Agencies | Governor
Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

Action:
40 CFR Annual Update 2017 and Methods Update Rule
Stage: Final
9VAC25-31-25

9VAC25-31-25. Applicability of incorporated references based on the dates that they became effective.

Except as noted, when a regulation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set forth in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations is referenced and incorporated in this chapter that regulation shall be as it exists and has been published in the July 1, 2016 2017, update. The final rules published in the Federal Register on July 5, 2017 (82 FR 30997), which corrects 40 CFR 441.30, and on August 28, 2017 (82 FR 40836), which amends 40 CFR Part 136, are also incorporated by reference in this chapter.

9VAC25-31-30

9VAC25-31-30. Federal effluent guidelines.

A. The following federal regulations are hereby incorporated by reference:

Airport Deicing Operations - 40 CFR Part 449

Aluminum Forming - 40 CFR Part 467

Asbestos Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 427

Battery Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 461

Canned and Preserved Fruits and Vegetables - 40 CFR Part 407

Canned and Preserved Seafood - 40 CFR Part 408

Carbon Black Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 458

Cement Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 411

Centralized Waste Treatment - 40 CFR Part 437

Coal Mining - 40 CFR Part 434

Coil Coating - 40 CFR Part 465

Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production - 40 CFR Part 451

Copper Forming - 40 CFR Part 468

Dairy Products - 40 CFR Part 405

Dental Offices - 40 CFR Part 441

Electrical and Electronic Components - 40 CFR Part 469

Electroplating - 40 CFR Part 413

Explosives Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 457

Feedlots - 40 CFR Part 412

Ferroalloy Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 424

Fertilizer Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 418

Glass Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 426

Grain Mills - 40 CFR Part 406

Gum and Wood Chemicals Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 454

Hospitals - 40 CFR Part 460

Ink Formulating - 40 CFR Part 447

Inorganic Chemicals Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 415

Iron and Steel Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 420

Landfills - 40 CFR Part 445

Leather Tanning and Finishing - 40 CFR Part 425

Meat Products - 40 CFR Part 432

Metal Finishing - 40 CFR Part 433

Metal Molding and Casting - 40 CFR Part 464

Metal Products and Machinery - 40 CFR Part 438

Mineral Mining and Processing - 40 CFR Part 436

Nonferrous Metals - 40 CFR Part 421

Nonferrous Metal Forming - 40 CFR Part 471

Oil and Gas Extraction - 40 CFR Part 435

Ore Mining and Dressing - 40 CFR Part 440

Organic Chemicals, Plastics and Synthetic Fibers - 40 CFR Part 414

Paint Formulating - 40 CFR Part 446

Paving and Roofing Materials - 40 CFR Part 443

Pesticide Chemicals - 40 CFR Part 455

Petroleum Refining - 40 CFR Part 419

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 439

Phosphate Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 422

Photographic Processing - 40 CFR Part 459

Plastics Molding and Forming - 40 CFR Part 463

Porcelain Enameling - 40 CFR Part 466

Pulp, Paper and Paperboard - 40 CFR Part 430

Rubber Processing - 40 CFR Part 428

Secondary Treatment - 40 CFR Part 133

Soaps and Detergents - 40 CFR Part 417

Steam Electric Power Generation - 40 CFR Part 423

Sugar Processing - 40 CFR Part 409

Textile Mills - 40 CFR Part 410

Timber Products - 40 CFR Part 429

Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards - 40 CFR Part 129

Transportation Equipment Cleaning - 40 CFR Part 442

Waste Combustors - 40 CFR Part 444

B. The director shall be responsible for identifying any subsequent changes in the regulations incorporated in the previous subsection or the adoption or the modification of any new national standard. Upon identifying any such federal change or adoption, the director shall initiate a regulation adopting proceedings by preparing and filing with the Registrar of Regulations the notice required by § 2.2-4006 A 4 c of the Code of Virginia or a notice of a public hearing pursuant to § 2.2-4007 C of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC25-32-25

9VAC25-32-25. Applicability of incorporated references based on the dates that they became effective.

Except as noted, when a regulation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set forth in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations is referenced and incorporated in this chapter that regulation shall be as it exists and has been published in the July 1, 2017, update. The final rule published in the Federal Register on August 28, 2017 (82 FR 40836), which amends 40 CFR Part 136, is also incorporated by reference in this chapter.

9VAC25-32-60

Part II
Permit Application and Issuance

9VAC25-32-60. Application for a VPA permit.

A. Duty to apply. Any owner of a pollutant management activity who does not have an effective VPA permit, except persons covered by general VPA permits or excluded under 9VAC25-32-40, shall submit a complete application to the department in accordance with this section.

B. Time to apply.

1. Any owner proposing a new pollutant management activity shall submit an application for a VPA permit 180 days prior to the date planned for commencing erection, construction or expansion or employment of new processes at any site. There shall be no operation of said facilities prior to the issuance of a VPA permit.

