

8.9. Appropriate emergency drugs for patient resuscitation;

9.10. EKG monitoring equipment;

10.11. Temperature measuring devices;

11.12. Pharmacologic antagonist agents;

12.13. External defibrillator (manual or automatic);

13.14. An end-tidal carbon dioxide monitor (capnograph);

14.15. Suction apparatus;

15.16. Throat pack Airway protective device; and

16.17. Precordial or pretracheal stethoscope; and

18. Equipment necessary to establish intravenous or intraosseous access.

D. Required staffing. At a minimum, there shall be a three-person treatment team for deep sedation or general anesthesia. The team shall include the operating dentist, a second person to monitor the patient as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 K, and a third person to assist the operating dentist as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 J, all of whom shall be in the operatory with the patient during the dental procedure. If a second dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist administers the drugs as permitted in subsection B of this section, such person may serve as the second person to monitor the patient.

E. Monitoring requirements.

1. Baseline vital signs shall be taken and recorded prior to administration of any controlled drug at the facility to include: temperature, blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, EKG, and respiration.

2. The patient's vital signs, end-tidal carbon dioxide (unless precluded or invalidated by the nature of the patient, procedure, or equipment), and EKG readings, blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, temperature, and respiratory rate shall be monitored, continually, and recorded every five minutes, and reported to the treating dentist throughout the administration of controlled drugs and recovery. When a depolarizing medications medication or inhalation agent other than nitrous oxide are is administered, temperature shall be monitored constantly continuously.

3. Monitoring of the patient undergoing deep sedation or general anesthesia is to begin prior to the administration of any drugs and shall take place continuously continually during administration, the dental procedure, and recovery from anesthesia. The person who administers the anesthesia or another licensed practitioner qualified to administer the same level of anesthesia must remain on the premises of the dental facility until the patient has regained consciousness and is discharged.

F. Emergency management.

1. A secured intravenous line must be established and maintained throughout the procedure.

2. The dentist shall be proficient in handling emergencies and complications related to pain control procedures, including the maintenance of respiration and circulation, immediate establishment of an airway, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

G. Discharge requirements.

1. If a separate recovery area is utilized, oxygen and suction equipment shall be immediately available in that area.

1.2. The patient shall not be discharged until the responsible licensed practitioner determines that the patient's level of consciousness, oxygenation, ventilation, and circulation blood pressure, and heart rate are satisfactory for discharge and vital signs have been taken assessed and recorded, unless extenuating circumstances exist and are documented in the patient's record.

3. Since re-sedation may occur once the effects of the reversal agent have waned, the patient shall be monitored for a longer period than usual before discharge if a pharmacological reversal agent has been administered before discharge criteria have been met.

2.4. Post-operative instructions shall be given verbally and in writing. The written instructions shall include a 24-hour emergency telephone number for the dental practice.

3.5. The patient shall be discharged with a responsible individual who has been instructed with regard to the patient's care.