The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"Adult" means any individual 18 years of age or older.
"Age and stage appropriate" means the curriculum, environment, equipment, and adult-child interactions are suitable for the ages of the children within a group and the individual needs of any child.
1. "Infant" means children from birth to 16 months.
2. "Toddler" means children from 16 months up to two years.
3. "Preschool" means children from two years up to the age of eligibility to attend public school, five years by September 30.
4. "School age" means children eligible to attend public school, age five or older by September 30 of that same year. Four- or five-year-old children included in a group of school age children may be considered school age during the summer months if the children will be entering kindergarten that year.
"Attendance" means the actual presence of an enrolled child.
"Balanced mixed-age grouping" means a program using a curriculum designed to meet the needs and interests of children in the group and is planned for children who enter the program at three through five years of age. The enrollment in the balance mixed-age grouping comprises a relatively even allocation of children in each of three ages (three to six years) and is designed for children and staff to remain together with turnover planned only for the replacement of exiting students with children of ages that maintain the class balance.
"Body fluids" means urine, feces, saliva, blood, nasal discharge, eye discharge, and injury or tissue discharge.
"Camp" means a child day camp that is a child day center for school age children that operates during the summer vacation months only. Four-year-old children who will be five by September 30 of the same year may be included in a camp for school age children.
"Center" means a child day center.
"Child" means any individual under 18 years of age.
"Child day center" means a child day program offered to (i) two or more children under the age of 13 in a facility that is not the residence of the provider or of any of the children in care or (ii) 13 or more children at any location.
Exemptions (§ 63.2-1715 of the Code of Virginia):
1. A child day center that has obtained an exemption pursuant to § 63.2-1716 of the Code of Virginia;
2. A program where, by written policy given to and signed by a parent or guardian, children are free to enter and leave the premises without permission or supervision regardless of (i) such program's location or the number of days per week of its operation; (ii) the provision of transportation services, including drop-off and pick-up times; or (iii) the scheduling of breaks for snacks, homework, or other activities. A program that would qualify for this exemption except that it assumes responsibility for the supervision, protection and well-being of several children with disabilities who are mainstreamed shall not be subject to licensure;
3. A program of instructional experience in a single focus, such as, but not limited to, computer science, archaeology, sport clinics, or music, if children under the age of six do not attend at all and if no child is allowed to attend for more than 25 days in any three-month period commencing with enrollment. This exemption does not apply if children merely change their enrollment to a different focus area at a site offering a variety of activities and such children's attendance exceeds 25 days in a three-month period;
4. Programs of instructional or recreational activities wherein no child under age six attends for more than six hours weekly with no class or activity period to exceed 1-1/2 hours, and no child six years of age or above attends for more than six hours weekly when school is in session or 12 hours weekly when school is not in session. Competition, performances and exhibitions related to the instructional or recreational activity shall be excluded when determining the hours of program operation;
5. A program that operates no more than a total of 20 program days in the course of a calendar year provided that programs serving children under age six operate no more than two consecutive weeks without a break of at least a week;
6. Instructional programs offered by public and private schools that satisfy compulsory attendance laws or the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as amended (20 USC § 1400 et seq.), and programs of school-sponsored extracurricular activities that are focused on single interests such as, but not limited to, music, sports, drama, civic service, or foreign language;
7. Education and care programs provided by public schools that are not exempt pursuant to subdivision 6 of this definition shall be regulated by the State Board of Education using regulations that incorporate, but may exceed, the regulations for child day centers licensed by the commissioner;
8. Early intervention programs for children eligible under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as amended (20 USC § 1400 et seq.), wherein no child attends for more than a total of six hours per week;
9. Practice or competition in organized competitive sports leagues;
10. Programs of religious instruction, such as Sunday schools, vacation Bible schools, and Bar Mitzvah or Bat Mitzvah classes, and child-minding services provided to allow parents or guardians who are on site to attend religious worship or instructional services;
11. Child-minding services which are not available for more than three hours per day for any individual child offered on site in commercial or recreational establishments if the parent or guardian (i) is not an on-duty employee, except for part-time employees working less than two hours per day; (ii) can be contacted and can resume responsibility for the child's supervision within 30 minutes; and (iii) is receiving or providing services or participating in activities offered by the establishment;
12. A certified preschool or nursery school program operated by a private school that is accredited by a statewide accrediting organization recognized by the State Board of Education or accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children's National Academy of Early Childhood Programs; the Association of Christian Schools International; the American Association of Christian Schools; the National Early Childhood Program Accreditation; the National Accreditation Council for Early Childhood Professional Personnel and Programs; the International Academy for Private Education; the American Montessori Society; the International Accreditation and Certification of Childhood Educators, Programs, and Trainers; or the National Accreditation Commission that complies with the provisions of § 63.2-1717 of the Code of Virginia;
13. A program of recreational activities offered by local governments, staffed by local government employees, and attended by school-age children. Such programs shall be subject to safety and supervisory standards established by local governments; or
14. By policy, a child day center that is required to be programmatically licensed by another state agency for that service.