2. Any owner with an existing pollutant management activity that has not been permitted shall submit an application within 60 days upon being requested to by the board. The board, after determining there is pollution occurring, may allow the construction of treatment works prior to permit issuance. There shall be no operation of said treatment works prior to permit issuance.

3. Owners currently managing pollutants who have effective VPA permits shall submit a new application 180 days prior to proposed facility expansions, production increases, or process modification which will:

a. Result in significantly new or substantially increased amounts of pollutants being managed or a significant change in the nature of the pollutant management activity that was not anticipated and accounted for on the application for the effective VPA permit; or

b. Violate or lead to violation of the terms and conditions of the effective VPA permit.

C. Duty to reapply. Any permittee with an effective VPA permit shall submit a new application at least 180 days before the expiration date of the effective VPA permit unless permission for a later date has been granted by the board. Permission shall not be granted to submit an application later than the expiration date of the existing VPA permit.

D. Completeness.

1. A complete VPA permit application shall be submitted by the owner of the pollutant management activity before a VPA permit can be issued. The permit application may be submitted as a hard copy or electronically with a hard copy signature page. This item does not apply where general VPA permits are applicable.

2. The board may require the submission of additional information after an application has been filed, and may suspend processing of any application until such time as the owner has supplied missing or deficient information and the board considers the application complete. Further, when the owner becomes aware that he omitted one or more relevant facts from a VPA permit application, or submitted incorrect information in a VPA permit application or in any report to the department, he shall promptly submit such facts or the correct information.

3. In accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 A of the Code of Virginia, no application for a permit or variance to authorize the storage of biosolids shall be complete unless it contains certification from the governing body of the locality in which the biosolids is to be stored that the storage site is consistent with all applicable ordinances. The governing body shall confirm or deny consistency within 30 days of receiving a request for certification. If the governing body does not so respond, the site shall be deemed consistent.

4. No application for a permit to land apply biosolids in accordance with Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter shall be complete unless it includes the written consent of the landowner to apply biosolids on his property.

5. Pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:3 of the Code of Virginia, no application for a VPA permit from a privately owned treatment works serving, or designed to serve, 50 or more residences shall be considered complete unless the applicant has provided the department with notification from the State Corporation Commission that the applicant is incorporated in the Commonwealth and is in compliance with all regulations and relevant orders of the State Corporation Commission.

E. Information requirements. All applicants for VPA permits shall provide information to the department using the most current application forms provided by the board.

F. Application for the authorization to land apply biosolids. All persons applying to land apply biosolids must provide the information in this subsection to the department using an application form approved by the department. New applicants must submit all information available at the time of permit application. The information may be provided by referencing information previously submitted to the department. The board may waive any requirement of this subsection if it has access to substantially identical information. The board may also waive any requirement of this subsection that is not of material concern for a specific permit.

1. General information.

a. Legal name and address.

b. Owner contact information including:

(1) Name;

(2) Mailing address;

(3) Telephone number; and

(4) Email address.

c. A general description of the proposed activity including:

(1) Name and location of generators involved and their owners;

(2) Biosolids quality and the generator's biosolids treatment and handling processes;

(3) Generator's odor control plan, that contains at minimum:

(a) Methods used to minimize odor in producing biosolids;

(b) Methods used to identify malodorous biosolids before land application (at the generating facility);

(c) Methods used to identify and abate malodorous biosolids if delivered to the field, prior to land application; and

(d) Methods used to abate malodor from biosolids if land applied;

(4) Means of biosolids transport or conveyance;

(5) Location and volume of storage proposed;

(6) A description of field staging methods;

(7) General location of sites proposed for application, and

(8) Methods of biosolids application proposed.

d. Written permission of landowners on the most current form approved by the board and pertinent lease agreements as may be necessary for operation of the treatment works.

e. Methods for notification of local government and obtaining compliance with local government zoning and applicable ordinances.

f. A copy of a letter of approval of the nutrient management plan for the operation from the Department of Conservation and Recreation if required in subdivision 3 b of this subsection.

2. Design information.

a. Biosolids characterization. For each source of biosolids that the applicant proposes to land apply, the applicant must submit biosolids monitoring data for the pollutants for which limits in biosolids have been established in Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter, for the applicant's use or disposal practices on the date of permit application with the following conditions:

(1) When applying for authorization to land apply a biosolids source not previously included in a VPDES or VPA permit, the biosolids shall be sampled and analyzed for PCBs. The sample results shall be submitted with the permit application or request to add the source;

(2) The board may require sampling for additional pollutants, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis;

(3) Applicants must provide:

(a) Biosolids analytical data from a minimum of three samples taken within four and one-half years prior to the date of the permit application. Samples must be representative of the biosolids and should be taken at least one month apart. Existing data may be used in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of this application. The department may reduce the number of samples collected based on site specific conditions;

(b) The total dry tons per 365-day period of biosolids subject to this subsection that is applied to the land; and

(c) A statement that the biosolids is nonhazardous; a documentation statement for treatment and quality; and a description of how treated biosolids meets other standards in accordance with this regulation;

(4) Samples shall be collected and analyzed in accordance with analytical methods specified in 40 CFR Part 503 (March 26, 2007) and 40 CFR Part 136 (March 26, 2007); and

(5) The monitoring data provided must include at least the following information for each parameter:

(a) Average monthly concentration for all samples (mg/kg dry weight), based upon actual sample values;

(b) Analytical method used; and

(c) Method detection level.

b. Storage facilities. Plans and specifications for storage facilities of all biosolids to be handled, including routine and on-site storage, shall be submitted for the issuance of a certificate to construct and a certificate to operate in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790) and shall depict the following information:

(1) Site layout on a recent 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle or other appropriate scaled map;

(2) Location of any required soil, geologic, and hydrologic test holes or borings;

(3) Location of the following field features within 0.25 miles of the site boundary (indicate on map) with the approximate distance from the site boundary:

(a) Water wells (operating or abandoned);

(b) Surface waters;

(c) Springs;

(d) Public water supplies;

(e) Sinkholes;

(f) Underground and surface mines;

(g) Mine pool (or other) surface water discharge points;

(h) Mining spoil piles and mine dumps;

(i) Quarries;

(j) Sand and gravel pits;

(k) Gas and oil wells;

(l) Diversion ditches;

(m) Occupied dwellings, including industrial and commercial establishments;

(n) Landfills and dumps;

(o) Other unlined impoundments;

(p) Septic tanks and drainfields; and

(q) Injection wells;

(4) Topographic map (10-foot contour preferred) of sufficient detail to clearly show the following information:

(a) Maximum and minimum percent slopes;

(b) Depressions on the site that may collect water;

(c) Drainage ways that may attribute to rainfall run-on to or runoff from the site; and

(d) Portions of the site (if any) that are located within the 100-year floodplain;

(5) Data and specifications for the liner proposed for seepage control;

(6) Scaled plan view and cross-sectional view of the facilities showing inside and outside slopes of all embankments and details of all appurtenances;

(7) Calculations justifying impoundment capacity; and

(8) Groundwater monitoring plans for facilities if required by the department. The groundwater monitoring plan shall include pertinent geohydrological data to justify upgradient and downgradient well location and depth.

c. Staging. Generic plans for staging of biosolids.

d. Land application sites:

(1) DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying each land application field. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the site identification code used by the permit applicant to report activities and the site's location;

(2) The site's latitude and longitude in decimal degrees to three decimal places and the method of determination;

(3) A legible topographic map and aerial photograph, including legend, of proposed application areas to scale as needed to depict the following features:

(a) Property boundaries;

(b) Surface water courses;

(c) Water supply wells and springs;

(d) Roadways;

(e) Rock outcrops;

(f) Slopes;

(g) Frequently flooded areas (National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) designation);

(h) Occupied dwellings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and all existing dwelling and property line setback distances;

(i) Publicly accessible properties and occupied buildings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and the associated extended setback distances; and

(j) The gross acreage of the fields where biosolids will be applied;

(4) County map or other map of sufficient detail to show general location of the site and proposed transport vehicle haul routes to be utilized from the treatment plant;

(5) County tax maps labeled with Tax Parcel ID or IDs for each farm to be included in the permit, which may include multiple fields to depict properties within 400 feet of the field boundaries;

(6) A USDA soil survey map, if available, of proposed sites for land application of biosolids;

(7) The name, mailing address, and telephone number of each site owner, if different from the applicant;

(8) The name, mailing address, and telephone number of the person who applies biosolids to the site, if different from the applicant;

(9) Whether the site is agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, as such site types are defined in 9VAC25-32-10;

(10) Description of agricultural practices including a list of proposed crops to be grown;

(11) The following information for each land application site that has been identified at the time of permit application, if the applicant intends to apply bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 to the site:

(a) Whether the applicant has contacted the permitting authority in the state where the bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 will be applied, to ascertain whether bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 has been applied to the site on or since July 20, 1993, and if so, the name of the permitting authority and the name and phone number of a contact person at the permitting authority; and

(b) Identification of facilities other than the applicant's facility that have sent, or are sending, biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 to the site since July 20, 1993, if, based on the inquiry in subdivision 8 d (1) 2 d (11) (a) of this subsection, bulk biosolids subject to cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993.

3. A biosolids management plan shall be provided that includes the following minimum site specific information at the time of permit application.

a. Description of operation: A comprehensive, general description of the operation as required by 9VAC25-32-60 this section.

b. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation as required for application sites prior to board authorization under the following conditions:

(1) Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

(2) Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;

(3) Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; or

(4) Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

4. Biosolids transport.

a. General description of transport vehicles to be used.

b. Procedures for biosolids offloading at the biosolids facilities and the land application site together with spill prevention, cleanup (including vehicle cleaning); field reclamation and emergency spill notification and cleanup measures.

c. Voucher system used for documentation and recordkeeping.

5. Field operations.

a. Storage.