"Child day program" means a regularly operating service arrangement for children where, during the absence of a parent or guardian, a person or organization has agreed to assume responsibility for the supervision, protection, and well-being of a child under the age of 13 for less than a 24-hour period.
Note: This does not include programs such as drop-in playgrounds or clubs for children when there is no service arrangement with the child's parent.
"Children with special needs" means children with developmental disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, sensory or motor impairment, or significant chronic illness who require special health surveillance or specialized programs, interventions, technologies, or facilities.
"Cleaned" means treated in such a way to reduce the amount of filth through the use of water with soap or detergent or the use of an abrasive cleaner on inanimate surfaces.
"Commissioner" means the Commissioner of the Virginia Department of Social Services.
"Communicable disease" means a disease caused by a microorganism (bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) that can be transmitted from person to person via an infected body fluid or respiratory spray, with or without an intermediary agent (such as a louse, mosquito) or environmental object (such as a table surface). Some communicable diseases are reportable to the local health authority.
"Department" means the Virginia Department of Social Services.
"Department's representative" means an employee or designee of the Virginia Department of Social Services, acting as the authorized agent of the commissioner.
"Evening care" means care provided after 7 p.m. but not through the night.
"Good character and reputation" means knowledgeable and objective people agree that the individual (i) maintains business, professional, family, and community relationships which are characterized by honesty, fairness, and truthfulness and (ii) demonstrates a concern for the well-being of others to the extent that the individual is considered suitable to be entrusted with the care, guidance, and protection of children. Relatives by blood or marriage and people who are not knowledgeable of the individual, such as recent acquaintances, shall not be considered objective references.
"Group of children" means the children assigned to a staff member or team of staff members.
"High school program completion or the equivalent" means an individual has earned a high school diploma or General Education Development (G.E.D.) certificate, or has completed a program of home instruction equivalent to high school completion.
"Independent contractor" means an entity that enters into an agreement to provide specialized services or staff for a specified period of time.
"Individual service, education or treatment plan" means a plan identifying the child's strengths, needs, general functioning and plan for providing services to the child. The service plan includes specific goals and objectives for services, accommodations and intervention strategies. The service, education or treatment plan clearly shows documentation and reassessment/evaluation strategies.
"Intervention strategies" means a plan for staff action that outlines methods, techniques, cues, programs, or tasks that enable the child to successfully complete a specific goal.
"Licensee" means any individual, partnership, association, public agency, or corporation to whom the license is issued.
"Minor injury" means a wound or other specific damage to the body such as, but not limited to, abrasions, splinters, bites that do not break the skin, and bruises.
"Overnight care" means care provided after 7 p.m. and through the night.
"Parent" means the biological or adoptive parent or parents or legal guardian or guardians of a child enrolled in or in the process of being admitted to a center.
"Physician" means an individual licensed to practice medicine in any of the 50 states or the District of Columbia.
"Physician's designee" means a physician, licensed nurse practitioner, licensed physician assistant, licensed nurse (R.N. or L.P.N.), or health assistant acting under the supervision of a physician.
"Primitive camp" means a camp where places of abode, water supply system, or permanent toilet and cooking facilities are not usually provided.