(1) Routine storage - supernatant handling and disposal, biosolids handling and loading of transport vehicles, equipment cleaning, freeboard maintenance, and inspections for structural integrity.

(2) On-site storage - procedures for department or board approval and implementation.

(3) Staging - procedures to be followed including either designated site locations provided in the "Design Information" or the specific site criteria for such locations including the liner or cover requirements and the time limit assigned for such use.

(4) Reestablishment of offloading and staging areas.

b. Application methodology.

(1) Description and specifications on spreader vehicles.

(2) Procedures for calibrating equipment for various biosolids contents to ensure uniform distribution and appropriate loading rates on a day-to-day basis.

(3) Procedures used to ensure that operations address the following constraints: application of biosolids to frozen ground, pasture or hay fields, crops for direct human consumption and saturated or ice-covered or snow-covered ground; establishment of setback distances; slopes; prohibited access for beef and dairy animals, and soil pH requirements; and proper site specific biosolids loading rates on a field-by-field basis.

c. Odor control plan for land applier. Include at a minimum:

(1) Methods used to identify and abate malodorous biosolids in the field prior to land application, and

(2) Methods used to abate malodorous biosolids if land applied.

6. An applicant for a permit authorizing the land application of biosolids shall provide to the department, and to each locality in which the applicant proposes to land apply biosolids, written evidence of financial responsibility. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with the requirements specified under Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX of this chapter.

9VAC25-32-80

9VAC25-32-80. Conditions applicable to all VPA permits.

A. Duty to comply. The permittee shall comply with all conditions of the VPA permit. Any permit noncompliance is a violation of the law, and is grounds for enforcement action, permit termination, revocation, modification, or denial of a permit renewal application.

B. Duty to halt or reduce activity. It shall not be a defense for a permittee in an enforcement action that it would have been necessary to halt or reduce the permitted activity in order to maintain compliance with the conditions of the VPA permit.

C. Duty to mitigate. The permittee shall take all reasonable steps to minimize, correct, or prevent any pollutant management activity in violation of the VPA permit which has a reasonable likelihood of adversely affecting human health or the environment.

D. Proper operation and maintenance. The permittee shall be responsible for the proper operation and maintenance of all treatment works, systems, and controls which are installed or used to achieve compliance with permit conditions. Proper operation and maintenance includes effective plant performance, adequate funding, adequate licensed operator staffing, and adequate laboratory and process controls, including appropriate quality assurance procedures.

E. Permit action.

1. A VPA permit may be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated as set forth in this chapter.

2. If a permittee files a request for a permit modification, revocation, or termination, or files a notification of planned changes, or anticipated noncompliance, the permit terms and conditions shall remain effective until the request is acted upon by the board. This provision shall not be used to extend the expiration date of the effective VPA permit.

3. VPA permits may be modified, revoked and reissued or terminated upon the request of the permittee or interested persons, or upon the board's initiative, to reflect the requirements of any changes in the statutes or regulations.

4. VPA permits continued under 9VAC25-32-130 remain effective and enforceable.

F. Inspection and entry. Upon presentation of credentials, any duly authorized agent of the board may, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances:

1. Enter upon any permittee's property, public or private, and have access to records required by the VPA permit;

2. Have access to, inspect, and copy any records that must be kept as part of VPA permit conditions;

3. Inspect any facility's equipment (including monitoring and control equipment) practices or operations regulated or required under the VPA permit; and

4. Sample or monitor any substances or parameters at any locations for the purpose of assuring VPA permit compliance or as otherwise authorized by law.

G. Duty to provide information.

1. The permittee shall furnish to the department, within a reasonable time, any information which the board may request to determine whether cause exists for modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating the VPA permit, or to determine compliance with the VPA permit. The permittee shall also furnish to the department, upon request, copies of records required to be kept by the permittee.

2. Plans, specifications, maps, conceptual reports and other relevant information shall be submitted as requested by the board prior to commencing construction.

H. Monitoring and records.

1. Samples and measurements taken for the purpose of monitoring shall be representative of the monitored activity.

2. The permittee shall retain records of all monitoring information, including all calibration and maintenance records and all original strip chart recordings for continuous monitoring instrumentation, copies of all reports required by the VPA permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for the VPA permit, for a period of at least three years or in the case of activities regulated under Part IX (9VAC25-32-310 (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter, at least five years from the date of the sample, measurement, report, or application. This period may be extended by request of the board at any time.

3. Records of monitoring information shall include:

a. The date, exact place and time of sampling or measurements;

b. The name of the individual or individuals who performed the sampling or measurements;

c. The date or dates analyses were performed;

d. The name of the individual or individuals who performed the analyses;

e. The analytical techniques or methods supporting the information such as observations, readings, calculations and bench data used; and

f. The results of such analyses.

4. Monitoring shall be conducted according to analytical methods promulgated pursuant to § 304(h) of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations at 40 CFR Part 136 (1995). Any other acceptable test procedure not listed in 40 CFR Part 136 (1995) shall be specified in the VPA permit.

5. Records related to biosolids data and information specified in agreements between generator, owner, agents, landowners, and farmers shall be described and maintained for a minimum period of five years or the duration of the permit or subsequent revisions if longer than five years.

I. Reporting requirements.

1. The permittee shall give prompt notice to the department of any planned changes to the design or operation of the pollutant management activity.

2. If any unusual or extraordinary discharge including a bypass or upset should occur from a treatment works and the discharge enters or could be expected to enter state waters, the owner shall promptly notify, in no case later than 24 hours, the department by telephone after the discovery of the discharge. This notification shall provide all available details of the incident, including any adverse effects on aquatic life and the known number of fish killed. The permittee shall reduce the report to writing and shall submit it to the department within five days of discovery of the discharge in accordance with subdivision 6 of this subsection. Unusual and extraordinary discharges include but are not limited to any discharge resulting from:

a. Unusual spillage of materials resulting directly or indirectly from processing operations;

b. Breakdown of processing or accessory equipment;

c. Failure or taking out of service of some or all of the treatment works; and

d. Flooding or other acts of nature.

3. The permittee shall give at least 10 days advance notice to the department of any planned changes to the facility or activity which may result in noncompliance.

4. Monitoring results shall be reported at the intervals specified in the applicable VPA permit.

a. Monitoring results shall be reported in a format acceptable to the board.

b. If a permittee monitors the pollutant management activity, at a sampling location specified in the VPA permit, for any pollutant more frequently than required by the VPA permit using approved analytical methods, the permittee shall report the results of this monitoring on the monitoring report.

c. If the permittee monitors the pollutant management activity, at a sampling location specified in the VPA permit, for any pollutant that is not required to be monitored by the VPA permit, and uses approved analytical methods the permittee shall report the results with the monitoring report.

d. Calculations for all limitations which require averaging of measurements shall utilize an arithmetic mean unless otherwise specified in the VPA permit.

5. Reports of compliance or noncompliance with or any progress report on interim and final requirements contained in any compliance schedule in the VPA permit shall be submitted no later than 14 days following each scheduled date.

6. 24-hour reporting.

a. The permittee shall report any noncompliance which that may adversely affect state waters or may endanger public health. An oral report must be provided to the department as soon as possible, but in no case later than 24 hours from the time the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances. A written report shall be submitted within five days and shall contain a description of the noncompliance and its cause; the period of noncompliance including exact dates and times, and, if the noncompliance has not been corrected, how long it is expected to continue, steps planned or taken to reduce, eliminate, and prevent a recurrence of the noncompliance. The board may waive the written report requirements on a case-by-case basis if the oral report has been received within 24 hours and no adverse impact on state waters has been reported. All other noncompliance reports which may not adversely affect state waters shall be submitted with the monitoring report. Reports shall include overflows.

b. The following shall be included as information which must be reported within 24 hours under this subdivision:

(1) Any unanticipated bypass; and

(2) Any upset which causes a discharge to surface waters.

J. Bypass.

1. A bypass of the treatment works is prohibited except as provided herein.

2. If the permittee knows in advance of the need for a bypass, he shall notify the department promptly at least 10 days prior to the bypass. After considering its adverse effects, the board may approve an anticipated bypass if:

a. The bypass will be unavoidable to prevent loss of human life, personal injury, or severe property damage ("severe property damage" means substantial physical damage to property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to become inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural resources which can reasonably be expected to occur in the absence of a bypass. Severe property damage does not mean economic loss caused by delays in production); and

b. There are no feasible alternatives to bypass such as the use of auxiliary treatment facilities, retention of untreated waste, or maintenance during normal periods of equipment downtime. However, if bypass occurs during normal periods of equipment downtime or preventive maintenance and in the exercise of reasonable engineering judgment the permittee could have installed adequate backup equipment to prevent such bypass, this exclusion shall not apply as a defense.

3. If an unplanned bypass occurs, the permittee shall notify the department as soon as possible, but in no case later than 24 hours, and shall take steps to halt the bypass as early as possible. This notification will be a condition for defense to an enforcement action that an unplanned bypass met the conditions in subdivision 2 of this subsection and in light of the information reasonably available to the owner at the time of the bypass.

K. Upset. A permittee may claim an upset as an affirmative defense to an action brought for noncompliance. In any enforcement proceedings a permittee shall have the burden of proof to establish the occurrence of any upset. In order to establish an affirmative defense of upset, the permittee shall present properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs or other relevant evidence that shows:

1. That an upset occurred and that the cause can be identified;

2. That the permitted facility was at the time being operated efficiently and in compliance with proper operation and maintenance procedures;

3. That the 24-hour reporting requirements to the department were met; and

4. That the permittee took all reasonable steps to minimize or correct any adverse impact on state waters resulting from noncompliance with the VPA permit.

L. Signature requirements. All applications, reports, or information submitted to the department shall be signed and certified as required in 9VAC25-32-70.