"Programmatic experience" means time spent working directly with children in a group that is located away from the child's home. Work time shall be computed on the basis of full-time work experience during the period prescribed or equivalent work time over a longer period. Experience settings may include but not be limited to a child day program, family day home, child day center, boys and girls club, field placement, elementary school, or a faith-based organization.
"Resilient surfacing" means:
1. For indoor and outdoor use underneath and surrounding equipment, impact absorbing surfacing materials that comply with minimum safety standards when tested in accordance with the procedures described in the American Society for Testing and Materials' standard F1292-99 as shown in Figures 2 (Compressed Loose Fill Synthetic Materials Depth Chart) and 3 (Use Zones for Equipment) on pages 6-7 of the National Program for Playground Safety's "Selecting Playground Surface Materials: Selecting the Best Surface Material for Your Playground," February 2004.
2. Hard surfaces such as asphalt, concrete, dirt, grass or flooring covered by carpet or gym mats do not qualify as resilient surfacing.
"Sanitized" means treated in such a way to remove bacteria and viruses from inanimate surfaces through using a disinfectant solution (i.e., bleach solution or commercial chemical disinfectant) or physical agent (e.g., heat). The surface of item is sprayed or dipped into the disinfectant solution and allowed to air dry after use of the disinfectant solution.
"Serious injury" means a wound or other specific damage to the body such as, but not limited to, unconsciousness; broken bones; dislocation; deep cut requiring stitches; concussion; foreign object lodged in eye, nose, ear, or other body orifice.
"Shelter-in-place" means the facility or building in which a child day center is located.
"Short-term program" means a child day center that operates less than 12 weeks a year.
"Special needs child day program" means a program exclusively serving children with special needs.
"Specialty camps" means those centers that have an educational or recreational focus on one subject such as dance, drama, music, or sports.
"Sponsor" means an individual, partnership, association, public agency, corporation or other legal entity in whom the ultimate authority and legal responsibility is vested for the administration and operation of a center subject to licensure.
"Staff" means administrative, activity, and service personnel including the licensee when the licensee is an individual who works in the center, and any persons counted in the staff-to-children ratios or any persons working with a child without sight and sound supervision of a staff member.
"Staff positions" are defined as follows:
1. "Aide" means the individual designated to be responsible for helping the program leader in supervising children and in implementing the activities and services for children. Aides may also be referred to as assistant teachers or child care assistants.
2. "Program leader" means the individual designated to be responsible for the direct supervision of children and for implementation of the activities and services for a group of children. Program leaders may also be referred to as child care supervisors or teachers.
3. "Program director" means the primary, on-site director or coordinator designated to be responsible for developing and implementing the activities and services offered to children, including the supervision, orientation, training, and scheduling of staff who work directly with children, whether or not personally performing these functions.
4. "Administrator" means a manager or coordinator designated to be in charge of the total operation and management of one or more centers. The administrator may be responsible for supervising the program director or, if appropriately qualified, may concurrently serve as the program director. The administrator may perform staff orientation or training or program development functions if the administrator meets the qualifications of 22VAC15-30-230 and a written delegation of responsibility specifies the duties of the program director.
"Therapeutic child day program" means a specialized program, including but not limited to therapeutic recreation programs, exclusively serving children with special needs when an individual service, education or treatment plan is developed and implemented with the goal of improving the functional abilities of the children in care.
"Universal precautions" means an approach to infection control. According to the concept of universal precautions, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and other bloodborne pathogens.
"Volunteer" means a person who works at the center and:
1. Is not paid;
2. Is not counted in the staff-to-children ratios; and
3. Is in sight and sound supervision of a staff member when working with a child.
Any unpaid person not meeting this definition shall be considered "staff" and shall meet staff requirements.
22VAC15-30-410. Play areas.