M. Transfers. A VPA permit is not transferable to any person except after notice to the department according to 9VAC24-32-230 9VAC25-32-230. The board may require modification or revocation and reissuance of the VPA permit to change the name of the permittee and incorporate such other requirements as may be necessary.

9VAC25-32-317

9VAC25-32-317. Exclusions.

A. Treatment processes. This part does not establish requirements for processes to treat domestic sewage or for processes used to treat sewage sludge prior to final use or disposal, except as provided in 9VAC25-32-675 and 9VAC25-32-685.

B. Selection of a use or a disposal practice. This part does not dictate the selection of a specific biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practice by the owner of the wastewater treatment works.

C. Incineration of sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for sewage sludge fired in a sewage sludge incinerator or co-fired in an incinerator with other wastes or for the incinerator in which sewage sludge or other waste are co-fired.

D. Hazardous sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge determined to be hazardous in accordance with 40 CFR Part 261 (2000) as adopted by reference in 9VAC20-60-261 or the Code of Virginia.

E. Sewage sludge with high PCB concentration. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge with a concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) equal to or greater than 50 milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis).

F. Incinerator ash. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator.

G. Grit and screenings. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of grit (e.g., sand, gravel, cinders, or other materials with a high specific gravity) or screenings (e.g., relatively large materials such as rags) generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

9VAC25-32-450

9VAC25-32-450. Sampling, analysis, and preservation.

A. Representative samples of biosolids that is applied to the land or placed on a surface disposal site shall be collected and analyzed.

1. Raw sewage or sludge samples are to be collected prior to the treatment process unit operations.

2. Final treated samples are to be taken at a point following appropriate unit operations in the treatment process. An evaluation of biosolids treatment may require monitoring of fecal coliform levels in treated biosolids.

3. Composite samples shall be collected in accordance with the treatment works operation and maintenance manual.

B. Liquid biosolids. In the case of digesters and liquid storage holding tanks, a representative sample shall be composed of at least four grab samples obtained during daily operations at the facility or land application site. Samples of liquid biosolids obtained under pressure or vacuum should be obtained shortly after the beginning, during and at the end of the time period that the biosolids are produced at the sampling point.

C. Biosolids storage facilities. Equal volumes of biosolids shall be withdrawn from random locations across the width and throughout the length of the storage facility at the surface, mid-depth and near the bottom of the lagoon at each grab sample location. These grab samples shall be added to form a composite mix. A range of the minimum number of grab samples that should be obtained from various sizes of biosolids storage facilities in order to obtain a representative composite sample is presented in Table 1 of this section:

TABLE 1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF GRAB SAMPLES FROM STORAGE FACILITIES

Surface Area (Acres)

Minimum Number of Grab Samples

Depth less than 4 feet

Depth greater than 4 feet

1 to 9.99

4 to 5

6 to 8

10 or more

6 to 8

9 to 11

D. Dewatered biosolids. Small, equally sized grab samples of the dewatered sludge stream may be taken at equally spaced intervals over the period of operation of the dewatering unit. Centrifuged biosolids samples may be taken from a belt conveyor or receiving hopper. Filter cake biosolids samples may be taken from a belt conveyor or a portion of the cake may be removed as it leaves the unit. The smaller grab samples should be combined to form a representative composite sample. A composite sample can be obtained over the daily operational period at the land application site.

E. Compost sampling. Collect composite samples composed of at least three grab samples of 1 one kilogram or more so that a representative average level of compost characteristics can be obtained from analytical testing. This mixture should be used for analytical testing or for combination with other composites to obtain a total composite sample representing a fixed period of operation. Compost samples may be taken with a scoop or shovel and placed in flexible bags that can be thoroughly shaken to mix grab samples.

F. Biosolids samples shall be preserved and analyzed in accordance with methods listed in 40 CFR Part 136 (2007) and methods identified in 9VAC25-31-490. Calculation procedures in the methods shall be used to calculate the percent volatile solids reduction for biosolids. Any other acceptable test procedure not listed in 40 CFR Part 136 (2007) shall be specified in the VPA permit.

9VAC25-210-90

9VAC25-210-90. Conditions applicable to all VWP permits.

A. Duty to comply. The permittee shall comply with all conditions and limitations of the VWP permit. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to relieve the permittee of the duty to comply with all applicable federal and state statutes, regulations, toxic standards, and prohibitions. Any VWP permit violation or noncompliance is a violation of the Clean Water Act and State Water Control Law and is grounds for enforcement action, VWP permit termination, VWP permit revocation, VWP permit modification, or denial of an application for a VWP permit extension or reissuance.

B. Duty to cease or confine activity. It shall not be a defense for a permittee in an enforcement action that it would have been necessary to halt or reduce the activity for which a VWP permit has been granted in order to maintain compliance with the conditions of the VWP permit.

C. Duty to mitigate. The permittee shall take all reasonable steps to minimize or prevent any impacts in violation of the VWP permit that may have a reasonable likelihood of adversely affecting human health or the environment.

D. Inspection and entry. Upon presentation of credentials, the permittee shall allow the board or any duly authorized agent of the board, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances, to conduct the actions listed in this section. For the purpose of this section, the time for inspection shall be deemed reasonable during regular business hours. Nothing contained herein shall make an inspection time unreasonable during an emergency.

1. Enter upon permittee's property, public or private, and have access to, inspect and copy any records that must be kept as part of the VWP permit conditions;

2. Inspect any facilities, operations or practices (including monitoring and control equipment) regulated or required under the VWP permit; and

3. Sample or monitor any substance, parameter, or activity for the purpose of ensuring compliance with the conditions of the VWP permit or as otherwise authorized by law.

E. Duty to provide information. Plans, maps, conceptual reports, and other relevant information shall be submitted as required by the board prior to commencing construction.

F. Monitoring and records requirements.

1. Monitoring of parameters, other than pollutants, shall be conducted according to approved analytical methods as specified in the VWP permit. Analysis of pollutants will be conducted according to 40 CFR Part 136 (2000), Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants as published in the 40 CFR July 1, 2017, update and 82 FR 40836 (August 28, 2017).

2. Samples and measurements taken for the purpose of monitoring shall be representative of the monitored activity.

3. The permittee shall retain records of all monitoring information, including all calibration and maintenance records and all original strip chart or electronic recordings for continuous monitoring instrumentation, copies of all reports required by the VWP permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for the VWP permit, for a period of at least three years from the date of permit expiration. This period may be extended by request of the board at any time.

4. Records of monitoring information shall include as appropriate:

a. The date, exact place and time of sampling or measurements;

b. The name of the individuals who performed the sampling or measurements;

c. The date and time the analyses were performed;

d. The name of the individuals who performed the analyses;

e. The analytical techniques or methods supporting the information such as observations, readings, calculations, and bench data used;

f. The results of such analyses; and

g. Chain of custody documentation.

G. Duty to reapply. Any permittee desiring to continue a previously permitted activity after the expiration date of the VWP permit shall apply for and obtain a new permit or, if applicable, shall request an extension in accordance with 9VAC25-210-180.

9VAC25-590-15

9VAC25-590-15. Applicability of incorporated references based on the dates that they became effective.

Except as noted, when a regulation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set forth in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations is referenced or adopted in this chapter and incorporated by reference, that regulation shall be as it exists and has been published as of July 1, 2016 2017.

9VAC25-610-130

9VAC25-610-130. Conditions applicable to all groundwater permits.

A. Duty to comply. The permittee shall comply with all conditions of the permit. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to relieve the groundwater withdrawal permit holder of the duty to comply with all applicable federal and state statutes and prohibitions. At a minimum, a person must obtain a well construction permit or a well site approval letter from the Virginia Department of Health prior to the construction of any well for any withdrawal authorized by the Department of Environmental Quality. Any permit violation is a violation of the law and is grounds for enforcement action, permit termination, revocation, modification, or denial of a permit application.

B. Duty to cease or confine activity. It shall not be a defense for a permittee in an enforcement action that it would have been necessary to halt or reduce the activity for which a permit has been granted in order to maintain compliance with the conditions of the permit.

C. Duty to mitigate. The permittee shall take all reasonable steps to:

1. Avoid all adverse impacts to lawful groundwater users which could result from the withdrawal; and

2. Where impacts cannot be avoided, provide mitigation of the adverse impact as described in 9VAC25-610-110 D 3 g.

D. Inspection and entry. Upon presentation of credentials, the permittee shall allow the board or any duly authorized agent of the board, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances, to conduct actions listed in this section. For the purpose of this section, the time for inspection shall be deemed reasonable during regular business hours. Nothing contained herein shall make an inspection time unreasonable during an emergency.

1. Entry upon any permittee's property, public or private, and have access to, inspect and copy any records that must be kept as part of the permit conditions;

2. Inspect any facilities, operations or practices (including monitoring and control equipment) regulated or required under the permit; and

3. Sample or monitor any substance, parameter or activity for the purpose of assuring compliance with the conditions of the permit or as otherwise authorized by law.

E. Duty to provide information. The permittee shall furnish to the board, within a reasonable time, any information that the board may request to determine whether cause exists for modifying or revoking, reissuing, or terminating the permit, or to determine compliance with the permit. The permittee shall also furnish to the board, upon request, copies of records required to be kept by the permittee.

F. Monitoring and records requirements.

1. Monitoring of parameters, other than pollutants, shall be conducted according to approved analytical methods as specified in the permit. Analysis of pollutants will be conducted according to 40 CFR Part 136 (2000), Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants as published in the 40 CFR July 1, 2017, update and 82 FR 40836 (August 28, 2017).

2. Samples and measurements taken for the purpose of monitoring shall be representative of the monitored activity.

3. The permittee shall retain records of all monitoring information, including all calibration and maintenance records and all original strip chart or electronic recordings for continuous monitoring instrumentation, copies of all reports required by the permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for the permit, for a period of at least three years from the date of the expiration of a granted permit. This period may be extended by request of the board at any time.