A. Playgrounds shall be located and designed to protect children from hazards.
B. Where playground equipment is provided, resilient surfacing shall comply with minimum safety standards when tested in accordance with the procedures described in the American Society for Testing and Materials standard F1292-99 as shown in Figures 2 (Compressed Loose Fill Synthetic Materials Depth Chart) and 3 (Use Zones for Equipment) on pages 6-7 of the National Program for Playground Safety's "Selecting Playground Surface Materials: Selecting the Best Surface Material for Your Playground," February 2004, and shall be under equipment with moving parts or climbing apparatus to create a fall zone free of hazardous obstacles. Fall zones are defined as the area underneath and surrounding equipment that requires a resilient surface. A fall zone shall encompass sufficient area to include the child's trajectory in the event of a fall while the equipment is in use. Falls zones shall not include barriers for resilient surfacing. Where steps are used for accessibility, resilient surfacing is not required.
C. Ground supports shall be covered with materials that protect children from injury.
D. Swing seats shall be constructed with flexible material.
1. Exceptions: Nonflexible molded swing seats may be used only in a separate infant or toddler play area.
2. Swings made specifically for a child with a special need shall be permitted in any area as long as a staff member is positioned to see and protect other children who might walk into the path of the swing.
E. Sandboxes with bottoms which prevent drainage shall be covered when not in use.
F. A shady area shall be provided on playgrounds during the months of June, July, and August.
EXCEPTION: The requirements of this section shall not prohibit child day programs providing care for school-age children at a location that is currently approved by the Department of Education or recognized as a private school by the State Board of Education for school occupancy and that houses a public or private school during the school year from permitting school-age children to use outdoor play equipment and areas approved for use by students of the school during school hours.
22VAC15-30-500. Equipment and materials.
A. Furnishings, equipment, and materials shall be of an appropriate size for the child using it.
B. Materials and equipment available shall be age and stage appropriate for the children and shall include an adequate supply as appropriate for each age group of arts and crafts materials, texture materials, construction materials, music and sound materials, books, social living equipment, and manipulative equipment.
C. Play equipment used by children shall meet the following requirements:
1. Openings above the ground or floor which allow a 3-1/2 inch by 6-1/4 inch rectangle to fit through shall also allow a nine-inch circle to fit through;
2. S-hooks where provided may not be open more than the thickness of a penny; and
3. Have no protrusions, sharp points, shearing points, or pinch points.
D. The unenclosed climbing portion of slides and climbing equipment used by toddlers and preschool children shall not be more than seven feet high and must be located over resilient surfacing where outdoors, and shall not be more than five feet high where indoors.
E. Centers may not install after June 1, 2005, any slide or climbing equipment to be used by preschoolers or toddlers when the climbing portion of the equipment is more than six feet in height.
F. The climbing portions of indoor slides and climbing equipment over 18 inches shall not be over bare flooring.
G. The climbing portions of indoor slides and climbing equipment 36 inches or more shall be located over a resilient surface.
H. Trampolines may not be used.
EXCEPTION: The requirements of subsections A through H of this section shall not prohibit child day programs providing care for school-age children at a location that is currently approved by the Department of Education or recognized as a private school by the State Board of Education for school occupancy and that houses a public or private school during the school year from permitting school-age children to use outdoor play equipment and areas approved for use by students of the school during school hours.
I. If combs, toothbrushes, or other personal articles are used, they shall be individually assigned.
J. Disposable products shall be used once and discarded.
K. Provision shall be made for an individual place for each child's personal belongings.
L. Infant walkers shall not be used.
M. Play yards where used shall:
1. Meet the Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requirements and shall retain the manufacturer's label documenting product compliance with current safety standards at the time they were manufactured;
2. Not be used after recalled;
3. Not use any pillows or filled comforters;
4. Not be used for the designated sleeping areas;
5. Not be occupied by more than one child; and
6. Be sanitized each day of use or more often as needed.
N. Upon being informed that a product has been recalled, center staff shall remove the item from the center.
O. Where portable water coolers are used, they shall be of cleanable construction, maintained in a cleaned condition, kept securely closed and so designed that water may be withdrawn from the container only by water tap or faucet.
P. Drinking water which is transported to camp sites shall be in closed containers.
Q. Therapeutic child day programs and special needs child day programs serving children who use wheelchairs shall provide cushioned vinyl-covered floormats for use when activities require children to be out of their wheelchairs.