4. Records of monitoring information shall include as appropriate:

a. The date, exact place and time of sampling or measurements;

b. The name of the individuals who performed the sampling or measurements;

c. The date the analyses were performed;

d. The name of the individuals who performed the analyses;

e. The analytical techniques or methods supporting the information such as observations, readings, calculations, and bench data used;

f. The results of such analyses; and

g. Chain of custody documentation.

G. Permit action.

1. A permit may be modified or revoked as set forth in Part VI (9VAC25-610-290 et seq.) of this chapter.

2. If a permittee files a request for permit modification or revocation, or files a notification of planned changes, or anticipated noncompliance, the permit terms and conditions shall remain effective until the board makes a final case decision. This provision shall not be used to extend the expiration date of the effective permit.

3. Permits may be modified or revoked upon the request of the permittee, or upon board initiative, to reflect the requirements of any changes in the statutes or regulations.

9VAC25-790-210

9VAC25-790-210. Nonconventional methods, processes or equipment.

A. Policy. The policy of the department is to encourage the development of any new or nonconventional methods, processes, and equipment that appear to have application for the treatment or conveyance of sewage. Sewage treatment methods, processes, and equipment may be subject to a special permit application procedure if (i) they are not covered by the Manual of Practice (Part III (9VAC25-790-310 et seq.) of this chapter) and (ii) they are in principle, or application, deemed to be nonconventional.

B. Provisional CTO. The performance reliability of nonconventional processes and equipment shall have been thoroughly demonstrated through an approved testing program for similar installations (loadings of 75% or more of design level) before they may be considered for conventional approval and use. Where the department approves such a testing program, a provisional CTO will be issued for treatment works in which new or nonconventional processes and equipment are to be evaluated. The provisional CTO will specify conditions related to the testing requirements and agreements necessary for issuance of a final CTO. The owner of the facility shall submit the required test results to the department according to an approved schedule for approval prior to issuance of a final CTO. It is the owner's responsibility to operate in compliance with requirements imposed by permits issued for the sewerage system or treatment works.

C. Assurance resources. As a prerequisite to the issuance of a provisional CTO, the owner must furnish assurance of financial ability or resources available to modify, convert, or replace, the new or nonconventional processes or equipment in the event the performance reliability cannot be established over the period of time specified by the provisional CTO. These assurances may be in the form of funds placed in escrow, letters of credit, performance bonds, etc., which would revert to the facility owner if performance reliability cannot be established.

D. Performance reliability testing. All procedures used in testing of the performance reliability shall be conducted under the supervision of a licensed professional engineer who shall attest to the accuracy of sampling and testing procedures. The required samples shall be tested through a qualified laboratory. The testing program shall provide as a minimum the following:

1. Samples shall be collected at designated locations at a stated frequency and analyzed in accordance with provisions of the provisional CTO. The minimum testing period shall be 12 months under the comparable environmental and operational conditions for which the process and equipment will receive conventional approvals for any additional installations.

2. All analyses shall be made in accordance with the 19th Edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (1995) and 40 CFR Part 136 (July 1, 2003) as published in the 40 CFR July 1, 2017, update and 82 FR 40836 (August 28, 2017), or other approved analytical methods.

E. CTC. After the area engineer evaluates the plans and testing data, the director can issue a CTC if the performance data verifies that the method, process, or equipment can perform reliably in accordance with the design specifications and the operation standards of Part II, and that the method, process, or equipment may be installed as conventional for similar site specific operation.

F. Provisional CTO. Upon completion of construction or modification, a provisional CTO for a definite period of time will be issued for the operation of the nonconventional methods, processes, and equipment. Not more than one provisional CTO will be granted for a similar installation during the evaluation period. The provisional CTO shall require that:

1. The evaluation period shall be a minimum of 12 months and no longer than 18 months,

2. The holder of a provisional CTO must submit reports on operation during the evaluation period. The reports shall be prepared by either a licensed professional engineer experienced in the field of environmental engineering, the owner's operating or engineering staff, or a qualified testing firm.

G. Final CTO. The director will issue a final CTO upon lapse of the provisional CTO, if, on the basis of testing during that period, the new or nonconventional method, process, or equipment demonstrates reliable performance in accordance with permit requirements and the operation standards of Part II. If the standards are not met, then the owner shall provide for modification of the sewerage systems or treatment works, in a manner that will enable those standards to be met in accordance with this chapter.

9VAC25-870-15

9VAC25-870-15. Applicability of incorporated references based on the dates that they became effective.

Except as noted, when a regulation of the United States set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations is referenced and incorporated in this chapter, that regulation shall be as it exists and has been published in the July 1, 2016 2017, update. The final rules published in the Federal Register on July 5, 2017 (82 FR 30997), which corrects 40 CFR 441.30, and on August 28, 2017 (82 FR 40836), which amends 40 CFR Part 136, are also incorporated by reference in this chapter.